Spectrum detection using Spectral Correlation Function explained for a cognitive radio environment . The slides briefly walks you through the signal generation for a DVB-T OFDM signal, cyclic prefix generation, passing over channel and receiver side approximations using SCF function

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Spectrum detection using Spectral Correlation Function explained for a cognitive radio environment . The slides briefly walks you through the signal generation for a DVB-T OFDM signal, cyclic prefix generation, passing over channel and receiver side approximations using SCF function

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Cognitive Radio is built on the basis of a Software-defined Radios SDR Cognitive Radio can provide the spectral awareness technology to support FCC initiatives in Spectral Use

Cognitive radio: A radio that can change its transmitter parameters based on

interaction with the environment in which it operates.

It knows where it is It knows what services are available, for example, it can identify then use empty spectrum to communicate more efficiently It knows what services interest the user, and knows how to find them It knows the current degree of needs and future likelihood of needs of its user Learns and recognizes usage patterns from the user Applies Model Based Reasoning about user needs, local content, environmental context

Spectrum awareness or spectrum sensing makes a radio environment cognitive i.e. to memorize the spectrum holes or voids that could be utilized by utilizing the available spectrum and adapting to it by changing its parameters

Spectrum Holes

Main aspect: One main aspect of cognitive radio is related to autonomously exploiting locally unused spectrum to provide new paths to spectrum access.

Power

Frequency

Time

Spectrum in use by Primary user Spectrum Hole

As FCC agrees on utilizing the spectrum holes for DVB-T for unlicensed users; it is vital to lease this unused spectrum to users in the vicinity. Finding spectrum holes ? That means the spectrum should be dispersed ? The answer is somewhat YES. Think about utilizing the primary spectrum for DVB-T applications and the secondary spectrum for unlicensed users.

Spectrum Utilization ?

Spectral Adaptation Waveforms

T I M E Frequency

Spectrum sensing is currently achieved dynamically using DSS Are there any trade-offs in terms of different sensing techniques ? The Answer is YES .

One might sense a empty spectrum easily but it might be the one with very power SNR. So, the goal is to sense the proper spectrum for unlicensed users

Energy Detector Based Sensing: The signal is

detected by comparing the output of the energy detector with a threshold which depends on the noise floor.

Inability to differentiate interference from primary users and noise, and poor performance under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)values.

Waveform-Based Sensing: Known patterns are

usually utilized in wireless systems to assist synchronization or for other purposes. Such patterns include preambles, midambles, regularly transmitted pilot patterns, spreading sequences etc.

Cyclostationarity-Based Sensing:

Cyclostationarity feature detection is a method for detecting primary user transmissions by exploiting the cyclostationarity features of the received signals.

The cyclostationarity based detection algorithms can differentiate noise from primary users signals.

Why OFDM ?

OFDM symbols are used in this research because it supports broader bandwidth and is normally utilized in current MIMO technologies. The modulation scheme can be varied and the corresponding spectrum efficiency and spectrum utilization varies per modulation scheme. Limitations OFDM power leakages to adjacent channels

Advantages

Simple implementation by means of FFT High spectral efficiency considering (no. of subcarriers) Anti ICI and ISI makes OFDM receiver less complex, as almost no equalizer is needed.

Disadvantages

Requires highly linear amplifiers Sensitive to Doppler Effect Guard-time introduces overhead

Research Goal ?

Using OFDM for DVB-T applications calculate the primary and secondary users Improve bandwidth by removing guard-band , BUT , will it have any impact on ICI? If ICI increases, then we should come up with something for better utilization . Cyclic prefix maybe . What to do with the received signal with lots of noise ? Maybe normalize the whole received spectrum and pick-up the most healthy spectrum .

DVB-T systems can be used in either 2K or 8K mode. We choose 2K mode having :

1705 sub-carriers are used to transmit the data out of total 2048 sub-carriers Inverse Fourier Transform (IFFT) of the QAM of the data is taken and guard-band intervals are added at the start of OFDM frame for DVB-T applications

1. QAM modulation 2. OFDM signal generation 3. Cyclic Prefix addition at the guard-band locations 4. Incorporating AWGN channel 5. Symbol Transmission through AWGN 6. Signal Detection using DSS techniques 7. Spectral Correlation Function of the received function for better PSD and noise removal

bitstream

QAM

Mapping

Up conversion

Pilot

Insertions

S-> P

IFFT

P -> S

Cyclic

Extension

Analog signal

QAM mapping is a block that groups these bits together as per modulation schemes: N=1 for BPSK, N=2 for QPSK and n-QAM for higher orders

For a single carrier, the complex signal can be: If we consider N samples, OFDM signal appears to be summation of these N symbols During the symbol length, the amplitude and phase remains constant

These carriers are centered around fo , the time domain representation becomes

Where T is the period of sampling frequency. This can be represented in complex vector as

In last equation is the representation of complex components in frequency domain If we follow the IFFT transform, we can see that it is the summation of orthogonal components in frequency domain

The simplified complex form follows the modulation scheme, hence making:

After complex vector multiplication, real signal part can be estimated as:

Cyclic Extension

Last serial samples are added to next OFDM frame by cyclic extension

How its done ? Lets see some basics and maths behind cyclic extension and Spectral correlation function to see its significance

Cyclostationary Features

A very simple periodic signal

After modulation with a sine-wave

Considering a is of random wide-sense spectrum nature, we can auto-correlate and can compute the power spectral density Auto-correlation of a Power spectral density of a can be found by

Keeping that in mind the Power Spectral Density of x(t) can be found by : Problem with the above equation ? No sine wave components presents

Lets use trigonometric identities in order to have:

1. 2. 3. Some DC components Some higher order periodic components Simple depiction of modulated periodic symbol

A simple quadratic function Which can be reduced to Furthermore b(t) has a DC component that should appear at f=0

So, if that is True, the PSD should appear as:

Problem with previous depiction?

Not every symbol appears as a DC with some known higher order components In order to add random delays, we should come up with some pulse modulation in order to have varying magnitudes. So, we can only have a DC magnitude appearing at nth order but with no varying magnitudes.

Where spectral lines should appear at m.fo , where m is integer multiplier If we equate m.fo as , we can define our approximation equation: t = m.fo for periodic Time intervals

Now with the assumptions we can say that the function is periodic if the delay product contains spectral lines; which can roughly be modeled as: The cyclic auto-correlation function can then proceed with the complex vector: Now the basic idea of Spectral Correlation function is to find average power in frequency domain

The last approximations were to concentrate on the received signals at the center frequency as if they were passed through a narrowband filter

The spectral correlation density was computed by the Fourier Transform of the cyclic autocorrelation

f x -j2t e

X(t)

U(t)

BPF

f + /2

f + /2

+ /2

j2t

v(t)

BPF

v

-/2

Signal Generation

Serial Conversion

Coding - Continued

Cyclic Prefix addition

Coding Continued

SCF Function

The Plots

The Outcomes

Outcomes - Continued

PSD while utilizing SCF

Outcomes -Continued

Detected primary and secondary users around centre frequency in the absence of SCF

Reduced noise-bed and detected primary and secondary users around center frequency in the presence of SCF

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