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© Department of General Studies, 2008
Definition of Knowledge
Al-„ilm (/ )العممKnowledge
The arrival (Husul: )حصولin the soul of the
meaning of a thing or an object of knowledge and the arrival (wusul: (وصولof the soul at the meaning of a thing or object of knowledge
ة الشيء في النفس ووصول ”حصول معنى أو صور “النفس إلى معنى الشيء (al-Jurjani:160-161)
Realization of the meanings of
things (Al-Ghazzali) Realization of something in its true nature through different levels of understanding and in agreement with the facts or true to nature. (textbook, 4)
To know, to understand, to
perceive, to be familiar and acquainted with things. A firm belief that accords with the reality of things (:74) )فاعلم أنه ال إله إال اهلل 19(. - Theology ( ,)عقيدةPrinciples of Jurisprudence( )أصول الفقهetc.
Opposite of العلم
Not supported with decisive proofs It might accord with the reality and it
: الجهلignorance : السفةfoolishness :الضاللmisguidance
Degrees of Certainty
•Certainty, conviction ()القين/القطع •Accords with the reality
•Certainty by observation ِعيِ اىيقي
•certainty through knowledge ِعيٌ اىيق •Certainty through experience ِحق اىيقي
Importance of Knowledge
1. Knowledge is a requirement for the
fulfillment of man‟s obligations as a khalifah on earth. Allah says:
ْ َ ْ ِ َ َ ِ ٌ وإِذ قَبه ربُّل ىِ ْيََلئِنة إِِّّي جبعو فِي اْلَرْ ض خيِيفَةً قَبىُىا أَجَجْ عو فِيهَب ٍِ َ ُ َ ْ َ َ َ ََ َ ِ ْ ِ ُ َ ْ ُ ِّ َ َ َ ُ َ ُ َ ْ ِ َ َ ِّ يُفسد فِيهَب ويَسفِل اىدٍبء وَّحْ ِ ُّسبِّح بِحَدك وُّقَدسُ ىَل قَبه إِِّّي أَعيٌَ ٍب َ َ ْ ُ َ َ َ َ ََ ْ ْ َ َ ُ َل جَعيََىُ (03) وعيٌَّ آَدً اْلَسَبء ميَّهَب ثٌُ عرضهٌُ عيَى اىََلئِنة فَقَبه َّ َ َ َ ْ َ َ ْ ُ َ ََْ َ ِ َ َّ ْ أَّبِئُىِّي بِأَسَبء هَؤَلء إُِ مْحٌُ صبدقِيِ (13) قَبىُىا سبْحبَّل َل ع ْيٌ ىََْب إَِل ْ َ ِ َُ ِ ْ ُْ ْ َ ِ َ ُ َ َ َ ِ َ ٍب عيََّحََْب إَِّّل أَّث اىعيِيٌ اىحنيٌ (23) قَبه يَب آَدً أَّبِئهٌُ بِأَسَبئِهٌ فَيََب َ َ َ ْ َ ُ ْ ْ ْ ْ َ ِ ْ َّ َ ْ َ َْ ُ ْ َ ِ ُ ْ ُ َ َ َّ َ َ ِ َ ْ أَّبَأَهٌُ بِأَسَبئِهٌ قَبه أَىٌَ أَقُوْ ىَنٌ إِِّّي أَعيٌَ غيْب اىسَبوات واْلَرْ ض وأَعيٌَ ُْ ْ ْ ْ َ ِْ َ ْ ِ َ ْ ُ ٍب جُبدوُ وٍب مْحٌُ جَنحَُىُ (33) َ ُْ َ َ َ ُْ ْ ْ ُ َ 01 .
The first revelation to the Messenger of Allah is about seeking knowledge and revealing scientific knowledge: ”أقر باسم ربِّل الذىخمق *خمق االنسان من عمق *اقر وربك االكرم ا أ َ َ )5-1:*الذى عمم بالقمم *عمم االنسان ما لم يعمم“ (العمق 11 .2.
taught man that which he knew not” (96:1-5) [“read. pen”] 12 .. who created. teach .……Cont. Read! In the name of the Lord and Cherisher. out of a mere clot of congealed blood. Proclaim! And your Lord is most Bountiful.He who taught the use of the pen.created man.
……cont.The total number of verses in which „ilm or its derivatives and associated words are used is 704. 13 . 5. to ponder. The text of the Qur‟an is full of verses inviting man to use his intellect.. Islam is a religion based upon knowledge. 4. to think and to learn. 3.
6. The main miracle and sign of authenticity of prophethood of Mohammed ( )صمى اهلل عميو وسممwas a book of knowledge. 14 . The Qur‟an..……cont.
.The Prophet ( )صمى اهلل عميو وسممmade seeking knowledge obligatory on Muslims (men and women): “”طمب العمم فريضة عمى كل مسمم “Seeking knowledge is obligatory on every Muslim”. 7. 15 .……cont.
Knowledge is the way through which people can recognize Allah. 8. believe in what has been revealed to you and what was revealed before you…” 16 .……cont. and discover the truth. and the believers. ”لَكن َّاسخون في اْلعْمِم منيُم واْلمؤمنون يؤمنون بِما أُنزل َ ِ ْ َ َ ُ ِ ْ ُ َ ُ ِ ْ ُ َ ْ ْ ِ ِ ِ َ ُ ِ ِ ِ الر )162 :إلَيك وما أُنزل من قَْبمك“ (النساء َ ِ ْ ِ َ ِْ َ َ َ ْ ِ “But those among them who are well-grounded in knowledge.. fear him.
and that it guides to the Path of Allah who is Exalted and Worthy of all praise.……cont.. ِ ر َّ َ ُ َ ِّ َ ْ ِ َ ْ ِ َ ِ ْ ِ ِ ”وي َى الَّذين أُوتُوا اْلعْمم الَّذي أُنزل إلَيك من ربك ىو اْلحق ََ َ َ َ ِِ ِ ِ ِ ِْ َ (6 :وييدي إلَى ص َاط اْلعزيز اْلحميد“ (سبأ َ ِ َِ ر َ “And those who are knowledgeable see that the revelation sent down to you from the Lord is the Truth.” 17 .
ٍ َ ِ ِ ُ ِْ ُ ِ “”يرفَع المَّوُ الَّذين ءامنوا منكم والَّذين أُوتُوا اْلعْمم درجات ِ َْ ََ َ َ َ ْ ََ َ )11 :(المجادلة “Allah will raise up.……cont. 9. to high ranks those of you who believe and who have been granted Knowledge…” 18 .. Knowledge elevates the status and position of its bearer and makes difference between him and ignorant.
ِ ُِِ ِ ”ولَقَد ءاتَينا داود وسمَيمان عْمما وقَاال اْلحمد لمَّو الَّذي فَضمَنا عمَى َ َ َّ َ ْ َ ً َ َ ْ ُ َ َ ُ َ َْ َ ْ َ ِِ ِ ِ ٍ َ )كثِير من عباده اْلمؤمنِين“ (:51النمل َ ْ َ ِ ُْ We gave knowledge to David and Solomon: and they both said: "Praise be to Allah.……cont. Who has favoured us above many of His subjects who believe!" 19 ..
ِ ”ولَقَد ءاتَينا داود منا فَضًل ياجبال أَوبِي معوُ و َّير وأَلَنا لَو ُ َّ َ َ ْ َ ْ َ ْ َ َ ُ َ َّ ْ ً َ ِ َ ُ ِّ َ َ َ الط ِ ِ ْ ِ ْ ْ َ َ ٍ ِّ ْ ِ الس اْلحديد(01) أَن اعمل سابِغات وقَدر في َّرد واعممُوا صالحا َ َِ ً َ َ َْ َ َ ِ )إني بِما تَعممُون بصير(11)“ (سبأء ٌ َ َ َ ْ َ ِِّ “We bestowed grace on David … and We made the iron soft for him. Make coats of mail." 20 .……cont.. and work righteousness. balance well the rings of chain armour. for be sure I see all that you do.
) 9:”قل ىل يستوي الذين يعممون والذين ال يعممون“ (الزمر “ Say: “are those equal..……cont. those who know and those who do not know?” 21 .
Purpose of knowledge Divinely Worldly To recognize God To benefit man Pleasure of God 22 .
Week Two Classification of Knowledge .
Limitations (a) Absolute (perfect) knowledge: this is the knowledge of God who knows the reality. 24 . (b) Limited knowledge: The knowledge given to His creations. essence and details of all things.
25 . angels.……cont. prophets. and animals. human beings. jinn..
Instinctive knowledge (natural): it is imparted in the very nature of the creation. • Limited knowledge: (i) Gifted knowledge: a. 26 ..….cont. Revealed/Sacred knowledge: the knowledge that Almighty God reveals to human beings. b..
senses and experience.Fard „ayn ii.(ii) Acquired Knowledge Gained through effort by way of reflection. Fard kifayah (b) Prohibited (blameworthy) -Magic (kindly refer to slides 46-48) 27 . (a) Recommended (praiseworthy) i.
General Classification of Knowledge in Islam 28 .
General classification of Knowledge in Islam Absolute Knowledge Limited Knowledge Gifted Knowledge Acquired Knowledge Sacred Instinct (ilham) Praiseworthy Blame worthy By external influence Fard „Ain Fard Kifayah 29 By itself .
Religious and intellectual 4.Al-Ghazzali‟s Criteria for Classification of sciences : 1. Theoretical and practical 2. Individual obligatory and communal obligatory 30 . Presential and acquired 3.
Classification of Knowledge According to al-Ghazali Theoretical Presential Religious Fard „ayn (Personal Obligatory Knowledge) Practical Attained Intellectual Fard kifayah(Collective Obligatory Knowledge) 31 .
Al-Ghazzali‟s Criteria for Classification of sciences 1. Theoretical and practical (philosophers) Theoretical: to know the states of beings as they are( to realize/ comprehend the reality of beings. celestial & terrestrial) Practical: deals with man‟s actions To find out what is useful to mankind in this life as well as in the Hereafter 32 .
2.Cont. contemplative spiritual experience . Presential & acquired (tasawwuf) (the mode of knowing) Presential : intuitive. rational. logical Acquired 33 ..….revelation : empirical.
Which one is better? Al-Ghazzali: the presential is superior to the acquired.…. It is free from errors & doubt.Cont.. certainty on spiritual truths This is true with the revelation and intuition received by the prophets 34 .
The intuitive knowledge claimed by people other than prophets may not be taken for granted unless it is judged in light of the established principles of Islam 35 .
Complementary sciences )Qira‟at.…. sunnah. Branches (law and ethics) 3. consensus( 2.Cont. 3. Religious and intellectual (the source) Religious (transmitted sciences): Acquired from revelation/ prophets 1. Roots )Qur‟an. Ancillary sciences (grammar and lexicography) 4. history) Intellectual: attained by human intellect alone 36 .. commentary.
Cont.. 4. Fard „Ayn and Fard kifayah (the need for learning) Fard „ayn: What should be learned by each and every Muslim.…. Individual responsibilities Things which can‟t be done on behalf of others 37 .
Beliefs. 38 . core moral values..Cont. how to discharge one‟s responsibilities towards others )man‟s obligations to family and society). necessary skills for daily life.…. halal and haram. worship.
Fard kifayah : .….collective responsibilities Religious sciences: knowledge that is not needed for daily practice of Islam.Cont. . Intellectual knowledge: all types of knowledge needed for the welfare of the society in this life 39 .the community‟s needs that can be performed by a sufficient group on behalf of others..
….Cont Praiseworthy sciences: Enhances human well being and the environment within the boundaries outlined by shari‟ah All sciences which are useful. 40 . beneficial and satisfy the requirements of science.
Blameworthy by its nature by an external factor 41 . or it is purely or usually harmful.Blameworthy sciences: A science which does not meet the requirement of science.
Allah says in the Holy Qur‟an: 42 . which is contrary to reality.Cont… Magic: It is defined as “seeking the help of demons to perform something harmful against somebody” or “showing something to an audience. Reasons why magic is prohibited in Islam: 1) It is an act of blasphemy (kufr).….
for Solomon did not disbelieve but the devils disbelieved. And they followed what the devils gave out falsely of magic of the reign of Solomon. “And when there came to them a Messenger from Allah confirming what was with them. but neither of these two (angles) taught anyone (such 43 . a party of those who were given the scripture threw away the book of Allah behind their backs as if they did not know. teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels Harut and Marut.
44 . And indeed they knew that its practitioner would have no share in the Hereafter. and they learn that which harms them rather than profits them. And from them (magicians) people learn that through which they would cause separation between a person and his spouse. so don't disbelieve. And how bad indeed was that for which they sold their own selves if they but knew.” (2:101-102).things) until they had said: we are only for trial. but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah's leave.
eating usury (riba). unwary believing women. devouring the orphan‟s wealth. magic is a deadly act: The Prophet (s. 2) According to the following authentic hadith. killing the human self which Allah prohibited except with right. defecting from the battle-field (without a justified reason) and slandering chaste. magic.” 45 .w) said: “Avoid the seven deadly acts which are: ascribing partners to God.a.
And from the evil of the envious when he envies.” (Surah al-Falaq) 46 . Allah has told us to seek His protection against it: “Say I seek refuge in the in the Lord of daybreak From the evil of that which he created. Magic being harmful and evil act. and from the evil of malignant witchcraft. From the evil of the darkness when it is intense.
which is from devils. they could only be performed by Prophets while magic. On the other hand. miracles are real while magic is deceptive. Because miracles are from Allah. 47 .Differences between magic and miracles (mu„jizat) Magic is from devils (see the above Qur‟anic verse: 2:101-102)while miracles are from Allah. can be performed by anyone who associates himself with the devil. it is covering the truth with falsehood).
. the treasures that none knoweth but He.” (6:59) 48 . Horoscope Not only magic is prohibited in Islam but also horoscope or reading one‟s palm to foretell the future. The Holy Qur‟an affirms that no one knows the future or the unseen except Allah: “He knoweth the Unseen as well as that which is Open..” (6:73) “With Him are the keys of the Unseen.
” (7:188). I should have secured abundance for myself. and no evil would have touched me. 49 . The Holy Qur‟an also asserts that not even Muhammad knows the unseen: “If I had the knowledge of the unseen.
