This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
primarily form the interference with the process of inspiration Condition in which the supply of oxygen to the blood or tissues has been reduced
failure of arterial blood to be normally saturated with O2 atmosphere without or insufficient O2 obstruction from pressure outside paralysis of respiratory center mechanical interference of passage
arteriovenous obstruction) HISTOLOGIC failure of cellular oxidative process. ANEMIC ANOXIC DEATH ANOXIC DEATH ANOXIC DEATH decreased capacity of blood to carry O2 (severe hemorrhage. poisoning. shock. low hgb) STAGNANT failure of circulation (heart failure. O2 cannot be utilized properly (cyanide and alcohol) .
1. DYSPNEIC PHASE • • • • • Lack of O2 and retention of CO2 Breathing rapid and deep Pulse rate increases Rise in blood pressure Cyanosis .
CONVULSIVE PHASE • • • • • Stimulation of CNS by CO2 Cyanosis more pronounced Staring eyes and dilated pupils Tardieu Spots – hemorrhage by ruptured capillaries due to increased pressure Usually unconscious .2.
gasping and slow • Heart later fails • Recovery is almost nil due to prolonged cerebral anoxia . APNEIC PHASE • Paralysis of respiratory center of brain • Shallow breathing.
muggling or yoking. Special forms (palmar strangulation. Manual strangulation or throttling c. Hanging Strangulations a. garroting. compression of the neck with stick) . By ligature b.1. 2.
Suffocation a. 5. Asphyxia by submersion or drowning Asphyxia by pressure on the chest Asphyxia by irrespirable gases .3. Smothering or closing of the mouth and nostrils by solid objects b. Choking or closing of the air passage by obstruction of the lumen 4. 6.
Suspension of body by a ligature which encircles the neck and the constricting forces is the weight of the body .
constricting forces is the whole weight b. Partial – body partially suspended . Complete – body completely suspended. 2.1. As to LOCATION of ligature and knot a. Typical – encircles the whole neck b. Atypical – ligature on one side of the neck As to AMOUNT of constricting forces a.
As to SYMMETRY a.3. Asymmetrical – not in midline. Symmetrical – knot is at midline b. head tilts to the opposite side of the knot .
Ligature at the neck with a noose or knot and other end is fastened to an elevated object Weight causes noose to tighten upon suspension pressure in the neck Compression of sup. jugular veins = CEREBRAL ANOXIA . laryngeal nerve. carotid arteries.
of tongue outward – pressure is above the larynx and upward direction Protrusion is kept inside buccal cavity – pressure is below the larynx Protrusion .
leather belts. electric wires. MATERIALS USED IN HANGING thinner and tougher – mark more pronounced soft and broad – mark less pronounced * In suicide – rolled beddings. ring or sliding noose . rope is commonly used NOOSE tightened after encircled as with metal buckle.
MODE OF APPLICATION OF THE LIGATURE single loop – one ligature furrow several loops – several intervening redness between the furrows POSITION OF THE KNOT hanging – ligature above thyroid cartilage strangling – loop below the thyroid cartilage COURSE OF THE LIGATURE AROUND THE NECK ligature mark deepest opposite location of knot .
1. 2. 5. 3. Simple asphyxia Congestion of the venous blood vessels in the brain Lack of arterial blood in the brain Syncope Spinal cord and column injury . 4.
Physical condition of the subject Rate of consumption of O2 in blood and tissues .1. b. Other factors a. death accelerated 2. knot at one side or below jaw – delay death 3. Severity of the constricting factors windpipe – death may be delayed vital blood supply – unconsciousness develops immediately. Point of application of the ligature below larynx – death instantaneous above larynx – death delayed 3-5 mins.
Induce the natural acts of respiration • • • • • • • ligature must be loosened all obstacles in mouth must be removed tongue must be pulled forward body on back rest place in free current fresh air electrical stimulation of phrenic nerve respiratory stimulation (e.1. ammonia) .g.
2. Stimulate the heart to renew action if it ceases to beat • • • apply heat at precordium hypodermic injection of stimulants administration of brandy 3. Maintain the natural body temperature • • cover body with blanket place in warm room .
EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL FINDINGS .
reaction – principal criterion for determination Ante-mortem: Vital • Redness at site of ligature • Ecchymosis of pharyxnx and epiglottis • Rupture of intima of carotid artery • Subpleural or subepicardial hemorrhages .
removed on stretching the skin of the neck Marks of tight neckwear . Fold markings on the neck of an obese individual – marks are not continuous.
furnitures. defense wounds LYNCHING – homicidal hanging practiced by Americans against the Negros who commit crime against white Americans. Homicidal hanging • Windows and doors opened used as an escape by offender • Presence of signs and struggles (clothing.beddings) • Stains and bodily injuries. .
congested and papyraceous • • • • • with abrasions in the furrow of ligature Signs of previous ineffective suicide attempt Suicide note Easily accessible materials History of reverses in life No disturbance in place . Suicidal Hanging • Place compatible with self-suspension • Absence of signs of struggle • Deep.
Produced by compression of the neck by means of a ligature which is tightened by a force other than the weight of the body .
smooth application – no visible mark after death hard.soft material. rough ligature – extensive abrasion and contusion Infanticide by umbilical cord strangulation .
HANGING Frequently injured Inverted V-shape Apex site of knot Hyoid Bone Direction of Ligature Mark STRANGULATION Frequently spared Horizontal Knot on same plane Level of hyoid bone Deepest opposite of knot Frequently observed Ligature Location Below larynx Uniform in depth in whole course Not usually observed Ligature Groove Vertebral Injury .
Asphyxia due to occlusion of windpipe Coma due to arrest of cerebral circulation Shock or syncope Inhibition of respiratory center due to pressure on vagus and sympathetic nerves . 2. 4.1. 3.
2. Pneumonia c.1. Abscess formation at site of injury . Removal of ligature Artificial respiration. 3. Edema of glottis b. tracheotomy Prevention of complications a.
evidence of struggle marks of violence in other parts of body Rare Ligature at neck and tightened by means of twisting Mostly children or epileptics Accidental • • • .Homicidal • • Most common Aside from neck.
Constricting force applied in neck is the HAND .
Garroting Mugging .
of air from the lungs by closure of air openings or obstruction of the air passageway from the external openings to the air sacs.
of external respiratory orifices Homicidal and accidental is frequent Suicidal smothering by means of his own hands is NOT possible
– most common in children (pressure of beddings and pillow) Accidental smothering of epileptic Gagging
Plastic bag suffocation .
Impaction of foreign body in the respiratory passage .
autopsy reveals large mass of food lodged in throat. accidental .restaurant patron has sudden heart attack. Café coronary .
Definition –nostrils and mouth has been submerged in any watery or pultaceous fluid for a time to prevent the free entrance of air into the air passage and lungs .
another apneic phase. after which the breathing stops permanently. . terminal respiration. “respiration de surprise” phase of resistance dyspneic phase with a forceful respiratory movement.
typical drowning – asphyxia atypical drowning • • • cardiac inhibition laryngeal spasm submersion when unconscious .
person might have fallen into the water and his body strikes on a solid hard object under the influence of alcohol or other depressants and incapable of helping himself cramps shock due to fright or sudden exposure to cold water could cause heart failure apoplexy or cardiac failure might have been dead and thrown into the water .
SCHAEFER’S METHOD prone position with face down. SYLVESTER’S METHOD patient lying on his back. . operator astriding over the body swing the arms forward up and then pressing the chest wall repeat every 3 to 5 seconds. Operator kneels astride the body and exerts pressure on the lower ribs at the rate of 12 to 15 times a minute.
Postmortem lividity mostly in the head. In suicidal drowning. c. External findings a. Washerwoman’s hand and feet – skin of hands and feet is bleached. eyelids livid.1. pieces of stone or other heavy objects in pockets or clothing to facilitate submersion . may appear before or after death e. Physical injuries l. conjunctivae injected and pupils dilated. contracted in the form of “cutis anserina” or “goose-skin” or “gooseflesh” especially body is submerged in the cold water. etc. wet clothes. stones. Presence of firmly clenched hands with objects as weeds. g. skin – puckered. neck and chest. corrugated and sodden in appearance.. sand. contracted penis and scrotum f. “cutis anserine” – not diagnostic of drowning d. with protruding tongue i. h. j. Eyes are half-opened or closed. pale face with foreign bodies clinging on the skin b. pale. k. Mouth closed or half-opened.
