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Analysis of OFDM parameters using cyclostationary spectrum sensing in Cognitive Radio

Presented by :Omer Ali

What is a Cognitive Radio ?

Cognitive Radio is built on the basis of a Software-defined Radios SDR Cognitive Radio can provide the spectral awareness technology to support FCC initiatives in Spectral Use

Cognitive Radio - Continued

Cognitive radio: A radio that can change its transmitter parameters based on
interaction with the environment in which it operates.

Is Cognitive Radio SMART ?

It knows where it is It knows what services are available, for example, it can identify then use empty spectrum to communicate more efficiently It knows what services interest the user, and knows how to find them It knows the current degree of needs and future likelihood of needs of its user Learns and recognizes usage patterns from the user Applies Model Based Reasoning about user needs, local content, environmental context

Why Spectrum Sensing ?

Spectrum awareness or spectrum sensing makes a radio environment cognitive i.e. to memorize the spectrum holes or voids that could be utilized by utilizing the available spectrum and adapting to it by changing its parameters

Spectrum Holes
Main aspect: One main aspect of cognitive radio is related to autonomously exploiting locally unused spectrum to provide new paths to spectrum access.



Spectrum in use by Primary user Spectrum Hole

Why to sense Spectrum holes ?

As FCC agrees on utilizing the spectrum holes for DVB-T for unlicensed users; it is vital to lease this unused spectrum to users in the vicinity. Finding spectrum holes ? That means the spectrum should be dispersed ? The answer is somewhat YES. Think about utilizing the primary spectrum for DVB-T applications and the secondary spectrum for unlicensed users.

Spectrum Utilization ?
Spectral Adaptation Waveforms

T I M E Frequency

How to Sense the Spectrum?

Spectrum sensing is currently achieved dynamically using DSS Are there any trade-offs in terms of different sensing techniques ? The Answer is YES .
One might sense a empty spectrum easily but it might be the one with very power SNR. So, the goal is to sense the proper spectrum for unlicensed users

Spectrum sensing - Methods

Energy Detector Based Sensing: The signal is
detected by comparing the output of the energy detector with a threshold which depends on the noise floor.

Inability to differentiate interference from primary users and noise, and poor performance under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)values.

Spectrum Sensing Methods

Waveform-Based Sensing: Known patterns are
usually utilized in wireless systems to assist synchronization or for other purposes. Such patterns include preambles, midambles, regularly transmitted pilot patterns, spreading sequences etc.

Waveform-based sensing requires short measurement time.

Spectrum Sensing Methods

Cyclostationarity-Based Sensing:
Cyclostationarity feature detection is a method for detecting primary user transmissions by exploiting the cyclostationarity features of the received signals.

The cyclostationarity based detection algorithms can differentiate noise from primary users signals.

Why OFDM ?
OFDM symbols are used in this research because it supports broader bandwidth and is normally utilized in current MIMO technologies. The modulation scheme can be varied and the corresponding spectrum efficiency and spectrum utilization varies per modulation scheme. Limitations OFDM power leakages to adjacent channels

OFDM Advantages / Disadvantages ?

Simple implementation by means of FFT High spectral efficiency considering (no. of subcarriers) Anti ICI and ISI makes OFDM receiver less complex, as almost no equalizer is needed.

Requires highly linear amplifiers Sensitive to Doppler Effect Guard-time introduces overhead

Research Goal ?
Using OFDM for DVB-T applications calculate the primary and secondary users Improve bandwidth by removing guard-band , BUT , will it have any impact on ICI? If ICI increases, then we should come up with something for better utilization . Cyclic prefix maybe . What to do with the received signal with lots of noise ? Maybe normalize the whole received spectrum and pick-up the most healthy spectrum .

How to generate signals that matches close to DVB-T Application ?

DVB-T systems can be used in either 2K or 8K mode. We choose 2K mode having :
1705 sub-carriers are used to transmit the data out of total 2048 sub-carriers Inverse Fourier Transform (IFFT) of the QAM of the data is taken and guard-band intervals are added at the start of OFDM frame for DVB-T applications

How did we proceed ?

1. QAM modulation 2. OFDM signal generation 3. Cyclic Prefix addition at the guard-band locations 4. Incorporating AWGN channel 5. Symbol Transmission through AWGN 6. Signal Detection using DSS techniques 7. Spectral Correlation Function of the received function for better PSD and noise removal

OFDM Signal Generation



Up conversion


S-> P


P -> S

Analog signal

QAM mapping is a block that groups these bits together as per modulation schemes: N=1 for BPSK, N=2 for QPSK and n-QAM for higher orders

Some Maths behind OFDM signals

For a single carrier, the complex signal can be: If we consider N samples, OFDM signal appears to be summation of these N symbols During the symbol length, the amplitude and phase remains constant

These carriers are centered around fo , the time domain representation becomes

Where T is the period of sampling frequency. This can be represented in complex vector as

Maths behind OFDM - continued

In last equation is the representation of complex components in frequency domain If we follow the IFFT transform, we can see that it is the summation of orthogonal components in frequency domain

The simplified complex form follows the modulation scheme, hence making:

, where an and bn follows

After complex vector multiplication, real signal part can be estimated as:

Cyclic Extension
Last serial samples are added to next OFDM frame by cyclic extension

How its done ? Lets see some basics and maths behind cyclic extension and Spectral correlation function to see its significance

Cyclostationary Features
A very simple periodic signal

In terms of Fourier coefficients

After modulation with a sine-wave

Considering a is of random wide-sense spectrum nature, we can auto-correlate and can compute the power spectral density Auto-correlation of a Power spectral density of a can be found by
Keeping that in mind the Power Spectral Density of x(t) can be found by : Problem with the above equation ? No sine wave components presents

Cyclostationary Feature - continued

Lets use trigonometric identities in order to have:
1. 2. 3. Some DC components Some higher order periodic components Simple depiction of modulated periodic symbol

A simple quadratic function Which can be reduced to Furthermore b(t) has a DC component that should appear at f=0

Also, the higher order components should also appear at

Cyclostationary Feature - Continued

So, if that is True, the PSD should appear as:

f f -fo Sy fo f f -2fo 2fo

Cyclostationary Feature - Continued

Problem with previous depiction?
Not every symbol appears as a DC with some known higher order components In order to add random delays, we should come up with some pulse modulation in order to have varying magnitudes. So, we can only have a DC magnitude appearing at nth order but with no varying magnitudes.

Speculating that into consideration, the basic function becomes:

Where spectral lines should appear at , where m is integer multiplier If we equate as , we can define our approximation equation: t = for periodic Time intervals

Cyclostationary Feature - Continued

Now with the assumptions we can say that the function is periodic if the delay product contains spectral lines; which can roughly be modeled as: The cyclic auto-correlation function can then proceed with the complex vector: Now the basic idea of Spectral Correlation function is to find average power in frequency domain

The last approximations were to concentrate on the received signals at the center frequency as if they were passed through a narrowband filter

Where B is modeled as the bandwidth of the function for filtering

Spectral Correlation Density

The spectral correlation density was computed by the Fourier Transform of the cyclic autocorrelation
f x -j2t e


f + /2

f + /2

+ /2





Coding behind the project

Signal Generation

Serial Conversion

Coding - Continued
Cyclic Prefix addition

Up-sampling for carrier

Coding Continued
SCF Function

The Plots

The Outcomes

The PSD of generic symbol received

Outcomes - Continued
PSD while utilizing SCF

PSD without SCF

Outcomes -Continued
Detected primary and secondary users around centre frequency in the absence of SCF

Reduced noise-bed and detected primary and secondary users around center frequency in the presence of SCF