” 50 . The Prophet (s.a. in fact.w) said: “Whoever goes to a fortune teller (a soothe sayer) or a diviner and believes him. has. disbelieved in what has been revealed to Muhammad.
and turn dreams into concrete plans. If you work patiently towards your goals.…. you can achieve the longterm success you are looking for.Cont. Example: Horoscope Capricorn: (Dec 23 .Jan 20) Today‟s stars encourage you to be more diplomatic and inclusive in your relations with others Aquarius: (Jan 21 – Feb 19) On the Zodiac‟s Day of Metamorphosis.. 51 . you need to transform ideals into reality.
Imam Ibn Taymiyah said: “Astrology that is concerned with studying the positions and aspects of celestial bodies in the belief that they have an influence on the course of natural earthly occurrences and human affairs is prohibited by Almighty Allah‟s Book. Astrology: It is the study of the positions and aspects of celestial bodies. For example.. Muslims scholars agree that astrology is a prohibited field to deal with. the Sunnah. 52 .…Cont. and the unanimous agreement of the Muslim scholars.
It is forbidden because it is based on illusions. said: “Astrology is a kind of sorcery and fortune-telling. There is no relation between the movements of celestial bodies and what takes place on the Earth. not on concrete facts. Ibn `Uthaymeen.” 53 .
During the Prophet‟s lifetime. it happened that the sun eclipsed on the same day when the Prophet‟s son Ibrahim died.” 54 . On knowing this. the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) led them in the Eclipse Prayer and then delivered them a speech saying: “The sun and moon are but signs of Allah. they do not eclipse because so-and-so died or was born. The people then thought that it had eclipsed because of the Prophet‟s son‟s death.
a.w) denied all relation between the movements of the heavenly bodies and events on the Earth. The above hadith indicates that the Prophet (s. 55 .
w) said: “He who has acquired some knowledge of astrology has acquired some knowledge of sorcery. Ibn „Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) reported that Allah‟s Messenger (s. Abu Dawud.” (Reported by Ahmad. and Ibn Majah) 56 . the more he acquires of the former the more he acquires of the latter.a.
al- Shawkani said that the Prophet (s. 57 . Commenting on the above hadith.w) compared between astrology and sorcery because sorcery was known to be forbidden. and so.a. he who would get some knowledge of astrology would do something forbidden and would be sinful.
The astrologists‟ usage of computers to convince people that what they do is technological and scientific is nothing but deceit. 58 . astrology is based on lies and deceit. There is no scientific proof that there is a relationship between the appearance of a star in a specific time and the character and behavior of someone born at that time. To sum up. it has no scientific basis.
Humanities.Conclusion Sciences are inter-related. 59 . Religious scholars are in need of philosophical and natural sciences as much as scientists are in need of the religious sciences. and none of them can exclude the others. and the religious sciences unite to produce true understanding of this world and the causes behind its existence. natural sciences.
60 . Natural and philosophical sciences are to enable the Muslim to explore. And to set the moral and legal guidelines that should be observed by human beings for a meaningful and better life. Religious sciences are to guide people to understand the reality of this life. their origins and their mission. exploit and get a better insight into what Allah has created in this universe.
Week Three Sources and Means of Knowledge .
Five Senses ()الحواس الخمسة 5. Nature/ physical world ))الطبعية 4. Reason ()العقل 3.1. Intuition ()اإلليام 62 . Revelation ()الوحي: القرآن والسنة 2.
The Qur‟an as a Source of Knowledge An introduction to the the Qur‟an Definition Qur‟an is the Book revealed from Allah to His Messenger Muhammad (saw) as written in masahif and transmitted to us from him through an authentic continuous narration 63 .
Qur‟an is the pure speech of Allah (alNisa‟:42) .Nothing is neglected (al-Nahl:89) 64 .As guidance and mercy .Definition analysis: .It is an exposition of all things (tibyan li kulli shay‟( .Only the Allah‟s speech revealed to Muhammad .
The Qur‟an is the Arabic words as well as their meanings (translation is not a Qur‟an) Transmitted to us by way of جىاجر [tawatur] (continuous narration by a large number of people in each part of the chain of narration) 65 .
It was revealed to him in stages and sometimes in accordance with incidents faced by Muslim community.Revelation & Recording of the Qur‟an a) Revelation of the Qur‟an The Qur‟an was transmitted directly from Allah (swt) to the Messenger of Allah through Gibril (not a mere inspiration) The Qur‟an was not revealed to the Messenger of Allah all at once. 66 .
The wisdom behind revealing it by stages 1. To allow people to memorize. understand and implement it gradually. َّ َ ٍ ْ ُ ”وقُ ْءانا فرقناهُ ِلتَق َأَهُ عمَى الناس عمَى مكث ونزْلناه َ ْ َ َ ً ََ ر َ ِ َّ َ ْر َُ َ ِ (106 :تَْنزيًل“ (اإلس اء ر It is a Qur‟an which we have divided into parts from time to time in order that you might recite it to men at intervals… (17: 106) 67 .
To strengthen the heart of the Messenger of Allah (saw).2. give him courage and moral support to overcome the difficulties and challenges he was facing. Allah said: ”وقَال الَّذين كفَروا لَ ْال نزل عمَيو اْلقُ ْءان جممَةً واحدةً كذلك لنثَبت َ ِّ ُ ِ َ ِ َ َ َ ِ َ ْ ُ ُ ََ َ ِ َ َ ُ و ُ ِّ َ َ ْ ِ ر )32 :بِو فُؤادك ورتَّْمناهُ تَرتِيًل“ (الفرقان ً ْ َ ََ َ َ َ ِ 68 .
(25: 32) 69 . gradually. well-arranged stages. and We have rehearsed it to you in slow. Those who reject faith say: "Why is not the Qur‟an revealed to him all at once? It is revealed in stages so that We may strengthen your heart thereby.
Live interaction between the divine text and the socio-political reality and daily practice of the people. respond to the challenges put by disbelievers. etc. Some verses came to deal with: some situations faced by the Messenger of Allah. solve problems faced by Muslim community. 70 .3. correct the mistakes committed by the Muslim community.
cases. The period of revelation lasted for around 23 years. and questions are called occasions for revelation ) (أسباب النزولand they help those who came later in a better understanding and implementation of those verses. 71 . Those incidents.
The Recording of the Qur‟an The Messenger of Allah used to memorize the verses revealed to him then recite them for his companions who used to memorize them There were scribes who used to record the verses after their revelation 72 .
The original copies of the written records were preserved in the house of the Messenger of Allah. 73 . While some other scribes would record the verses for themselves and preserve them for their own use.
During each month of Ramadan Jibril used to recite what was revealed in its order with the Messenger of Allah. The order of the verses within each surah as well as the order of the surahs was directed by Jibril. The suggestion came after the battle of Yamamah. During the time of Abu Bakr the Qur‟an was compiled in a single official copy. 74 .
75 . Qur‟an as the last revealed Book and a universal message for all mankind needs to be comprehensive and eternally preserved.The Qur‟an and the other Revealed Books Universality: The previous Books were local for specific people.
To you we sent the Scripture in truth. confirming the scripture that came before it. and a watcher over it. So. judge between them by what Allah has revealed…” ِ ِ َ ِ ِ ْ َ َ َ ْ َ ِ ِّ َ ِّ َ َ ِ َ ْ ِ َ َ ْ ”وأَنزْلنا إلَيك اْلكتَاب بِاْلحق مصدقًا لما بين يديو من اْلكتَاب َ ُ َ ِ ْ ًِ ْ َّومييمنا عمَيو فَاحكم بينيم بِما أَنزل الم )48 :ْ ُ ْ َ ْ َ ُ ْ َ ْ َ َ وُ“ (المائدة َ ََُ 76 .
. The way of preservation The people of each Book were entrusted with guarding it against any distortion or manipulation ِِ ِ َّ ُّ ”إنا أَنزْلنا التَّوَاةَ فييَا ىدى ونور يحكم بِيَا النبِيون الَّذين أَسمَموا لمَّذين َِّ ْ َ َ ْ ر ِ ُ ً َ ُ ٌ َ ْ ُ َ َ َ ْ ُ ُ ىادوا والربانِيون واْلَحبار بِما استُحفظُوا من كتَاب المَّو وكانوا عمَي ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِْ َ َ ُ َ ْو ْ َ ُ َ َّ َّ ُّ َ َ ْ ْ َ ُ َ ْ شيَداء.2.“ (المائدة: 44) ُ َ َ 77 ..
by the rabbis and the priests. and they were witnesses thereto…” )5: 44) 78 . for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah's Book. by the prophets who bowed to Allah's will. By its standard have been judged the Jews. therein was guidance and light.“It was We who revealed the Torah.
ِ َّ َ َ ْ ِّ َ َّ َ ُ ْ َ َِّ )9 :”إنا نحن نزْلنا الذكر وِانا لَوُ لَحافظُون ”(الحجر َ َ We have. Since Muhammad (saw) was the last Messenger. without doubt. 79 . Allah (swt) assumed the responsibility of guarding and preserving His last Book. sent down the Message. and We will assuredly guard it against any manipulation or change. If they fail to do so. Allah sends another prophet to take people back to the right way.
same words).Preservation of the Qur‟an The way Qur‟an was preserved: The Qur‟an was made public from the very beginning. The Qur‟an was preserved in the original form (same language. 80 . The assurance from God that the Qur‟an will be preserved till the Day of Judgment. The Qur‟an was fully recorded from the time it was revealed.
،”وانو لكتاب عزيز، ال يأتيو الباطل من بين يديو ال من خمفو و )42-41 :تنزيل من حكيم حميد“ (فصمت And indeed it is a Book of exalted power. (It is) a revelation from the Wise. 81 . Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or from behind it. the Owner of Praise.
82 . No one can alter or change any part of the Qur‟an. we should certainly seize him by his right hand. And if the Messenger were to invent any sayings in our name. ِ ِ ِ ِّ َ ْ ِ ٌ ِ ْ ”تَنزيل من رب اْلعالَمين (34) ولَو تَقَول عمَينا بعض اْلَقَاويل َ َّ ْ َ َ ْ َ َ ِْ َ َِ َ ِ ِ َ ْ َْ َ )46( (44) ْلَخذنا منوُ بِاْليمين (54) ثُم لَقَطعنا منوُ اْلوتِين َ َ ْ َ ْ َ َّ ِ ِ َ َْ ٍ َ ْ ِ ُْ ِْ َ . not even the Messenger of Allah himself.)47 :فَما منكم من أَحد عنوُ حاجزين“ (الحاقة َ This is a Message sent down from the Lord of the worlds. and we should certainly then cut off the artery of his heart: Nor could any of you protect him from that.
83 . without doubt.The Characteristics of the Qur‟an 1. sure. in it is guidance.Guidance for and mercy to believers ِ ِ )2 :”ذلك اْلكتَاب ال ريب فيو ىدى لْممتَّقين“ (البق ة ر ً ُ ِ ِ َ ْ َ ُ ِ َ َِ َ ُ This is the book. to those who fear Allah.
based on knowledge. a guide and a mercy to all who believe. 84 . which We explained in detail.“”ولَقَد جئناىم بِكتَاب فَصْمناهُ عمَى عْمٍم ىدى ورحمةً لقَوٍم يؤمنون ُ ِ ْ ُ ْ ِ َ ْ َ َ ً ُ ِ َ َ َّ ٍ ِ ْ ُ َ ْ ِ ْ َ َ )52 :(اْلع اف ر For We had certainly sent unto them a Book.
2. a Guidance and a Mercy. 85 . Spiritual/ social healer ِ ُ َ ُّ َّ ُ ْ َ َ ُ ْ َ ْ ِ َة ِ ْ َ ِّ ُ ْ َ ِ ٌ ِ َ ِ الص ”ياأَييَا الناس قَد جاءتْكم موعظ ٌ من ربكم وشفَاء لما في ُّدور ِ )57 :وىدى ورحم ٌ لْممؤمنِين“ (يونس َ ِ ْ ُ َ ُ ً َ َ ْ َة O mankind! there has come to you a direction from your Lord and a healing for the (diseases) in your hearts. and for those who believe.
honour him. it is they who will prosper. 86 . help him.3. and follow the Light which is sent down with him.Light ”فَالَّذين ءامنوا بِو وعزروهُ ونصروهُ واتَّبعوا النور الَّذي أُنزل َ ِ ْ ِ َ ُّ ُ َ َ ُ َ َ َ ُ َّ َ َ ِ ُ َ َ َ ِ ِْ )157 :معوُ أُولَئِك ىم اْلمفمحون“ (اْلع اف ر َ ُ ُ ُُ َ ََ So it is those who believe in him (the Messenger).
87 . and in the Light which We have sent down. in Allah and His Messenger. therefore."“فَآمنوا بِالمَّو ورسولو والنور الَّذي أَنزْلنا „والمَّوُ بِما تَعممُون خبِير َ َ ْ ِ ِ ُّ َ ِ ِ ُ َ َ ِ ُِ ٌ َ َ َْ َ َ )8 :(التغابن Believe. And Allah is well acquainted with all that you do.
4. a guidance and instruction to those who fear Allah! 88 .Preacher for believers ِ ِ ِ )138 :”ىذا بيان لمناس وىدى وموعظ ٌ لْممتَّقين“ (آل عم ان ر َ ُ َ َ َ َ ٌ َّ ِ َ ُ ً َ َ ْ ِ َة Here is a plain statement to men.
5. a Book that makes things clear. Sin. ٍ ُ ٍ ِ َ ِ ََ َ َ ُ ر )1 :“طس تِْمك ءايات اْلقُ ْءان وكتَاب مبِين“ (النمل 89 . These are verses of the Qur‟an.Revealing reality and clarifying doubts Ta.
revealing to you much that you used to hide in the Book.”يا أَىل اْلكتَاب قَد جاءكم رسولُنا يبين لَكم كثِير مما كنتُم تُخفُون ْ ْ ْ ُ َّ ِ َ ْ َ ِ ِ ْ َ َ ُ ْ َ ُ َ َُ ِّ ُ ُ ْ َ ًا َ “من اْلكتَاب ويعفُو عن كثِير قَد جاءكم من المَّو نور وكتَاب مبِين ٌ ُ ٌ ِ َ ٌ ُ ِ َ ِ ُْ َ َ ْ ٍ َ ْ َ ْ ََ ِ ِ َ ِ )15 :(المائدة O People of the Book! there has come to you Our Messenger. 90 . and passing over much (that is now unnecessary): There has come to you from Allah a (new) light and a perspicuous Book.