• Congested whole lung field • Presence of fluid with bloody froth in the lung section • • • • . internal findings a. Respiratory “emphysema aquosum”. “Edema aquosum” “Champignon d’ocume” Tracheo-bronchial lumina is congested and filled with fine froth with foreign bodies • Blood-stained fluid inside the chest cavity due to permeation of water trapped inside the air sacs.2.
b. the result is opposite . thereby limiting the capillary flow • if drowning in salty water. Heart • may be emptied or filled with blood • right side may be distended with blood while left may be emptied on the account of the distention of the air sacs. but if it is fresh water. blood chloride content is greater in the left side than right side.
Stomach • plenty of fluid and other foreign materials • absence of water shows that death is rapid or submersion is made after death d. Brain • congested and big blood vessels are engorged e.c. Blood • blood becomes dark on account of the absorption of all its available oxygen. • reduction of hemoglobin contents on account of dilution • red blood cells may be crenated .
f. Other Organs • liver – engorged with dark fluid blood • spleen and kidneys – dark in color and congested • water in the middle ear due to violent inspiration when the mouth is full of water. .
materials or foreign bodies in the hands. froth. . foam or foreign bodies in the air passage water in the middle ear. increase in volume (emphysema aquosum) and edema of the lungs (edema aquosum) water and fluid in the stomach contents.
floating of the body influenced by the weather. age. conditions of the fluid medium.within 24hours. sex and body built. the body floats. usually with flexed extremities lividity more on the face “tete de negri” or bronze color of the head and neck . When body recovered. decomposition causes the accumulation of gas in the body. presence of wearing apparel.
Suicidal drowning • Heavy articles or weight may be found in the pocket of • • • • • clothing. History of previous attempt to commit suicide. Determination of the strong reason for him to commit suicide. Presence of a suicidal note.1. Mentality of the person Study of the character and manner of the person previous to the commission of suicide. .
like gunshot wound at the back. Homicidal drowning • evidences of struggle like physical injuries and • • • • • destruction of the clothings articles belonging to the assailant may be found near the place presence of a motive for the killing presence of ligature on the hands or legs which could not possibly be applied by the victim himself presence of physical injuries which could not have been self-inflicted. etc. severe injuries in the head. testimony of witness ..2.
Accidental drowning • absence of mark of violence on the body surface • condition and situation of the victim immediately before death which may make one inclined to believe that it is accidental. • exclusion of suicidal or homicidal nature of the drowning • testimony of a witness or witnesses who saw the incident happened .3.
suicidal case – very rare . 1. homicidal case 2.free exchange of air in the lungs is prevented by the immobility of the chest and abdomen due to external pressure or crush injury. accidental case 3.
caused by buried under a pile of sand under the rubble of a collapsed building crushed in a highway accident sudden fall of materials in mines crushed in a crowd. usually accidental .
chest. shoulder and neck congestion and petechial hemorrhages of the sclera and conjunctiva fracture of the ribs due to compression heart and big blood vessels engorged with dark fluid blood contusion with petechial hemorrhage of the lungs other sings of physical injuries . purplish-black cyanosis of the face and neck irregular pattern on the skin small subcutaneous petechial hemorrhages on the skin of face.
