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Advanced Gastrointestinal Physiology Presentation on
Importance of the Colon (Large Intestine) in digestion
By Teketel Eristu
Thursday, March 29, 2012 1
Anatomy of Large Intestine Importance of Large Intestine
Absorption and secretion
Thursday, March 29, 2012
2012 3 . March 29.Objectives At the end of the presentation the learners are expected to: Understand the definition of Large intestine Explain Anatomy of Large intestine Discuss the Importance of Large intestine Know about Secretions and Absorption by Large intestine Understand About defecation Reflex Thursday.1.
2012 Fig. March 29.1 Large Intestine (Colon) • It is the last part of digestive system or final stage of the alimentary canal • The large intestine is larger in diameter but shorter in length than the small intestine and • begins beyond the ileocecal sphincter and ends at the anus. Thursday.1 Large Intestine 4 .2.Introduction 2.
March 29. 2012 Fig. Thursday.2 Anatomy of Large Intestine • The large intestine consists of the cecum. last 20cm of LI and the anal canal.2 Structure of Large intestine 5 .2. (pouch at the beginning of LI) has a small projection called the vermiform appendex ascending colon transverse colon descending colon sigmoid colon enters the rectum.
Cont…. The wall of the colon is similar in having four different layers. 2012 Fig. except that the outer layer of the longitudinal muscle is connected into 3-bands called teniae coli. March 29. Thursday.3 Structure of Large intestine 6 .
4 Large intestine Showing haustral contractions and mass movements 7 . March 29.Cont… • Contractions of the circular muscles and the adjacent portions of teniae produce large segmentation of the colon ( a series of pouches) known as Haustrations or sacculations. • Mass Movements – drives contents of colon toward rectum Thursday. 2012 Fig.
2012 8 .3. Thus.Storage of fecal matter until it can be expelled Thursday.Importance of Large Intestine • The colon is lined with transporting epithelial cells called colonocytes. The principal functions of the Colon are: .Absorption of water and electrolytes from the chyme to form solid feces and . March 29. which absorb fluid and transport electrolytes.
March 29.secretion Storage.3. coli) that breaks down nondigestible material and produce vitamins i. transport. and excretion of feces(defecation) Absorption of some drugs (suppositories) Houses intestinal flora . 2012 9 . Bacterial fermentation in the colon stimulates synthesis of some vitamins Thursday.e.1 Generally Large intestine has the following functions Water absorption Contribution to homeostasis (through water balance) Electrolyte (like NaCl) absorption Mucous & HCO3.Has a population of bacteria( E.
The left colon includes the distal half of the transverse colon. and the proximal half of the transverse colon. Thursday.5 Areas and functions of the large intestine. The right colon includes the cecum. the sigmoid colon. March 29. and the rectum. 2012 10 . the descending colon. the ascending colon.Cont… Fig.
Cl.2 Secretion and Absorption • Mucus Secretion. • The large intestine mucosa contains deep crypts and the epithelium linings contain abundant goblet cells/ mucous cells.is absorbed in exchange for HC03. colon. • Goblet cells secrete mucus in response to tactile stimuli and parasympathetic stimulation.3. • The resulting secretion of HC03 ion into the lumen helps in neutralization of acids generated by microbial fermentation in the Thursday. • This mucus contains moderate amounts of bicarbonate ions secreted by a few non-mucus-secreting epithelial cells. 2012 11 .ion released into the lumen.March 29.
Cont.. finally. 2012 12 . March 29. Thursday. • Mucus in the large intestine protects the intestinal wall -against excoriation .from the great amount of bacterial activity that takes place inside the feces .it provides an adherent medium for holding fecal matter together . the mucus plus the alkalinity of the secretion (pH of 8.0 caused by large amounts of sodium bicarbonate) provides a barrier to keep acids formed in the feces from attacking the intestinal wall. and.
2012 Area of Large intestine Showing absorbing colon and 13 . giving this portion the name absorbing colon. Fig. whereas the distal colon functions principally for feces storage until a propitious time for feces excretion and is therefore called the storage colon.6 Thursday.Absorption. March 29. • Most of the absorption in the large intestine occurs in the proximal one half of the colon.
leaving only 1 to 5 milliequivalents each of sodium and chloride ions to be lost in the feces. essentially all the ions are absorbed.Cont…. usually leaving less than 100 milliliters of fluid to be excreted in the feces. Thursday. • About 1500 milliliters of chyme normally pass through the ileocecal valve into the large intestine each day. • Most of the water and electrolytes in this chyme are absorbed in the colon. 2012 14 . March 29. • Also.
Cont… To form solid feces the chyme entering the colon should be dehydrated. This is achieved by water absorption across the colon epithelium. March 29. 2012 15 . Thursday. Water absorption occurs by osmosis following the active absorption of Na+ ion.
most Na+ uptake occurs via the Na+/H+ exchange Cl. March 29.is absorbed in exchange for HC03.Cont… In the right (proximal) colon. 7 Colonic electrolyte transport in the proximal (right) colon Thursday. 2012 16 .ion released into the lumen. Fig.
Na+ absorption occurs via a Na+ channel. 8 Colonic electrolyte transport in 17 the distal (left) colon . Thursday. 2012 Fig. March 29.Cont… • In the left (distal) colon. • In both locations. and K+ secretion occurs at the same time via K+ channels. the hormone aldosterone stimulates Na+ absorption and K+ secretion.
March 29. Rectum is usually empty but. development of mass movements push feces into the rectum this leads to initiation of defecation reflex. 2012 . 10 Mass movements of large intestine 18 Thursday. Fig.3.3 Defecation Reflex Voiding of feces is known as defecation. Mass movements drive the feces into the sigmoid colon where feces is stored. The defecation reflex removes undigested faeces from the body Center for defecation is in the sacral segment of spinal cord.
2012 19 . March 29. Parasympathetic reflex causes contractions of the sigmoid colon and rectum + relaxation of internal anal sphincter Fig.Cont… Internal Anal Sphincter • Composed of smooth muscle thus involuntary • Innervated by parasympathetic via the pelvic nerves Thus.11 Muscles of anal canal Thursday.
hence Voluntary • Innervated by somatic nerve fibers via the pudendal nerves. If not the defecation Thursday. 2012 will be inhibited (Subside) Fig. March 29.Cont… External Anal Sphincter • Composed of skeletal muscle. External anal sphincter (under voluntary control) consciously relaxed if appropriate Defecation occurs with relaxation of the voluntary (external) anal sphincter.12 Muscles of anal canal 20 .
2012 21 .Thursday. March 29.
defecation reflexes cause automatic emptying of the lower bowel at inconvenient times. March 29. 2012 22 . Thursday.(Cont…) • In new born babies and people with transected spinal cords. • This is because of lack of conscious control exercised through voluntary contraction and relaxation of the external anal sphincter.
Textbook of Medical Physiology 11E 3. Guyton and Hall. 2012 23 .4.KIBBLE/ COLBY R. Different internet Resources Thursday.HALSEY 2. March 29. The big picture JONATHAN D. Human Physiology. References 1.
March 29. 2012 24 .THANK YOU Animal Nutrition Thursday.