The miracles contained in it are the proof of its authenticity as the real Book of Allah 91 .Miraculous The Qur‟an is the main miracle of the Messenger of Allah and the main proof of the authenticity of his prophethood.6.
92 . and scientific facts. Its miracle is in terms of: i. Structure ii. Meaning (the knowledge contained in it: historical events. prediction of what will happen in the future.
93 . if they are truthful.Challenging the Unbelievers The miracle is manifested in a challenge to all mankind to produce: a.صادقين (43)“ الطور َ َ Or they say: He has invented it? Nay. but they do not believe! Then let them produce a speech like it. Another book similar to it: َْ َ ”أَم يقُولُون تَقَولَوُ َبل ال يؤمنون (33) فْميأتُوا بِحديث مثمو إن كانوا َّ َ َ ْ َ ْ ِ ِ ِْ ِ ٍ ِ َ ُ َ ُِ ُْ ِِ .
and call on everyone you can beside Allah. if you are truthful! 94 .b. the like thereof.)استَطعتُم من دون المَّو إن كنتُم صادقين (31) ”(ىود ُ ِْ ِ ِ ُ ْ ِ ْ َْ ْ َ َ ْ Or they say: He has invented it! Say: Then bring ten surahs. Ten chapters similar to those of the Qur‟an ٍ ِِ ِ ”أَم يقُولُون افتََاهُ قل فَأتُوا بِعشر سور مثمو مفتَريات وادعوا من ْ َ ُ ْ َ ََ ْ ُ ْ ٍ َُ ِ ْ َ ْ ْ ُ ْ َ َ ْ ر ِِ . invented.
95 . and call your gods and supporters beside Allah if you are truthful.وادعوا شيَداءكم من دون المَّو إن كنتُم صادقين (32)“ البق ة ر ْ ْ َ َُْ َ َ ْ ُ ِْ And if you are in doubt concerning that which We reveal to our Messenger (Muhammad). then produce a surah like one thereof.c. One surah similar to those of the Qur‟an ِ ِْ ِ ِ ٍ ْ َ ِ ْ َ َ َ َّ َ َّ ِ ٍ ْ َ ِ ْ ُ ْ َ ”وِان كنتُم في ريب مما نزْلنا عمَى عبدنا فَأتُوا بِس َة من مثمو ْ ُ ور ِِ ِ ِ ُ ِ ُ َ ُ .
Types of Knowledge in the Qur‟an The Universal Book Islam is the last and universal religion. The Qur‟an should: Meet the needs of all human beings in different places and different times. 96 . Human societies are always open for evolution and development.
and safeguard it against any corruption or deviation from such a way. 97 . it should: Give clear and detailed discourse on what is important for human life and can‟t be known through human reasoning only (beliefs and „ibadat) Set the core values and principles which guide human life to the right way. Be flexible to accommodate the evolution and development of human life and societies.To be able to do so.
Regarding human life‟s aspects which are subject to change and development. These values and norms should not be subject to any alteration or change to ensure the prevalence of righteousness and justice (immutable values and norms). the Qur‟an . generally. sets norms. standards and universal values which suit all peoples and all times. 98 .
99 . In light of these norms. procedures. people are given freedom to innovate and adopt whatever systems. etc they may consider as good for them as long as they don‟t breach those norms and values.
100 . his first acquisition of the basic knowledge. the substance and the way of his first creation.Physical and Natural Sciences The Qur‟an deals with those things which are needed to be known and may not be realized by man or may not be understood accurately (man would speculate about them only) Such as: .The origin of mankind.
Physics.astronomy .Geology.Embryology The Qur‟an just gives some references for the following purposes: 101 . ..The origin of the earth and the heavens In other fields such as: . .
The existence of God . They are signs to prove: .The omnipotence and power of God .The weakness of men compared to the power of the Creator 102 .The aims of scientific references in the Qur‟an It is not to give people details and teach them natural and physical sciences.
103 . especially at the time of Muhammad ( .The authenticity of Prophets and revealed Books i.Indebtedness of mankind to Allah for all what we have in life.e.)صمى اهلل عميو وسممto compose it. .. this Qur‟an comes from Allah and it is impossible for a human being.Cont. .
they . ر 401 . For the Muslim who reads and understands these references.serve to strengthen his or her faith ِ ِ ِ ”الَّذين يذكرون المَّوَ قياما وقُعودا وعمَى جنوبِيم ويتَفَكرون في َ ً َ ُ ً َ َ ُ ُ ِ ْ َ َ َّ ُ َ َ َ ْ ُُ َ خْمق َّموات واْلَرض ربنا ما خمَقت ىذا باطًلً سبحانك فَقنا َ ِ الس َ َ ِ َ ْ ِ َ َّ َ َ َ ْ َ َ َ َ ِ ُ ْ َ َ َ ِ َ َ َ َ َّ ِ عذاب النار“(آل اْلعم ان:191).
Those who remember and praise Allah. (with the thought): "Our Lord! not for naught have you created all this! Glory to you! Give us salvation from the Penalty of the Fire. and contemplate the wonders of creation in the heavens and the earth. sitting. (3: 191) 105 . standing. and lying down on their sides.
For the non-Muslim who questions the authenticity or authorship of the Qur‟an . ِ َِ َّ ْ َ َّ َ َ َ ْ ِ ِ ْ ِ َ ِ ُ”سنرييم ءاياتنا في اآلفَاق وفي أَنفُسيم حتَّى يتَبين لَيُم أَنو َ َ ْ ِ َُِ :اْلحق أَولَم يكف بِربك أَنوُ عمَى كل شيء شييد“ (فصمت ٌ ِ َ ٍ ْ َ ِّ ُ َ َّ َ ِّ َ ِ ْ َ ْ َ ُّ َ )53 106 . these references provide some interesting answers.
Is it not enough that your Lord does witness all things? [41:53] 107 .Soon will We show them Our Signs in the (farthest) horizons. until it becomes manifest to them that it is the Truth. and within themselves.
108 .How should we deal with these scientific facts? They should be used for the aforesaid things. They can be used to have a better understanding of those verses dealing with natural phenomena compared to the way they were understood by early Muslims.
Such an act may lead to misinterpreting the texts of the Qur‟an and changing the interpretation from time to time. We should not over-emphasize the scientific miracles to the extent that we hurry to relate each new scientific theory to the verses of the Qur‟an . 109 . This may be counterproductive and cause some confusion especially among non-Muslims.
the Creator and Lord of this universe. human and social sciences Belief: (Revelation is the only source) The Concept of God The existence of God.b) Religious. etc. The concept of tawhid (Unity of God) Since the concept of God was not new to mankind. 110 . the Qur‟an focuses on correcting the prevalent concepts of God and demonstrating the Unity of God. His omnipotence and knowledge.
Torah /Musa. character.The Concept of Prophethood God used to send a prophet to every people A brief history of prophets (some names mentioned) Revelation Some revealed books: Suhuf / Ibrahim. Zabur/ Dawud. position and relation with God (not his sons or daughters) 111 . Injil/ Gospel/ Esa Angels Their nature.
The Qur‟an sets the basics of „ibadat and the Prophet gives details 112 . Jannah. what will happen on that day. Jahannam No specific date is given for its happening ‘Ibadat (worship) Revelation the only source.Day of Judgment Its existence.
benevolence. inviting/encouraging people to do good. trust (amanah). patience. tolerance and forgiveness. kindness. generosity. and preventing/ discouraging them from doing bad (munkar) 113 . justice. forbearance. truthfulness. honesty. sincerity. brotherhood.Morality Revelation the main source The Qur‟an sets universal ethical norms and values Obedience and submission to God.
between husbands and wives .marriage.between parents and children . divorce. inheritance Relations with relatives 114 .Human and social relations Revelation is the main source The Qur‟an deals with the main principles of these relations: Relationship among family members .
drinks. clothes 115 . Relations with neighbours Social relations and interaction Relations between genders Etiquettes and manners Relations with non-Muslims Relations with animals Halal & haram: (Revelation is the only source) Food.
Law: .Commercial law .Family law .Criminal law .International law 116 .Procedural law .
) 117 . uncertain contracts. etc.Economic system (Revelation provides guidance to attain and maintain justice) Islam sets some norms and principles along with some restrictions to ensure the observance of those norms and principles (prohibition of riba.
Zakat is imposed to secure the minimum economic and social justice. Social welfare (59: 7) 118 . Rich people are exhorted to spend and promised to be rewarded for that.
Political system The Qur‟an sets norms and principles The establishment of a government/ central authority and the duties of subjects to obey its commands 119 .
120 . The format of )(شورىand government are left to the choice of people and are open for development. The governance should be based on consultation ()شورىand the right of people to select their leaders.
(23: 12).The Qur‟an states that the first man )Adam( was created by God from dust/ clay (15: 26). (32: 7). (7: 189).History and Civilization The origin of this universe The Qur‟an states that this universe was created by Allah. (17: 61). 38: 71-72) . (39: 6) 121 . (32: 9).Eve was created for Adam (4: 1). and gives short description of that creation The origin of mankind . (15: 28-29).
mistakenly.When Adam and his wife. disobeyed the commands of God. 122 . they were sent down from Jannah (Paradise) to the earth where they and their children settled..Adam was taught the basic knowledge by God (2: 30-33) .
123 . History of Messengers of Allah .The Qur‟an does not focus on the details of that history. .The Qur‟an gives a brief account of the history of the most significant Messengers. instead it focuses on the lessons that should be learned from those events.
.The Qur‟an wants Muslims to learn from human experience. . . 124 .The Qur‟an pays enough attention to civilizational studies by examining the patterns of rise and fall of civilizations.The aim of this is to guide Muslims how to build their civilization and guard it against social diseases that may lead to its fall and collapse.
Those texts which are clear and selfexplanatory should be implemented without any further examination.How should we deal with the Qur‟an ? Qur‟an is an authoritative text that should be followed and implemented by all Muslims. Those texts which are open for interpretation and may impart more than one meaning can be examined and construed based on the following principles: 125 .
126 . Grouping of similar texts/ statements which talk on one topic/category Analysis and understanding of each text/ statement in its components and context Identification of the rules which unify the various categories Identification of the general rules and purposes which govern the interaction/ interrelation of various categories.
The Sunnah as a Source of Knowledge 127 .
128 . an established course of conduct. In all these instances. sunnah has been used to imply an established practice or course of conduct.Literal Meaning: Sunnah ) )سنةmeans a clear path. a precedent and custom. the pattern of life. The word sunnah and its plural sunan have been used in the Qur‟an sixteen times.
It may be a good example or a bad one. a sect or a .community ”من سن سنة حسنة فمو ىا وأجر من عمل بيا إلى يوم القيامة أجر ومن سن سنة سيئة فمو ىا ووزر من عمل بيا إلى يوم وزر القيامة“ 921 . and it may be set by an individual.
“Whosoever originates in Islam any good way/ precedent (good sunnah) has its reward and the reward of whoever acts upon it till the Day of Judgment. And whosoever originates in Islam a bad way/ precedent (bad sunnah) bears its burden and the burden of whoever acts upon it till the Day of Judgment” 130 .
which is characterized by lack of precedent and continuity with the past. 131 . Technical meaning: a. The opposite of sunnah is bid`ah (innovation). The acts. sayings and approvals of the Messenger of Allah.
Kinds of Sunnah with respect to the channels of the ahkam 1. This comprises the largest part of the sunnah. acts and approval of the Prophet (saw) through which he intended the laying down of the law or the explanation of the ahkam (law) laid down by the Qur‟an . 132 . Sunnah which is intended to be a binding law: This kind includes the sayings.
One example is the number of his marriages. not eating out of charity (.Sunnah which is specific to the Prophet( صمى )اهلل عميو وسمم This kind includes those acts which are specific to the Prophet (.)صمى اهلل عميو وسمم The number of these acts is very limited.)صدقة 133 .2. marriage without dowry.
3. walking. Such acts are not meant to lay down laws. Ordinary physical acts performed by every human being Like eating. But the etiquettes and manners prescribed by the Messenger of Allah for the performance of such acts are part of that which is meant to be a binding law. If one imitates the Prophet (saw) in these acts out of love for him and with the intention to get reward. drinking. 134 . he will be rewarded for this.
135 . However. tactics of war. trading skills. These acts don‟t become precedents of law.4. like the organizing of the army. Acts based on human experience This may include acts that pertain to his experience as a human being. because their basis is skill and experience rather than revelation. if they are still relevant to one‟s situation they might be followed.
Status of the Sunnah with respect to the Qur‟an The Sunnah is the second source just next to the Qur‟an which is the first source. There will be no Islam without the adoption of the sunnah. 136 .
137 . in an undetermined or unelaborated form. Some ahkam are found in the Qur‟an in general. qualifies. The Sunnah is basically an elaboration and commentary on the Qur‟an . or elaborates these ahkam. The Sunnah restricts.
abstain from it” (al-Hashr:7) 138 . And whatsoever he forbids. a tangible form and the actual embodiment of the Qur‟an The Sunnah may lay down some rules that are not mentioned in the Qur‟an Qur‟an says: “And whatsoever the messenger brought to you. The Sunnah is a concrete implementation. follow it.
and transactions: .The Sunnah may add some prohibitions which are not included in the Qur‟an . 139 . drinks. .The knowledge we get from The Sunnah Worship ()عبادة The rulings and teachings related to عبادة Halal and haram: In food.the Sunnah interprets what needs to be interpreted in the Qur‟an . clothes.
commercial. international ) Manner of conduct: The biography of the Prophet (saw) is the model of individual moral conduct. and who often remember Allah” (al-Ahzab:21) 140 . Law (family. criminal. “A noble model you have in Allah‟s Apostle. procedural. and in the final Day. for all whose hope is in Allah.
141 . The model in implementing and embodying the teachings and principles of the Qur‟an The model in the relationship between humans and Allah )„ibadah( The model in establishing a family and treating well the wives as well as the children.
patience. 142 . and perseverance etc. Leadership: He was a model leader from whom we learn the requirements of a successful leader. A model in dealing with people. A model in hard-working.
Da‘wah: How he started from nothing and ended with hundreds of thousands of followers after two decades only. 143 .
Nation building and social reformation: How he established a nation and changed an almost primitive society dominated by tribalism and rivalries among different tribes and social classes to a civilized and strong state characterized by unity. cooperation. and brotherhood. 144 .
black people. 145 . poor people. slaves. etc. Eliminating idolatry and establishing Tawhid Eliminating bad social values in dealing with the weak social classes: women.