.hyper-expansion of the chest muscles and lungs – difficulty in breathing exhaustion. or have his feet supported by tying or by a wood block unconsciousness and death from asphyxia.
coal. CARBON MONOXIDE (SILENT KILLER) • formed from incomplete combustion of carbon fuel • burning of wood. oil. kerosene and charcoal used • • • • • in cooking or heating or gasoline engines in cars colorless gas.1. insoluble in water and alcohol limiting the oxygen carrying capacity prevents release of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin accidental and suicidal death by carbon monoxide poisoning is common judicial death execution by gas chamber carbon monoxide is utilized in US .
heavy gas mixed with carbon monoxide and • • • • hydrogen sulfide Often found in drainage pipes. deep wells. CARBON DIOXIDE • gas blown out of the lungs during respiration.ataxia. dyspnea. Loss of reflexes. with or without convulsion and death . • Colorless. diminished respiration. fall of blood pressure. Anesthesia. sewage tanks and decomposing organic matters Small amount of gas mixed with air(2%) -tachypnea Stronger concentration (10% or more) .2. discomfort and muscular weakness Greater concentration (60%) immediate loss of consciousness.
headache. cyanosis. nausea. vomiting. transparent gas. nose. septic tanks. delirium.3. sweetish taste and emitting an odor similar to a rotten egg Dilute solution produces irritation of the eyes. throat and air passages. cold extremities and labored breathing. Prolonged exposure may cause convulsion. HYDROGEN SULFIDE • decomposition process of organic substances • • • • containing sulfur. abdominal pain. drainage pipes and deep wells Colorless. Large quantities in a sewer. coma and death . followed by dizziness. dilated pupils.
and in certain oil seed and beans. in ordinary bamboo shoots. patient can walk and speak or perform volitional acts before death takes place • Average span of life after partaking the drug is 2 to 10 minutes. often used for suicidal purpose . • Smaller dose.4. • Only small quantity is needed to end one’s life. HYDROGEN CYANIDE • one of the most toxic and rapid acting gases • naturally found in leaves of cherry-laurel. peaches. plum. in kernels of common cherry.
a powerful reducing agent. as a bleaching agent. spasm of the glottis and suffocation • Irritates the eyes and cause congestion and lacrimation . heavier than air and with pungent odor. • Employed as disinfectant.5. and found in eruption of volcanoes • Irritation of the respiratory passage causes sneezing. SULFUR DIOXIDE • colorless gas. coughing.
true gas.ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUBSTANCE a. smoke volatilized liquid or finely divided solid e. big quantity in a relatively cheap price f. storage for an ample length of time . stable substance or not easily made non-toxic by rapid chemical reaction g. substance heavier than air b. spread rapidly c. produce effect even in low concentration d.
bronchitis and blistering of skin . congestion of the conjunctivae and temporary blindness • long time exposure can cause vomiting. spasm of the eyelids. nausea.1. LACRIMATOR OR TEAR GAS • exposure can cause irritation with copious flow of tears • cause severe lacrimation.
.A.B.chloracetophenone (C. b.C) c. ethyl Iodoacetate (K.K a.P) bromobenzyl cyanide (B.S.
Yellow Cross. vesicant or blistering gas • contact with skin may cause bleb or blister formation a.2. vesicle with cloudy fluid . b. - mustard gas (Dichlordiethyl Sulfide. “Yperite”) Lewisite (Chlorovinyldichlorarsine) cause erythema.
Phosgene c. Chloride b. Chloropicrin d. Lung Irritants (Asphyxiant or Choking Gas) cause dyspnea. Diphosgene . absolute rest. vomiting.3. varying degree of conjunctival irritation. administration of oxygen and symptomatic approach a. tightness of chest and coughing. coma and death treatment : removal of the victim from vitiated atmosphere.
nausea.4. salivation and pain in the chest. and protraction a. vomiting.M. Diphenyl cyanarsine (D. Diphenyl chlorarsine (D.) . Sernutator (Nasal Irritants or Vomiting Gases) coryza.) b. malaise. Diphenylamine chlorarsine (D. headache.) c.A.C.
5. nausea. abdominal pain and irregular heart action c. Blood Poisons a. Carbon Monoxide (Carbonic Oxide) – reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood . Hydrocyanic Acid (Hydrogen Cyanide or Prussic Acid) – prevent the tissue from utilizing the oxygen of the blood b. Parlysants (Nerve Gas) inactivation of cholinesterase and consequent increase of acetylcholine causing paralysis at the myoneuronal junction 6. Hydrogen Sulfide (Sulphurated Hydrogen) – paralysis of respiratory center.