Reason ()العقل as a Sources of Knowledge 146 .
The power of being able to think in a logical and rational manner. Ability to think clearly and coherently 3.Reason as a Source of Knowledge The term “reason” is used in different senses and meanings: 1. as distinct from experience or emotions. The ability or process of drawing logical inferences. 2. 147 .
feeling. desire (the existence of which is denied by empiricists) 148 .Meanings/ Functions of Reason: 1. regardless of their cultural background.These fundamental truths are intuitively apprehended . Reason is sometimes used to denote a number of self-evident principles (such as the principle of non-contradiction) which govern the process of thinking of mentally competent people. . perception.as opposed to sensation.
Or contradictory. and thus in violation of reason Reason which gives a priori knowledge (pure reason) 149 .Either coherent. and hence in conformity with the principles of reason. reason is an instrument used for examining the coherence and rationality of a body of statements. . The examination allows us to conclude that the examined statements are: . In this sense.
The capacity of rational beings to acknowledge the truth of certain assertions and deny the truth of others with the power to abstract. Reason is to be associated with methods and mechanisms used in science and knowledge. analyze.2. rather than a source of knowledge. generally. = Reason as a mental faculty. 150 . synthesize A body of knowledge which has been examined and systemized by the principle of logic and considered by certain people as reasonable.
„right‟ and „wrong‟ Reason is the basis of Iman/ faith. it is given the authority to examine the authenticity of prophets and the revelation they claim to bring from God. 151 .Reason vs. Reason is the basis of taklif (legal capacity) because it is the power of discernment by which humans can distinguish between „good‟ and „bad‟. thus. Revelation The faculty of reasoning is one of the most precious gifts of Allah to mankind.
and . and to examine the claimed revelation This shows that: . The Qur‟an is full of references which command and exhort people to think.Islam is confident that there will be no contradiction between what is contained in the revelation and what can be reasoned by human reason 152 .Islam values reason. contemplate.
Verily Allah is well aware of all that they do. But most of them follow nothing but conjecture and speculation: truly conjecture and speculation can never challenge or replace truth. such as when they deny some beliefs or they misunderstand them. (10:36) 153 ”وما يتَّبعُ أَكثَُهم إِالَّ ظنا إِن َّن ال يغني من الحق شيئا إِن المَّه َ َّ ً ْ َ ِّ َ ْ َ ِ ِ ْ ُ َّ َ ًّ َّ الظ ْ َُِ َ َ ِ ْ ر )36 :عميم بما يفعمُون“ (يونس َ َْ َ َ ِ ٌ َ . What is claimed by unbelievers to be irrational or unreasonable is either: = Mere speculation and ignorance.
Say: "Produce your proof if you are truthful." Those are their vain desires.= Or mere wishes and deluded hopes (hawa) And they say: "None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian." (2: 111) ”وقَالُوا لَن يدخل اْلجنةَ إال من كان ىودا أَو نص َى تِْمك َ ْ َ ْ ُ َ َ َّ ِ َّ َ ْ َ َ ُ ً ْ َ َ ار َ ِِ )111 :أَمانِييُم قل ىاتُوا ب ْىانكم إن كنتُم صادقين“ (البق ة ر َ ْ ْ ُ ْ ِ ْ ُ َ ََ ُّ ْ ُ ْ َ ُر 154 .
ِ ْ َ ِ ٍ َ ِ َ َ َ َ َ َ َّ ”ثُم جعْمناك عمَى شريعة من اْلَمر فَاتَّبِعيَا َال تَتَّبِع أَىواء ْ و ْ ْ َ َ ِ )18 :الَّذين ال يعمَمون“ (الجاثية َ ُ َْ َ “ Then We put you on the right way of religion. so follow that way. Interestingly. those who claim to reject religion/ revelation based on logic and rationality are characterized by the Qur‟an as those who fail to use their mental faculties/ reason properly.” )45: 18) 155 . and do not follow the desires of those who do not know.
to things that listen to nothing but calls and cries: deaf. they are void of wisdom.ِْ ِ ِ َ ِ َْ ”ومثَل الَّذين كفَروا كمثَل الَّذي ينعق بِما ال يسمعُ إالَّ دعاء َ َ ِ ُ ََ ً َُ َ َ ُ َ َ ُ )171 :ونِداء صم بكم عمي فَيُم ال يعقمُون“ (البق ة ر َ ِ ْ َ ْ ٌ ْ ُ ٌ ْ ُ ٌّ ُ ً َ َ The parable of those who reject Faith is as if one were to shout like a goat-herd. (2: 171) 156 . and blind. dumb.
Hawwas (senses) as Means to Knowledge 157 .
Senses as sources of Knowledge: The Qur‟an urges us to use the faculties of senses. 158 . The faculties of senses will bear witness for or against one on the Day of Judgment. It blames the Kuffar for not using their senses properly.
5. touch 159 . 3. Hearing 2.Sound Senses (Hawwas al-Salimah) 1. 4. Sight. taste. Smell.
18] 160 . which has assumed the quality of the sounds. meaning that Allah then creates perception in the soul (al-nafs) [E.Elder.Hearing (al-sam’) It is a faculty (quwa) placed in the nerves spread out in the cavity of the ear hole. by which sounds are perceived. It is by way of connecting with the ear hole the air.
and other things. motions. measures. colours. the beautiful and the ugly. shapes. by this faculty are perceived rays of light. 161 . the perception of which Allah creates in the soul whenever the creature uses this faculty. thence they separate and go to the two eyes.Seeing (al-basar) It is a faculty placed in the two hollow nerves which meet each other in the brain.
162 . by this faculty odors are perceived by way of connecting with the cartilage of the nose the air which has assumed the quality of the odors.Smelling (al-shamm) It is a faculty placed in the two protruding lumps on the front of the brain. which are like the two nipples of the breast.
and through its reaching to the nerves. 163 . by this faculty flavors are perceived through the mixing of the saliva which is in the mouth with the thing tasted.Taste (al-zawq) It is a faculty spread out in the nerves situated on the organ of the tongue.
moisture and dryness. and the like are perceived at the time of touching and contact. 164 .Touch (al-lams) It is a faculty spread out into all the body by which heat and cold.
esp.The theoretical analysis of the methods appropriate to a field of study or to the body of methods and principles particular to a branch of knowledge. implies an orderly logical arrangement. 165 . a systematic one. Methodology: 1.Methodology Definition: Method: A particular way of doing something.
Methodology in revealed knowledge ii. Kinds of Methodologies i. Methodology in human knowledge (pure and social sciences) iii. Integrative methodology of revealed knowledge and human knowledge. 166 .
• It is the field of inquiry concerned with the examination of methods used in the study of natural sciences.What is Islamic Methodology? • Methodology means a technique or method. human and social sciences and religious sciences in order to understand the subjects. 167 . • A comprehensive Islamic methodology means to Islamize and integrate knowledge on the basis of the combination between the revelation and reason in order to overhaul the obstacles and challenges facing a modern man and the society.
Methodologies used by the early Muslim scholars Slide Number? Collection of Data Verifications Ijtihad (wahy. `aql and Hawas) Istihsan (Juristic Preference) Islamic Methodologies Reliable Narrators Masalih Mursalah (public interest) `Urf (a particular Custom) Chain of Transformation Consultation & Consensus 168 .
Chain of transformation. Considering the reliable narrators with specific criteria. Compilation of the Qur‟an and Sunnah.Islamic Methodology 1. 4. 169 . 3. 2. no gap between two generations and not less than 40 forty narrators. 6. Memorizations of the Qur‟an and Sunnah. 5. Collection of data of the Qur‟an and Sunnah Verified techniques used by the narrators in order to ensure the authenticity of narrations.
explanation. interpretation and adjustment with the local culture and custom) 9. Istihsan (juristic preference). supplementary methods in order to make up for the growing number of new situations that were difficult with the textual and the analogical arguments.Islamic Methodology 7. Ijtihad (rational arguments. Consultation among the scholars and consensus based on majority opinions. 8. 170 .
Islamic Methodology 10. supplementary methods. 11. supporting for adjustment from avoiding the contradictions and social division and disunity for the public interest. 171 . `Urf (custom of a particular society or a nation). if the texts of the Qur‟an and Hadith or consensus or analogy were not available. Maslahah or Masalih Mursalah (public interest).
commitment. piety. many of whom looked for their rewards in the Hereafter. and dedication of the early Muslim researchers. enthusiasm. Merits of the Traditional Approach Merits of the traditional approach were the sincerity. 172 .
The God-consciousness of the traditional scholars was reflected in their writings and research. seek His blessings and conclude by dedicating their results to Him. Islamic research. 173 . which they would commence with bismillah (in the name of Allah). experimentation and empirical investigation were considered acts of „ibadah.
174 . The holistic nature of the traditional Islamic educational system made no distinction between revealed knowledge and empirically derived knowledge.
Knowledge was perceived as a comprehensive whole. with empirically derived knowledge subject to the verification of revealed knowledge. 175 .
Anything which does not correspond with the reality must be rejected. 2. Ultimate contradictions must be denied and rejected. Approaches must be open in order to adjust and accommodate new situations facing the society and man. 176 .Tawhidic Criteria for Islamic Methodology Three main tawhidic criteria for Islamic methodology are as follows: 1. 3.
Merits of Islamic Methodology Summarized 177 .
Purpose and Application of the Texts Pure Intention For humanity As Ibadah Commitment to People and society Merit of Islamic Methodologies Mastery of Arabic Language Reflection Of Allah Awareness Combination of Wahy & Aql Identifying the Short-comings Of Empirical Knowledge. s Allah’s pleasure Knowing context. Self-Initiative (Establishing Institutions) 178 .
Depended on Traditional method Verification of Validities. shortcoming Depended on Western Method Integrating Between Wahy and Aql Creativity and Initiative ness Traditional Methods as Inspiration Obstacles And Recommendations for Muslim Scholars Absence of Islamic Curriculum Bilingual Competency MisPropagation And Misconception Regaining Sincerity and Pure intention For humanity Unavailability Financial and Technical support 179 .
Methodology in Human Knowledge (pure and social sciences) 180 .
Science From Latin word scientia means systematic knowledge of the physical or material world 181 .
Knowledge of Science Is acquired through experience. observation and research Discursive: preceded by arguments Inductive and deductive 182 .
183 . Deductive method (istinbat)()استنباط The researcher begins with a theory and then derives one or more hypotheses from it for testing.Two scientific methods/ logical systems : induction & deduction 1.
Next. The researcher implements those observations to see whether they confirm or fail to confirms the hypotheses. 184 . the researcher defines the variables in each hypothesis and the operations to be used to measure them in specific observable terms.
Inductive method (istiqra‟)()استق اء ر A method of discovering general rules and principles from particular facts and examples. In induction one starts from observed data and develops a generalization which explains the relationships between the objects observed. 185 .2.
we should strive to keep an open mind about everything we thing we know or we want to understand. What we call “knowledge” is transitional and subject to refutation!! • Is this possible? • Can this characteristic be open? • To which extent can we hold this perception? 186 .Characteristics of Scientific Method 1. Everything is open to question In our quest to understand things.
187 . and as objective as possible. comprehensive.2. tradition or ideology. Evidence based on observation Scientific method seeks knowledge through observed evidence and not authority. The evidence should be systematic.
Collection of data This is a common basis of all sciences. pure. 188 . and social. human.Basic Steps in Scientific Research: 1.
. goes on establishing relationships 189 .The mind goes on collecting data from all kinds of observations and experiences. This is a function of perception and cognition. Simultaneously. by using its power of identification and retention (the ability to remember things). the mind.
observation will be on some assumed correlation between some aspects according to some tentative hypothesis to prove if there is any interrelationships between them. This observation can be done in a laboratory (physics, chemistry, biology, etc.) or in a field when the parts under study spread over vast areas in time and space (astronomy, geology).
Observation can be done through senses and
perceptive power or by help of scientific equipment (devices for measurement) and technological equipment (devices to facilitate work and utilizing the resource of environment). The advance of scientific and technological equipment have contributed to the expansion of methods and meanings of collection of scientific data and the horizon of observation.
In Muslim history of science it is a fact
that Muslim scientists realized at an early stage the importance of scientific equipment for collection of data, therefore they introduced big astrolabes (scientific instrument used for reckoning time and for observational purposes to enable astronomers to calculate the position of the Sun and prominent stars with respect to both the horizon and the meridian)…
and quadrants (an instrument for measuring angles, especially to check your position at sea or to look at stars) for exact observations of stars and planets, and even had invented a spherical astrolabe.
Measures to guard against distortion: The person taking observations should be clear in his mind; he should not be obsessed by any preconceived ideas. He should record only what is really happening (objective). He needs patience and perseverance to ensure the reliability of his observations.
Even the observations taken with all this care
cannot be taken at their face value, until preliminary statistical tests confirm its reliability, or a number of other scientists confirm it independently. The rules of observation laid down by Jabir ibn Hayyan (chemistry): 1. The time and season must be carefully chosen; 2. It is best for the laboratory to be in a secluded (quiet and private) place ;
chemist must have trusted friends; 4. He must have sufficient time to conduct experiments; 5. Patience and reticence (not disclosing results hastily before testing them); 6. Perseverance; 7. He must not be deceived by appearances into bringing his operations to too hasty a conclusion.
Classification and analysis of data: To arrange the data in some regular order; To find out the characteristics of the population from where the random sample of data was taken; To establish the relations and correlations between different members of the population under study or with members of other series.
After studying the characteristics of the
members of the population under study, there comes the stage when the researcher begins to ask the question “How” about the working of those members and their correlations. The answer to this question is the hypothesis which describes in words or in symbols the relationship that appear to exist between them.
experience and knowledge. There may be many hypotheses depending on the number of variable parameters involved. on guessing. 199 . This guess is based on the past observation. to some extent. This hypothesis will be depending.
4. 200 .Hypotheses testing: The hypotheses will be put into testing through experiments in different produced conditions to show their validity and applicability.
then the status of the hypothesis is raised to that of a “theory”. If this theory is found to be universally applicable. 201 . If the predictions in the hypothesis come out correct. it is called a “law of nature”.
Observation Logical deduction Experimentation and empirical observations (under controlled conditions) The hypothesis is validated = Theory 202 .
One who does not do so will never attain mastery”. for example. 203 . Jabir ibn Hayyan. stated clearly in his book on chemistry: “the first essential is to perform practical work and experiments.Origination of Scientific methodology Muslim scientists were the first ones to introduce this method and to emphasize the role of experimentation.
204 . 2.Among the rules of experiments laid down by him: 1. The instructions must be properly understood. The operator should know the reason for performing the experiment (hypotheses and predictions should be set clearly).
are of no value). or hasty experiments which lead to vague results. Impossible and profitless processes should be avoided )vague hypotheses which don‟t lead to definite predictions. 205 .
Example: Until the 10th century the Greek and Egyptian theory of geocentric cosmology was assumed to be true. 206 . and It was held by early Muslim scientists.
207 . According to this theory the fixed stars are farther than the stars of the Milky Way/ the Galaxy (the system of stars that contains our sun and its planets) which is supposed to be close to the earth and to be situated in the atmosphere of the earth.
this was an axiom and all other problems of astronomy had to satisfy this “truth”. The Muslim astronomer Ibn al-Haytham. 208 . came to a conclusion that the stars of the Milky Way were as far off as the other fixed stars. In Greek astronomy. and that they were not situated in the atmosphere of the earth. based on his inductive method and with help of the equipment developed by Muslim scientists.
And the question was: how to decide about the validity of these two opposing hypotheses? 209 . Ibn al-Haytham was facing two contradicting hypotheses: the Greek “axiom” and his hypothesis.
to measure the distance from the same place in different seasons. 210 .Ibn al-Haytham suggested an experiment to decide about these hypotheses: 1. 2. to measure the distance at the same time from two places far apart on the earth.
in both the sets of observations suggested. 211 . The result was that if the stars of the Milky Way are in the atmosphere of the earth. then.3. their relative positions will be different.
If the stars of the Milky Way are as far as the other fixed stars. there will be no change in the relative positions of the two sets of stars in either cases. Observations were taken and it was found that the stars of the Milky Way did not change their relative positions among the fixed stars. 212 .
Here the validity of the hypothesis was not tested by the help of deductive logic alone. And this is what is called the inductive method of modern science. But the validity of the hypothesis was proved by experiment and observation. 213 . Only the predictions were deduced by logic and geometry.
Conflict between Science and Religion The characteristics of their )Muslims‟( method are experiment and observation. hydrostatics.Draper. 214 . optics. It was this that made them the originators of chemistry. geometrical and mathematical sciences that worked as instruments of reasoning. In their numerous writings on mechanics. etc. it is interesting to remark that the solution to a problem is always by performing an experimental observation.
sublimation (conversion of a substance from the solid to the vapour state without its becoming liquid). 215 . like the fusion of copper and zinc to produce brass). filtration (the process of filtering a liquid or gas). then cooling it and collecting the drops of liquid that form).that led them to the invention of all kinds of apparatus for distillation (to make a liquid pure by heating it until it becomes a gas. etc.. fusion (the process or result of joining two or more things together to form one.
in Chemistry to employ the balance.that caused them in Astronomy to appeal to divided instruments such as quadrants and astrolabes. to construct tables of specific gravity and astronomical tables like those of Baghdad and Spain. Such were the results of the performance of the inductive method – their declining the reveries (imaginations/ dreams) of Plato.” 216 . the invention of Algebra and the adoption of Indian numeration in Arithmetic. the theory of which they were perfectly familiar with. great improvements in Geometry.
Francis Bacon. 217 . in his book Novum Organum (1st quarter of the 17th century) while pleading for the introduction of empiricism in Europe says again and again that: “great authorities” follow this and consider this method better than the old deductive method of the Greeks. who is considered by the West as one of the founders of inductive/ scientific method.
It is suggested that he did not mention them by name for fear of inquisition. 218 . But he never once mentions the name of the “great authorities” and the “wise people” No one applied this method before except Muslim scientists.
Achievements of scientific method: Freed sciences from the domination of rigid deductive method that is more suitable to theoretical and philosophical studies. 219 . Limited the sphere of intellectual speculations and made a big room for empirical knowledge.
220 . Freed scientific research from the grip of Greek axioms. Limited the sphere of metaphysical studies and made shift to natural and physical studies.
Successful results achieved by scientists gave them confidence in this scientific method and encouraged them to further their research. led to expansion of the horizon of scientific research. discovering new laws and opening new areas. 221 . in turn. This.
Experimental endeavour led to the transformation of science to technology. 222 . and the invention of sophisticated machines and equipment.
Extreme rationality led to the adoption of scientific method in the field of human and social sciences. 223 .“Side effects” of the scientific method The overconfidence in and adoration of the scientific method led to extreme rationality.
Empiricism/ logical-positivism (from the Greek word empeiria = experience.) Inaugurated by Francis Bacon and developed by John Locke (1632-1704) In philosophy. the attitude that beliefs are to be accepted and acted upon only if they first have been confirmed by actual experience. 224 .
Stressing experience. imaginative conjecture. and quantification of sense data available to the observer. and abstract. or systematic reasoning (Rationalism) as sources of reliable belief. intuition. theoretical. measurement. 225 . Empiricism is opposed to the claims of authority. The essence of empiricism is observation.
Revelation Although Bacon proclaims the universal applicability of induction.Early empiricism vs. he himself treats it almost exclusively as a means to natural knowledge and ignores its social application. 226 .
theology). There is such a thing as divine philosophy (what was later called rational. or natural. Most divine knowledge must come from revelation. but its sole task and competence is to prove that there is a God. and reason has nothing to do with it. 227 .
in principle. But he assigned to it a very marginal and subordinate role. He argues that knowledge acquired by human reasoning is more reliable and certain than knowledge received through revelation. 228 . John Locke one of the fathers of empiricism did consider revelation. as a source of certain type of knowledge.
Because one may doubt the preservation of the original revelation through the act of narration. 229 . or question the lack of means for validating or substantiating its content. But one can always be certain about what his faculty of understanding considers true.
(But one can always be certain about what his faculty of understanding considers true. In questions belonging to the realm of faith. 2.) 230 . Revelation should supersede reason in the realm of probable knowledge which does not rise to certainty. because it‟s inaccessible to human reasoning. He gives revelation the upper hand over reason in two instances: 1.
Positivism In philosophy. generally. as opposed to a posteriori knowledge. 231 . any system that confines itself to the data of experience and excludes a priori (knowledge that is independent of all particular experiences. which derives from experience alone) or metaphysical speculations.
Positivism first assumed its distinctive features in the work of Auguste Comte (1798–1857). and Logical Empiricism. etc. 232 . such as Empirio criticism. As a philosophical ideology and movement. Logical Positivism. It then developed through several stages known by various names.
That all knowledge regarding matters of fact is based on the “positive” data of experience. classified as purely formal sciences. 233 .That beyond the realm of fact is that of pure logic and pure mathematics. which were. 2. in a later phase of Positivism.The basic affirmations of Positivism are: 1.
In its basic ideological posture. Positivism is worldly. and anti-metaphysical. 234 .3. antitheological. Strict adherence to the testimony of observation and experience is the all-important imperative of the Positivists. secular. 4.
Naturalism/ natural method A theory that relates scientific method to philosophy by affirming that all beings and events in the universe are natural. all knowledge of the universe falls within the pale of scientific investigation. Consequently. 235 .
nothing “other than. There is nothing beyond. Naturalists assert that nature is reality.” no “other world” of being. Usually naturalism denies the existence of truly supernatural realities. 236 .
Naturalism presumes that nature is
in principle completely knowable. There is in nature a regularity, unity, and wholeness that implies objective laws, without which the pursuit of scientific knowledge would be absurd.
has no ontological preference: dualism and monism, atheism and theism, idealism and materialism are all per se compatible with it.
Two positive results of bahaviourism 1. Development of neurosciences. 2. Development of behaviour therapy (behaviour modification), which focused on modifying observable behaviour, rather than on the thoughts and feelings of the patient (as in psychoanalysis).
Conclusion W. M. Smart, The origin of the earth. Let us not then exalt the scientific method unduly as the close preserve of the scientist nor, which is much more important, as the only means by which we attempt to discover the secrets of nature.
It is easy for a scientist to be a
materialist if he sees only in the universe the apparently relentless (continuous) unfolding of natural law, and forgets that there are domains where the laws of physics are irrelevant
more and more scientists are realizing that they are exploring only one section of the great world of nature in all its manifold complexity; beauty, moral, conduct, spiritual values, religious experience, are all outside their domain, yet all come within man‟s scrutiny when he attempts to interpret the universe as a whole and strives to discern purpose therein…”
Harris, Kelvin (1979), Education and Knowledge The limitations of empiricism in human and social sciences can be manifested in different areas among them:
Derived conclusions could not be
logically valid for generalization because there could be exceptions.
Methodology of data collection is
theory laden, that is, the investigator has preconceptions and motives, which influence his choice of methodology of investigation and this subsequently affects the outcome
“The humanistic studies of Western
man and the social analysis of Western society by a Western scientist are necessarily "Western" and cannot serve as models for the study of Muslims or of their society.” Ismail Raji al-Faruqi (1977), "Islamizing the Social Sciences"
Technical procedures 2. Conditions for using methods/ conceptual aspects of methodology 246 .The Search for an Islamic Methodology Methodology comprises: 1.
It was initially started by Muslim scientists and. Natural and physical sciences The scientific method in its technical procedures has a universal application.1. and became as a heritage of humanity. later developed by Western scientists. 247 .
It needs to be applied within the Islamic ethical and ideological frame. There is no objection to adopting the technical procedures developed by non-Muslims. Production of Muslim scientists 248 .
Exclusion of spiritual aspect. Social & human sciences The main objects to the Western methods used in the domain of human & social sciences are: 1. They are heavily inclined towards materialism and application of procedures of the natural sciences.2. 249 .
1. 250 . They set the Western values & concepts as universal norms and models by which other societies should by judged. 2. They embody the Western concepts & values (exclusion of revelation).
The employment of this Western methodology in the Muslim world is leading toward Westernization of Muslim societies. 251 .
The issues of: Rejecting revelation and contrasting scientific with revealed knowledge and. Confining reality to the empirical one under the justification that reason cannot ascertain transcendental reality. 252 . Are not real problems in Islam.
and mediated by purely “rational” categories and statements.. Instead. 253 .These structures are not immediately encountered by the senses. the structures of empirical existence are inferred through the use of categories abstracted from the sensible.
g.e. 254 . Our understanding of the relationship between the earth and the sun is mediated by mental constructs. and hence is completely at variance with the immediate impression received from the senses.
at least in its Islamic form. Revelation. The interconnectedness of the empirical and transcendental is always stressed by the Qur‟an 255 . seeks its justification in empirical reality.2. Divine revelation sees empirical reality as the manifestation of a transcendental reality.
256 . The science-revelation conflict is neither imperative nor universal. Both revelation and empirical knowledge are needed for a comprehensive understanding of nature. There is no need at all to reproduce it in Muslim culture. but specific to Western religion and experience.
standards are crucial for understanding.Setting the norm/ standard/ model In social and human science norms. The norms/ standards/ models are used to deduce conclusions. 257 . judging. and changing human behaviour as well as social phenomena. models.
Western scholarship assumes that the practices of the Western society (which is assumed to stand at the peak of human evolution) become the standard of normality. 258 .
259 .Integrative Methodology of Revealed Knowledge and Human Knowledge The common point among Muslim scholars who are concerned with Islamization of knowledge/ Islamic methodology is the incorporation of Revelation into different fields of research.
Until now. only little has been done. But when it comes to “How” the answers may be different. and more efforts are required to establish a viable Islamic methodology for different social and human sciences 260 .
Work under the directions of our worldview (the origin & nature of man and universe. the purpose of their creation. 261 .Islamic Methodology should: Incorporate revelation as a source of knowledge and give it its due role in guiding human inquiry of knowledge. and their destiny).
and the practice of the early Muslim society 262 . the Sunnah. Reflect the Islamic objectives and values Set our norms/ standards/ models which are derived from the Qur‟an.
A framework for islamization of knowledge Islamic legacy Western knowledge Mastery of disciplinary substantive knowledge Mastery of analytical and synthetic techniques University textbooks Islamic University Perfect/universal man 263 .
pious. They avoided any innovation in the religion for fear of Allah‟s punishment. committed and dedicated researchers. 264 .Conclusion Muslims of the past always followed the Islamic methodology in their research: They based their work on the principle of tawhid. enthusiastic. They were sincere. They perceived knowledge as a comprehensive whole. They verified the information to ensure its authenticity.
265 . They used to commence their work with bismillahi al-Rahman al-Rahim (in the Name of Allah. which facilitated their understanding and analysis of the original texts. the Gracious. seeking Allah‟s blessings and conclude by dedicating their results to Him. the Merciful). in this way they treated their research as an act of „ibadah. They had greater familiarity with classical Arabic than contemporary Muslim scholars.
3. 4.Islam and Civilization 1. 2. Meaning of civilization Civilization and Culture Arabic terms for civilization Characteristics of Civilization 266 .
Hadarah/ Al-Tamaddun/ al- Madaniyyah Al-Tamaddun/ al-Madaniyyah: derived from the word „madinah‟)city or town(. Al-„Umran 267 .Arabic terms: al. and „din‟)religion(.
Meaning of Civilization An advanced level of development in society that is marked by complex social and political organization. its culture and its way of life during a particular period of time or in a particular part of the world. and material. scientific. and artistic progress A society. 268 .
The way and level of life of people in the cities as contrasted with the way and level of life in rural areas. The relation between „madinah‟ and „din‟ indicates the role of religion in the establishment of civilization and refinement of social culture 269 .
and correspondingly complex social and political development It is an advanced state of intellectual. Civilization designates a condition of human society characterized by a high level of cultural and technological achievements. cultural and material development in human society 270 .
agriculture. educational institutions. industry. technological equipment. The body of the civilization is its material achievements such as buildings. infrastructure. and all that is related to various pleasures of worldly life. 271 . Each civilization has a body or matter and a soul.
moral values.The soul of civilization is the set of. groups. concepts. and their interrelations. ideologies. manners and traditions that are embodied in the behavior of individuals. 272 .
Based on the توحيد Muslim civilization was the first universal civilization that was based on a pure and strict unitarianism (unity of God) The only one who deserves submission The only one who deserves worship The only one who deserves absolute obedience. 273 .Characteristics of Islamic civilization 1.
and statues) Frees common people from the oppression of the kings. and Brahmanism Sets right the relationship between the ruler and the ruled (all people are equal) 274 . Papacy. Eliminates idolatry (idols.
Islamic civilization was the first
civilization which embraced the entire humanity It declared equality of all human beings of all descents, races, and colours ٌ“ إُِ أَمرٍنٌ عْد َّللاِ أَجقَبمVerily the most ْ ُ ْ َّ َ ْ ِ ْ ُ َ َ ْ َّ honoured of you in the sight of Allah is he who is the most righteous of you” )49: 13).
This civilization is attributed to all
Muslims on an equal basis. (Arab nationalism / Western civilization /supremacy of white man) [Universality vs. Globalization] Open to the contribution of all members of the Muslim ummah regardless of their race, ethnicity, or colour, and even non-Muslim citizens.
3- Moderate Rationalism It gives human reason a high position Its faith is based on reasoning and conviction It rejects superstitious and unfounded beliefs. It does not go to the extreme of denying the truths which are not directly related to empirical knowledge but are based on revealed knowledge
Tolerance towards people of different
religions (especially Christians and Jews) Minorities enjoyed a high level of tolerance and freedom of religion and economic pursuit. This characteristic is peculiar for a civilization based on religious foundations.
It would be reasonable for a
secularist who does not believe in any religion to treat religions equally and give people freedom of belief, but it may be difficult for a religious person to do so.
5. Integrated and balanced civilization Integrates the faith with the state/ rejection of secularism Integrates the body with the spirit (material vs. spiritual) Integrates the worldly life with the life in the hereafter
Integrates empirical sciences with
revelation Assigns priority to moral principles = morality vs. pragmatism Integration in a balanced manner Balance means following a middle course between two extremes of thought and action.
Western Culture and Civilization Western Civilization is “The civilization that has evolved out of the historical fusion of cultures, philosophies, values and aspirations of ancient Greece and Rome; their amalgamation with Judaism and Christianity, and their further development and formation by the Latin, Germanic, Celtic and Nordic Peoples”.
Western Civilization Characteristics of Western civilization In terms of material progress and scientific exploration, the modern Western civilization has surpassed all civilizations across history. Pushing forward man‟s incentives and capabilities to exploit nature and benefit from it.
Technological achievements = eased human life. luxury Effective management and organization Respect of human rights within its homelands 284 .
The ideologies of the Western civilization are: 1. 285 . But it does not recognize the value of “God” in its ideological system. or deny the existence of the spirit. Utilitarian materialism This civilization may not deny the existence of God strongly and openly.
It accepts only things which are considered by it as of “practical value” The “practical value” is in luxury and worldly pleasure = this is the real „God‟ 286 .
Secularism Inspired by secular philosophy. devoid of certainty. speculations to secular life centered upon man as physical entity 287 . subject to constant review and change Its worldview formulation is not upon revealed knowledge and religious belief but rather upon cultural tradition.2.
religion as a personal matter limited to individual practice without any interference in social. economic or political activities religious practice limited to dead rituals 288 .
neglect of the elderly…( Creates an atmosphere of fear. Atheism: The doctrine or belief that there is no God 289 . anxiety and distraction 3. Destruction of moral values = utilitarianism/ pragmatism Destruction of family (abortion.
4. Humanism Reliance upon the powers of human reason alone to guide man through life 290 .
5. Dualism Adherence to the validity of dualistic vision of reality and truth Affirmation of the reality of the temporary/impermanent aspect of existence projecting a secular worldview 291 .
The Rise and Decline of Islamic civilization 292 .
This year was marked with an invasion of Makkah and an attempt to destroy Ka„bah (the year of the Elephant).A brief chronology of Muslim Civilization Preparatory phase 571: Birth of the Prophet. 293 . The beginning of Mohammad‟s prophethood. 610: The first revelation in the cave at Mount Hira‟.
The acceptance of the people of Yathrib to receive the Prophet (saw) and his followers 294 . The search for a place to establish Muslim state. 622: Second pledge at Aqaba.621: First pledge at Aqaba.
marks the establishment of the Muslim state. Peace to give people a chance to know about the new religion. 628: Truce of Hudaibiya. and to focus on strengthening the newly emerged state. 624: Battle of Badr.The Emergence of the State 622: The Hijrah (migration to Yathrib/ Madina). The new power in the Arab peninsula. 295 .
296 .628: The Prophet addresses letters to various heads of states. Going international (beyond Arabian territories) 630: Muslims return back to their homeland Makkah after being expelled from it.
632: Death of the Prophet (saw). 632: Farewell pilgrimage at Makkah. The Prophet addresses his followers with his last speech. Election of Abu Bakr as the Caliph. 297 .631: Expedition to Tabuk Sending a message to the Persian authorities who had been occupying the Arab territories and were hostile to the new religion.
Rejection of paying Zakat (disloyalty to the central authority) 298 .Transitory instability Attempts to destroy the new religion and state Pseudo-prophets.
(occupied by Persians and Roman Byzantines) 636: Defeating the occupying forces of the Romans (Battle of Yermuk) followed by the liberation of Syria and al-Quds. Oman.Wars of liberation: 633 . 299 . Iraq. and the remaining parts of Jazirah.641: Liberation of Arab territories (Bahrain. Syria. al-Quds/ Jerusalem.
300 .636: The last major battle against Persian Empire (the battle of Qadsiyyah) the fall of their capital „Madain‟.
. Christians and Jews due to the Muslims' establishment of religious freedom for Christians and Jews. 301 .641: .Liberation of oppressed people in Egypt.This exemplifies the alliances formed between Muslims. .The Catholic Archbishop of Egypt invites the Muslims to help free Egypt from Roman oppressors.
302 .644: Umar dies and is succeeded by Caliph Uthman 654: Islam spreads into all of North Africa which was partly occupied by Romans. 656: Ali becomes the Caliph. Battle of the Camel. Another period of turmoil and political instability (fighting between different political groups) 660: Mu'awiyah declares himself as the Caliph at Damascus.
Mu'awiyah becomes the sole Caliph. 303 . An attempt to transform the Islamic political system to a monarchy system. Al-Hasan bin Ali abdicates (gives up/ renounces) in favour of Mu„awiyah. Accession of Hasan.661: Ali assassinated.
The monarchy system successfully established 304 . 680: Death of Muawiyah. Accession of His son Yazid.
718: By this year almost the entire Iberian peninsula is under Muslim control. End of the Umayyad rule. 7000 Muslim men invade Gibraltar. A year later. 750: Fall of Damascus.710: Tariq ibn Malik crosses the strait separating Africa and Europe with a group of Muslims and enters Spain. 750: The establishment of the Abbasid rule 305 .
Third breakaway: Rustamid state set up in Morocco 756: 306 . 763: Foundation of Baghdad.The first breakaway Abdul Rahman founds the Umayyad state in Spain. 767: The second breakaway Khawarij set up their own state by Ibn Madrar at Sijilmasa.
Those breakaways were followed by hundreds of other breakaways and civil wars across the Muslim world 792: Invasion of South France. 307 . 827: Ma‟mun declares the Mutazila creed as the state religion. 814: Civil war between Amin and Ma‟mun. Amin killed and Mamun becomes the Caliph.
his death and accession of Mu„tamid. The crusaders capture al-Quds. Second crusade.870: 968: 1091: 1095: 1099: 1144: Turks revolt against Muhtadi. Roman Byzantines occupy Aleppo. The Normans conquer the island of Sicily. end of the Muslim rule. 308 . The first crusade.
Muslims defeated by the Christians in Spain By this year Muslim control of Spain was reduced to the Kingdom of Granada. 309 .1187: 1212: 1248: Salah al-Din wrests Jerusalem from the Christians. Battle of AI „Uqab in Spain. which survives for more than two centuries. Third crusade.
310 . End of the Abbasid rule.1258: 1260: Baghdad destroyed by the Mongols. and the spell of the invincibility of the Mongols is broken. Battle of Ayn Jalut in Syria. The Mongols are defeated by the Mamluks of Egypt.
1267: Malik ul Salih establishes the first Muslim state of Samudra Pasai in Indonesia. The Marinids drive away the Spaniards from Morocco. The crusaders invade Tunisia.1266: The eighth crusade. The Spaniards invade Morocco. 311 . Failure of the crusade.
1274: 1371: Ninth crusade under Edward I of England. In the Ottoman Turks empire. Invasion of Bulgaria. Bulgarian territory up to the Balkans annexed by the Turks. The crusade ends in fiasco and Edward returns to England. 312 .
1446: In the Ottoman Turks empire. Serbia annexed to Turkey. Second battle of Kossova resulting in the victory of the Turks. 313 .
Annexation of Serbia by Ottoman empire. Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.1453: 1456: 1461: 1462: Capture of Constantinople (Istanbul) by the Ottoman empire. 314 . Annexation of Albania.
1475: Annexation of Crimea (peninsula in southeastern Ukraine between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov). 315 . Turkey became the master of the Aegean Sea.
316 . Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna. The Portuguese conquer Malacca from the Muslims. The Ottomans defeat the Mamluks and conquer Egypt.1507: 1511: 1517: 1529: The Portuguese under establish strongholds in the Persian Gulf.
1550: 1550: 1687: The rise of the Muslim kingdom of Aceh in Sumatra. 317 . the Moluccas. Defeat of the Turks by Austria. Islam spreads to Java. and Borneo.
By the treaty of Passarowich Turkey loses Hungary. 1797: Russia occupied Daghestan. 318 . 1811:The British occupied Indonesia.1718: In the war against Austria. Turkey suffers defeat.
319 . Makkah and Taif captured by Egyptian forces and Saudis expelled from Hijaz. Malaya became a preserve of the British according to Anglo-Netherlands treaty in 1824.1812: 1813: 1827: Madina fell to Egyptians.
ending 313 years rule of Turks. Turks defeated in the battle of Konia by Egyptian forces. This was also the end of 1000 years of Muslim rule over India.1830: 1832: 1857: French forces occupy Algeria. British captured Delhi and eliminated Mughal rule in India after 332 years. . 320 .
Arab revolt against Ottoman rule. 321 .1859: 1901: 1916: Imam Shamil defeated by Russian forces in Daghestan French forces occupy Morocco. Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hijaz Railway.
1918: Syria occupied by France. 1948: The official establishment of the Jewish state in Palestine. 322 . 1924: The Turkish khilafah is abolished. 1921: Abd Allah bin Husayn was made King of Transjordan by the British.
Stages of the process of rise and fall 1) Gestation (Hijra –the end of Abu Bakar‟s khilafah( 2) Expansion/ Universal Empire 3) Decay (the second half of khilafa Abbasiyyah) 4) Invasion/ fall 323 .
The Muslims spread the word of Allah. Spiritual power: a tremendous impulse was given to the Muslim community to explore life and the world around them (life and world created for a purpose). Islam – way to save people and liberate them 324 .Causes of Rise of Muslim Civilization 1.
patience 325 . Ability to transform the ideals of the Qur‟an to daily conduct: Hardwork. sincerity.2. honesty. perseverance.
Intellectual freedom. teaching people to think critically and creatively (prohibition of imitation without sound evidence) 4. Political freedom. “Allah has sent us to free humans from worshipping other humans. equality between the ruler and the ruled.3. freeing human intellect from superstitions. and to commit them to worshipping Allah” 326 .
Openness: To learn from human experience To people of different races and ethnicities. 327 . The Muslims intermarried freely with local people and became part of them. Muslim civilization was a joint endeavour of Muslims from different peoples and races It was not the military power which enabled early Muslims to dominate half of the then known world. It was their righteousness and their humaneness.5.
They encouraged learning and scientific enquiry and used to spend on it generously (the House of Wisdom). 328 . The spirit of seeking knowledge Most of the rulers of Banu Ummayah and the first two centuries of al-„abbasiyyin dynasties were educated or scholars.6.
al-Azhar. alQayrawan etc. 329 . The establishment of hundreds of schools and universities such as alNizamiyyah.
rulers did not use to interfere in educational institutions and the affairs of scholars. In addition to the generous spending on education and scholars. 330 . waqf (endowment fund) was well developed and played a significant role in developing educational institutions. Although there was a relevant level of dictatorship.
Causes of decline Tribalism Ethnocentrism The Prophet (saw) was able to suppress these social diseases and reduce them to the minimal level among sahabah and substitute them with a strong brotherhood. 331 .
brought with them those loyalties. who used to live under the rule of tribes or monarchs and emperors. The new comers to Islam. Sectarianism Obsession with power/ prestige/ Striving for power – assassinations – overthrowing each other – civil wars – separation – seeking help from enemies 332 .
interest in pleasure and enjoyment rather than more serious things…etc. Revolutions / insurgencies here and there Moral decadence: Dishonesty. cheating. Dictatorship/ political injustice/ changing the political system from shura to monarchy 333 . indifference. laziness. involvement in haram. neglecting obligation.
334 . The rulers became under their direct influence and they were frequently changed or murdered one after another. The real sovereign power had passed already to the Turks. the rulers (Caliphs) became nominal.Weakness of central authority: For most of the last three centuries of the Abbasid rule.
of energy and common sense. soon became the masters. The Ottoman Turks/ Mamalik were soldiers first. downright. They were men of simple. brutal character. 335 . They were soldierly in all they did. Deterioration in the educational level of the rulers: The guardians.
stop the advancement of Mongols. 336 . But those rulers were not really qualified to maintain the Muslim civilization. which would have perished but for them. and expand the Muslim empire. They managed to free some Muslim territories. They did infuse some manhood into the declining empire.
rather it continued to progress in spite of it. But the Empire was apparently progressing on the wave of a bygone impulse which was fading away. At the beginning. for centuries the civilization of Islam was almost unaffected by this transfer of power from a cultured people to a people of comparative illiteracy. 337 .
338 . ijtihad was virtually stopped. fanaticism to juridical as well as theological schools of thought became widespread.Academic decline Islamic sciences reached the stage of stagnation.
al-Ghazzali etc. The extremism of philosopher and theologians was met with another extremism of some religious scholars who went to the extent of prohibiting the study of philosophy and the sciences related to it. burning of the books of some philosophers and theologians in some areas such as Ibn Rushd. 339 .
Muslim Sciences: Origin and Development 340 .
Syriac. 341 .1. natural and physical sciences The real development of Muslim natural and physical sciences started after the era of translation. Philosophy. Persian and Sanskrit. Translation of the intellectual heritage of other nations and civilizations started in the 2nd Islamic century from the four major languages: Greek.
It was a research and educational institute and the centre for intellectual development. In the 3rd century. 342 . the establishment of bayt al-Hikmah (The House of Wisdom) founded by Harun al-Rashid and well developed by his son al-Ma‟mun.
343 . astronomy. history. Many scientific works were rendered into Arabic in the field of mathematics. philosophy and other sciences. medicine. The translators were Muslims as well as non-Muslim citizens. physics. pharmacology.
Translation: advantages & disadvantages Positive impact Benefiting from human knowledge and experience Negative impact Translation was not confined to what is useful (pure sciences) Extended to theology and metaphysical issues 344 .
Creating confusion among some Muslims Led to the creation of an elite group of philosophers who were fascinated with Greek philosophy and to some extent deviated from the right principles of Islam Tension between this elite group and religious scholars 345 .
Islamic sciences Established and developed solely by Muslims 346 .2.
The Contribution of Muslim Scholars (Natural Sciences) 347 .
Major Areas of Contribution 1. Transfer of the intellectual heritage of the ancient civilizations to the modern civilization 348 . The adoption and development of the scientific/ inductive method 2. Development of different fields of science + inventions 3.
astronomer and geographer.1. 349 . Al-Khawarizmi was a mathematician.Al-Khawarizmi Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Musa Al- Khawarizmi. (780-850 CE) his birthplace is Khwarizm (modern name: Khiva) south of the Aral Sea. He was the founder of several branches and basic concepts of mathematics.
350 ." (Phillip Hitti). He influenced mathematical thought to a greater extent than any other mediaeval writer.
the full expression was “Ilm aljabr wa al-Muqabalah ” )the science of reunion and equations) and Algorithm (the old name for arithmetic) These terms are derived from the title of his work. Restoration and Reduction). HisabAl-Jabr wal alMuqabalah (Book of Calculations. He is the founder of Algebra (al-Jabr) In Arabic. 351 .
352 . as he not only initiated the subject in a systematic form but he also developed it to the extent of giving analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations. His work on algebra was outstanding. which established him as the founder of Algebra. He also gives geometrical solutions (with figures) of quadratic equations. an equation often repeated by later writers. for example x2 + 1Ox = 39.
353 . Mathematicians used it all over the world until the sixteenth century. In the twelfth century Gerard of Cremona and Roberts of Chester translated the „Algebra” of AlKhawarizmi into Latin.
354 .Algorithm = Arithmetic His arithmetic synthesized Greek and Hindu knowledge and also contained his own contribution of fundamental importance to mathematics and science.
He developed at length several arithmetical procedures. 355 . He explained the use of zero. a numeral of fundamental importance developed by the Muslims. including the decimal system and operations on fractions.
among them: Kitab al-Jam‟a wa alTafriq bi al-Hisab al-Hind. He introduced the Indian system of numerals (now generally known as Arabic numerals) which was later passed to Europe. which was translated to and preserved in Latin language (the Arabic version was lost) 356 . He wrote many books on arithmetic.
357 . A Latin translation of a Muslim arithmetic text was discovered in 1857 CE at the University of Cambridge library. Entitled 'Algoritimi de Numero Indorum .‟آwhich is believed to be a copy of Al-Khawarizmi‟آs arithmetic text. which was translated into Latin in the twelfth century by Adelard of Bath (an English scholar).
(The Face of the Earth) together with its maps. was translated to Latin language. 358 . His geography captioned Kitab Surat alArd.Geography He revised and corrected Ptolemy's views He produced the first map of the known world in 830 CE.
He worked on measuring the volume and circumference (the line that goes around the earth) of the earth (this measurement was ordered by Al-Ma‟mun( 359 .
were translated into Latin as early as l126 by Adelard of Bath. They were the first Muslim tables and contained not simply the sine function but also the tangent (Maslama's interpolation).Geometry He had many contributions to geometry including: His astronomical and trigonometric tables. 360 . revised by Maslama Al-Majrti (Second half of tenth century).
He also perfected the geometric representation of conic sections and developed the calculus of two errors. Mechanics He contributed to work related to clocks. which practically led him to the concept of differentiation. 361 . sundials (an ancient device for telling the time when the sun is shining) and astrolabes.
362 .2. philosopher and alchemist.250/854-313/925 or 323/935). He was first placed in-charge of the first Royal Hospital at Rayy. Zakariyya (Rhazes)(ca. from where he soon moved to a similar position in Baghdad where he remained the head of its famous Muqtadari Hospital for along time. Al-Razi Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Physician. in Rayy. Iran.
Works: 1.Kitab al-Mansuri. comprised ten volumes and dealt exhaustively with Greco-Muslim medicine. which was translated into Latin in the 15th century A.D. 363 .. Some of its volumes were published separately in Europe. 2-Kitab al-Judari wa al-Hasabah was the first treatise on smallpox and chicken-pox. and is largely based on Razi's original contribution.
Kitab al-Hasa fi al-kula wa 'l-mathana (Stones in the kidney and bladder) is one of the most famous of his medical writings. This book was the first book on smallpox. He was the first to draw clear comparisons between smallpox and chicken-pox. 3. and was translated over a dozen times into Latin and other European languages. 364 .
and this was concluded by him by giving his own remarks based on his experience and views. Al-Hawi was the largest medical encyclopaedia composed by then. 365 . It contained on each medical subject all important information that was available from Greek and Muslim sources.4.
Medical system: A special feature of his medical system was that he greatly favoured cure through correct and regulated food. This was combined with his emphasis on the influence of psychological factors on health. 366 .
Medical research: His medical research was highly methodical. His medical methods were characterized by lack of dogmatism and total reliance on clinical observation. as revealed in his notebooks. 367 .
368 . He was also an expert surgeon and was the first to use opium for anesthesia. He also tried to test medicines first on animals in order to evaluate their effects and side effects.
He had an independent mind and that was strikingly revealed in his book al-Shukuk 'ala Jalinus (Doubts about Galen). he used to rely on his experimentation and clinical records 369 . Here al-Razi rejects claims of Galen's. from the alleged superiority of the Greek language to many of his cosmological and medical views. In his criticism of Galen‟s medical views.
370 . ranging from astronomy to mathematics. mathematical geography. from Haran.3. religion. Syria. and philosophy. Al-Biruni Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Abul-Rayhan Al-Biruni (973-1050AD). His production exceeds 146 titles in more than 20 different disciplines.
Only 22 works have survived. 371 .500 pages. His „Al-Qanun al-Mas‟udi‟ is a most extensive astronomical encyclopaedia. But the bulk of his work lies in mathematics and related disciplines (96 titles). slightly short of 1. and only 13 of these have been published.
he corrects Ptolemy's findings. but comes very close to it.In it: he determines the motion of the solar apogee (the point in the orbit of the sun in space when it is furthest from the earth). he was able to state for the first time that the motion is not identical to that of precession. 372 .
he employed mathematical techniques unknown to his predecessors that involve analysis of instantaneous motion and acceleration. described in terminology that can best be understood if we assume that he had "mathematical functions" in mind. 373 .
Using the astrolabe and the presence of a mountain near a sea or flat plain. he calculated the earth circumference by solving a highly complex geodesic equation. Al- Biruni discussed the theory of the earth rotating about its own axis. Six hundred years before Galileo. 374 .
He determined the local meridian (one of the lines that is drawn from the North Pole to the South Pole) and the coordinates of any locality. With the aid of mathematics. 375 . he also enabled the direction of the Qibla to be determined from anywhere in the world. His book „Tahdid‟ )the demarcation of the coordinates of cities) was written so as to determine the Qibla.
Iraq. 376 . Al-Kindi (Al-Kindus) Abu Yusuf Ya‟آqub ibn Ishaq was born in 801 in Kufah. and chemistry. geography. Al-Kindi was best known as a philosopher. mathematics.4. pharmacist and he has some contributions to physics. astronomy. but he was also a physician.
377 . Persians and Hindus. al-Ma'mun (813-833) appointed him as a researcher and translator in the House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikmah). He learned Greek and Syriac languages. Baghdad. He was proficient in the arts of the Greeks. He was employed as a calligrapher as he was well known for his beautiful calligraphy.
He was one of the first Muslim scholars involved in translating and commenting on Greek philosophical manuscripts. 378 . He first wrote treatise in epistemology and logic books such as Risalah fi Hudud al-Ashya‟ wa Rusumiha (On the Definitions of Things and their Descriptions).
Fi wahdaniyat Allah wa tanahiy jism al-„alam (On the Oneness of God and the Limitation of the Body of the World). Fi al-falsafa al-ula (On First Philosophy). 379 . His other philosophy works include Rasa‟il al-Kindi al-falsafiyya (Philosophical Treatises of al-Kindi).
380 . Fi kammiyat kutub Aristutalis wa ma yuhtaju ilaihi fi tahsil alfalsafa (The Quantity of Aristotle‟آs Books and What is Required for the Acquisition of Philosophy) and Fi al-hila li-daf„ al-ahzan (On the Art of Averting Sorrows).
Although al-Kindi was influenced by the work of Aristotle (384-322 BC). he tried to put the Greek‟s ideas in a new context and to lay down the foundations of a new philosophy. 381 .
He first elaborated a system of thought based on the logic of Greek philosophy. immortality. and prophecy. 382 . God's knowledge. hence developed logic and systematic explanations for some of the debated theological issues of his time. such as creation.
383 . He contributed 11 works to arithmetic. lines and multiplication with numbers. In these works he wrote on Indian numbers. which was largely developed by al-Khawarizmi. the harmony of numbers. and numerical procedures and cancellation. measuring proportion and time. He made rich contributions to the Arabic system of numerals. relative quantities.
He produced 22 publications on medical topics. Several of his books were translated into Latin and was known as. He contributed also to medicine. 384 . One of his major contributions in medicine and pharmaceutics is to determine and apply a correct dosage. His thoughts very much influenced medieval Europe. which formed the bases medical formulary.
Al-Zahrawi (Albucasis) Abu-Qasim Khalaf ibn Abbas. His encyclopaedia of surgery was used as standard reference work in the subject in all the universities of Europe for over five hundred years.5. He was born in al-Zahra near Cordoba in 936AD. 385 . He was one of the greatest surgeons of his time. and died in 1013 AD.
His at-Tasrif. completed about 1000 AD. 386 . was the result of almost fifty years of medical education and experience. His outstanding contribution in medicine is his encyclopaedic work 'at-Tasrif li-man ajiza an Al-talif' in thirty treatise.
This encyclopaedia was intended for medical students and the practising physician. about 200 instruments are described and illustrated. 387 . It contained the earliest picture of surgical instruments in history. for whom it was a ready and useful companion in a multitude of situations since it answers all kinds of clinical problems.
In discourse l and 2. the surgical procedure itself is shown. al-Zahrawi classified 325 diseases and discussed their symptomatology and treatment. he described. a hemorrhagic disease transmitted by unaffected women to their male children. 388 . today we call it hemophilia.e. in medical history. In page 145. for the first time. In places the use of instrument i.
389 . became the most famous and had by far the widest and the greatest influence. Volume 30. These two volumes were translated into Latin and printed in Augsburg in 1519. Volume 28 is on pharmacy and was translated into Latin as early as 1288 as "Liber Servitoris". on surgery.
390 . The 300 pages of this volume represent the first book of this size devoted solely to surgery. which at that time also included dentistry and what one may term surgical dermatology.
urology. and orthopedic surgery. general surgery. gynecology. obstetrics. and throat. and of the head and neck. 391 . nose. He developed all aspects of surgery and various branches. military medicine. ophthalmology diseases of the ear.
392 . The last edition was that of John Channing in Oxford (I778) this contains both the original Arabic text and its Latin translation on alternate pages. It was translated into Latin by Gerard Cremona (1114-1187) it went into at least ten Latin editions between 1497 and 1544.
Almost all European authors of surgical texts from 12th to the 16th centuries referred to alZahrawi's surgery and copied from him 393 .
Human Sciences & Law and Jurisprudence 394 .
Was the most famous physician.Abu Ali Al-Hassan ibn Abdullah ibn Sina (981-1037) Was born in Asfahan near Bukhara (Central Asia) By the age of ten he had become well versed in the study of the Holy Qur‟an and basic sciences. philosopher. 395 . mathematician. Known in the West by the name Avicenna. and astronomer of his time. encyclopedist.
the king of Bukhara. of an illness in which all the well-known physicians had given up hope. He traveled to Jurjan after his father‟s death where he met his famous contemporary Abu Raihan al-Biruni 396 . On his recovery the king wished to reward him but the young physician only desired permission to use his uniquely stocked library. At the age of seventeen he was successful in curing Nooh ibn Mansor.
397 . In this book he reviewed the medical knowledge available from ancient and Muslim sources and he also made many original contributions. which is known as Canon in the West. His major contribution to medical science is his famous book known as alQanun fi al-Tibb.
398 . diseases affecting all parts of the body from head to foot. His book was recognized as the most authentic materia medica. especially pathology and pharmacopoeia. Among his original contributions are such advances as recognition of the contagious nature of phthisis and tuberculosis. The Qanun deals with general medicines. drugs (seven hundred and sixty). distribution of diseases by water and soil. and interaction between psychology and health.
choroid. iris. cornea. gynecology and child health. aqueous humour. such as conductive sciera. retina. layer lens. Ibn al-Sina was the first scientist to describe the minute and graphic description of different parts of the eye. 399 . optic nerve and optic chiasma. He was the first to describe meningitis and made rich contributions to anatomy.
400 . He observed that Aorta at its origin contains three valves which open when the blood rushes into it from the heart during contraction and closes during relaxation of the heart so that the blood may not be poured back into the heart. Ibn Sina condemned conjectures and presumptions in anatomy and called upon physicians and surgeons to base their knowledge on a close study of human body.
author of the Evolution of Modern Science. 401 . “The Qanun has remained a medical bible for a longer period than any other book. It is a philosophical encyclopedia covering a vast area of knowledge from philosophy to science. writes. Dr William Osler. known in its Latin translation as „Sanatio‟.” Ibn Sina also wrote Kitab al-Shifa (Book of Healing).
Human Sciences: Philosophy Theology Sociology 402 .
To name but a few. alShahrastani. alAsh‟ari. al-Maturidiyy. The role of great Muslim Thinkers in the field of „aqidah and tasawwuf to the growth of knowledge and priceless contribution to the process of learning in the history of Islamic culture and civilization. al-Qusyairi. al-Baqillani. al-Ghazzali. ect 403 . Ibn al-‟Arabiyy.
Ibn Rushd Abul Walid Mohammad Ibn Rushd (known as Averroes) He was a physician and philosopher. jurist He wrote a 7-volume medical encyclopedia. used at European universities until the eighteenth century. Kitab al-Kulliyat fi al-Tibb (Latin name Colliget. a corruption of the word kulliyat= generalities). 404 .
He asserted the "primacy of reason". or a purely philosophical rationalism For him. the primacy of reason is unquestioned but compatible with Islamic faith. 405 . Ibn Rushd's philosophy was an attempt to synthesize Islamic faith and reason in light of the available Greek heritage.
His contribution to philosophy was more significant to Europe than to the Muslim world. His contribution to Europe was in two major areas: i. transfer and commentary on Aristotle‟s philosophy ii. spreading rationalism 406 .
407 . And he used to be called "the Great Commentator.“ His commentaries on Aristotle were translated into Latin and Hebrew. European philosophers discovered Aristotle through Ibn Rushd's writings and commentaries on Aristotle‟s works. and soon became a part of the curriculum at different European universities and institutions of learning.
his works became the ruling mode of social thought in the West.Rationalism: He was regarded as the herald of rationalism long before the Renaissance (Gilson) Later. A dominant and influential school of philosophical thought emerged under his name (Averroism) 408 . And scholars of medieval Europe were provoked and inspired by those writings.
His singular influence in stimulating the Western Renaissance is acknowledged "as the landmark in the history of Western civilization" (Gilson. The results were the Renaissance in the thirteenth century and the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century. From the end of the twelfth century to the end of the sixteenth century Averroism remained the dominant school of thought. 1938. 409 . 30).
Ibn Khaldun (1332-1395C. Many of his ancestors had held high posts in the Tunis government. Born in Tunisia in 732 A. 410 .E). in an influential and learned family. Abd al-Rahman bin Muhammad.E) Full name.H (1332 C.
His Studies: His father. avoided politics and devoted his time to study jurisprudence. however. Unlike his father. Ibn khaldun was engaged in both learning and politics. philosophy and poetry and excelled in all these branches of knowledge. 411 .
wise of judgment and knowing a lot of things by heart. difficult to handle.” 412 . good natured. opposed to oppression. His close friend and associate. wellinformed on intellectual and traditional science. Ibn Khattab. shy. described him as “a virtuous man.
father of philosophy. 413 . and the father of the economic science. He is best known for his famous Muqaddimah (prolegomena) which is a masterpiece in literature on philosophy of history and sociology. Ibn Khaldun made great intellectual contributions in many areas of learning. He is internationally recognized as the founder and father of sociology. historian of civilization.
economic. environmental and social facts that contribute to the advancement of human civilization and the currents of history. The main theme of Muqaddimah was to identify psychological. He analyzed the dynamics of group relationships and showed how group feelings. produce the ascent of a new civilization and political power. al-‘Asabiyyah. 414 .
His views attracted the attention of Muslim scholars as well as many Western thinkers. factors contributing to its development and the causes of decline. He provided an analytical study of human civilization. its beginning. He pioneered the critical study of history. 415 . He identified an almost rhythmic repetition of the rise and fall in human civilization. and analyzed factors contributing to it.
as it is called today. He wrote: “I have written on history a book in which I discussed the causes and effects of the development of states and civilizations. and I followed in writing it a strange and innovative way.” 416 . Thus. and I followed in arranging the material of the book an unfamiliar method. he found a new science: the science of social development or sociology.
Thus. by selecting his particular method of analysis. He pointed out that injustice. despotism and tyranny are the clear signs of the downfall of the state. he created two new sciences: Historiography and Sociology simultaneously. 417 . He saw reason as a necessity in judging history and social events.
and 3) Their blind acceptance of reports given by others. He remarked that historians have committed errors in their study of historical events. due to three major factors: 1) Their ignorance of the natures of civilization and people. 418 . 2) Their bias and prejudice.
and correct understanding of which can only be achieved by observing the following three main points: 1) A historian should not be in any way prejudiced for or against any one or any idea. and 419 . 2) He needs to conform and scrutinize the reported information. He pointed out that true progress and development comes through correct understanding of history.
420 . For history should include the study of all social. 3) He should not limit history to the study of political and military news or to news about rulers and states. religious and economic conditions.
Law and Jurisprudence The five major schools of legal thought The impact of Muslim jurisprudence on European civil law. 421 .
795 AD) He spent the whole of his life in Madinah where much of the Qur‟an was revealed and most of the legal practices of Islam established. 422 .IMAM MALIK (93 AH . He spent his life studying. recording and clarifying the legal parameters and precedents which was passed down to him by the first two generations of Muslims who were the direct inheritors of the perfected form of Islam left by the Prophet (saw).179 AH/715 .
It is the earliest surviving book of its kind written around 150 A. his most important work is the Kitab alMuwatta. Although he is the author of numerous books. which deals with the subject of Islamic Law based on Ahadith and Sunnah.H. 423 .
Ibn Abd al-Barr said that Malik was the first who compiled a book formed exclusively of sound narrations. while alBukhari‟s book is the second foundation in this respect. Upon these two all the rest have built.” 424 . such as Muslim and al-Tirmidhi. Abu Bakr ibn al-„Arabi said: “The Muwatta’ is the first foundation and the core.
Shah Wali Allah said something similar and
added that it is the principal authority of all four Schools of Law, which stand in relation to it like the commentary stands in relation to the main text. Malik composed it in the course of forty years, having started with ten thousand narrations until he reduced them to their present number of under 2,000.
Imam Malik held the hadith of the Prophet in
such reverence that he never narrated anything nor gave a fatwa unless in a state of ritual purity.
IMAM ABU HANEEFA (80 AH - 150 A.H. 699 AD - 767 AD)
It is said that Abu Hanifah was extremely
pious, avoided forbidden things, remained silent and absorbed in his thoughts most of the time, and answered a question only if he knew the answer. He was very generous and self-respecting, never asked a favour of anybody, shunned the company of the worldly-minded and held worldly power and position in contempt. He avoided slander and only talked well of people. Despite the fact that Abu Hanifa‟s school of thought is the last to emerge, it is the most widely followed. 427
He was a man of profound learning and
was as generous with his knowledge as with his money. Despite his wealth and high position in society, the Imam was extremely gentle and polite. He was a man of few words and never took part in idle talk. In his classroom he would sit quietly, letting his pupils freely debate among themselves, and would speak only when the discussion had become long and drawn-out without any conclusion being reached. He would then give his decision, which would satisfy all present.
He left behind him three works namely (1)
„Fiqh-i-Akbar‟, (2) „Al Alim Wal Mutaam‟ and (3) „Musnad‟.
IMAM SHAFI‘I (150 AH - 204 A.H/767 - 820 AD)
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Idris al-Shafi„i
was a descendant from the Quraysh tribe, and thus, he is the only Imam who is related to the Prophet (saw). The most important of books is the Kitab alUmm which contains his rulings of on almost all subjects of Islamic Law.
He is known as 'Nasir al Sunnah„ (one who
saved the sunnah). He was honoured as al-Imam al Mujaddid in that he is the Mujaddid of the 2nd century. He was a student of Imam Malik with whom he spent eight months. Imam Malik made this comment: “No scholar more brilliant than Muhammad ibn Idris alShafi„i ever came to me as a pupil.”
He is said to have divided innovation (al-
bid‘ah) into good and bad on the basis of „Umar‟s words about the tarawih or congregational supererogatory night prayers in the month of Ramadan: “What a fine innovation this is!”
Among his sayings is: “The study of hadith is
better than supererogatory prayer, and the pursuit of knowledge is better than supererogatory prayer.”
his lectures attracted a huge gathering of at least 5. Imam Muslim. Being a prominent figure. 434 . Imam Bukhari. and Imam Tirmizi were also amongst his noteworthy students.000 students among whom nearly 500 took down notes daily.
he was the last of the four imams. 855 AD) Chronologically. It is said that he learnt almost a million Ahadith by heart.241/780 AD. 435 .IMAM AHMAD IBN HANBAL (164 AH . He was a very pious scholar who devoted all his life in the Science of Ahadith and Fiqh.
‟” 436 . Harmala said: “I heard al-Shafi`i say: „I left Baghdad and did not leave behind me anyone more virtuous (afdhal). more knowledgeable than Ahmad ibn Hanbal. more learned.
. He never once missed praying in the night. and used to recite the entire [Qur‟an] daily. 437 . Abu Dawud said of him: „Ahmad‟s gatherings were gatherings of the afterlife: nothing of this world was mentioned. and his students included many of the foremost scholars of hadith.. Never once did I hear him mention this-worldly things. He was probably the most learned in the sciences of hadith of the four great Imams of Sacred Law.‟ .
Challenges Confronting Muslims Globally Challenges of Modern Science and Technology and the Muslim Responses Challenges of reinvention of Islamic civilization 438 .
The challenge of modern science and technology Pure sciences and technology in themselves can be neutral But since they are the outcome of human endeavor. 439 . and since human endeavor cannot be separated from human values. science and technology will be always value-laden.
Positive Aspects of Western Civilization Contributed modern technology that enable people to achieve great scientific development at all domains such as in communication and transportation Introduced good management in perfecting one‟s work 440 .
Respects human dignity and concerned with freedom and human rights Exchange of power by democratic means Provides with high quality products Introduced computers that eased complicated tasks 441 .
Negative Aspects of contemporary Western Civilization Breaking up all moral values of Divine guidance Unimportance of family structure whereby free sexual relations. wife and children 442 . breaking of noble human feelings by drying its sources and drying up the noble emotions between husband.
air and contamination of land by toxic substances Neglecting principle aims of human life in this world 443 . Creation and use of weapons of mass destruction Pollution of clean water.
Modern science and technology is the product of the West and as a result is Western oriented/ carries their thoughts and values. What needs to be done? To develop an Islamic methodology of scientific research 444 .
To produce Muslim minds who will be able to produce sciences and technology which may serve Islamic values and Muslim interests. To islamize the existing science and put them in an Islamic context. 445 .
Bad living conditions Sponsorship/Government sponsorship: . regional groups …etc.lack of funds.( 446 . Brain drain in the Muslim world . Arab league. .Lack of incentives and facilities .Political instability .unconvinced of the merit of scientific research Joint ventures (OIC.
Islam Hadari: Its Role in Reviving Islamic Civilization 447 .
Historical Background: Islam Hadari was publicized nation-wide for the first time in the 2004 Manifesto of the National Front for the tenth General Election held in March 2004. made Islam Hadari a new policy of his government 448 . as the fifth Prime Minister of Malaysia. Dato‟ Seri Abdullah Badawi.
it is termed as „alIslam Hadari‟ Definition: “A comprehensive approach for the development of mankind. thus „Islam Hadari‟ means „civilizational Islam‟. In Arabic. Literal meaning: the term „ Hadari hadhari‟ means „civilizational‟. society and country based on the perspective of Islamic civilization.” 449 .
450 . consistent with the tenets of Islam and focused on enhancing the quality of life. It aims to achieve this via the mastery of knowledge and the development of the individual and the nation. Islam Hadari is an approach that emphasizes development.
It is not a new teaching nor is it a new mazhab (denomination). back to the Fundamentals. Islam Hadari is not a new religion. 451 . Islam Hadari is an effort to bring the Ummah back to basics. as prescribed in the Qur‟an and the Hadith that form the foundation of Islamic civilization.
that is. 452 . an advanced nation based on its own indigenous matrix. advanced. civilized.Vision: To make Malaysia a model Islamic country. tolerant and balanced. Mission: To implement the development agenda of the country and human based on an Islamic approach which is universal.
Principles of Islam Hadari 1. A just and trustworthy government 3. Balanced and comprehensive economic development 453 . Mastery of knowledge 5. Faith in and piety towards Allah 2. Free and independent People 4.
6. A good quality of life 7. Strong defence capacities 454 . Cultural and moral integrity 9. Safeguarding of the environment 10. Protection of the rights of minority groups and women 8.
Both poverty and illiteracy may lead to underdevelopment of the country 455 .Development & Implementation of Islam Hadari Obstacles: Poverty and illiteracy Both are considered as the biggest threat to Muslim societies today.
456 .Secular Vs Religious knowledge It is not a secular approach as claimed by some people It is an approach toward regeneration and renewal of society and civilization of the 21st century in accordance with the noble values and injunctions of Islam.
457 .Muslims argue that such guidelines will affect them adversely.Radicalism and Extremism 9/11 incident From there onwards Muslims have been labeled as terrorists. Some non.
Solutions: seminars/forums to be organized. Mindset of people.Inconsistencies and confusions Lack of advertising made by the higher authority. 458 .
harmony and peace in multiracial society cultural integration must be consistent with the noble values of Islam 459 .cultural and religious diversity will be protected based on a value and moral system internalization of high moral values .Development balanced development .ensure prosperity.
Prospects Knowledge acquiring knowledge is compulsory and an act of ibadah Islam Hadari encourages learning from others Prophet Muhammad said “Go forth and seek knowledge even if you have to travel to China 460 .
physical & material” 461 .Wealth wealth must be acquired in halal way society must be bold and independent in acquiring wealth Surah al-Qasas (77) “ Life in hereafter depends on the ability of individual to achieve good life in all aspects – spiritual.
a.unable to carry out religious duties and responsibilities good health – society with free spirit will produce positively Prophet Muhammad s.Health Sick and physically weak .w has said “The mu‟mins who are strong are better and loved by Allah than those who are weak” 462 .
463 .STRATEGIES To expend Islam Hadari into the building of civilization Islamic countries should enhance and develop their institutions of knowledge at all levels. People should be more openminded and forward looking.
To work towards reducing/eliminating poverty To increase economic resources and financial assets. 464 . To improve the living standards of people To make a continuous effort towards the physical and spiritual development of the human beings.
To persuade our non-Muslim colleagues not to be prejudiced against Muslims 465 . To hold religious and civilizational dialogues To expand Islam Hadari that reflects intellectuality. humanity. tolerance and critical thinking.
country and individual 466 . To protect the political institution and keep the country in peace To help preparing Muslims in facing global challenges To have long term plans & programs for instilling responsibility towards the defense and dignity of the nation.
To remove Islamophobia from non-Muslims To urge International community to stop actions that lead to the perpetuation of injustices against Muslim countries and the Muslim Ummah 467 .
Government to cooperate with nations in the region and Islamic nations all over the world Defending the country from internal and external aggression 468 .
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