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Chapter 6

IP Version6

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Internet Protocol (IP)


IP connectionless network-layer protocol. IP is based on datagram routing. IP is unreliable !! Routing in IP is a mixture of hierarchical, distance vector and link state routing algorithms.

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Datagram
Packets in IP layer are called datagram. Datagram has two parts namely header

and data. The header is 20 to 60 bytes in length. It contains the information essential for routing and delivery. It also contain variable length data.
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IP Addresses
Every host or router on the internet has a unique IP address. It is 32 bits long.

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IP Addresses

192.168.0.140 (11000000.10101000.00000000.100 01100)

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Class A
a.0 in the first field indicates type A. b. The host number range from 0.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 c. There are 126 types of networks and 17 million host.

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Class B
a.10 in the first field indicates type B. b.First two fields identify the network, and the number in the first field must be in the range 128 191. (10000000 - 10111111). c. Class B network are large. d.The host number range from 0.0 to 255.255 i.e. 65,534.

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Class C
a.110 in the first field indicates type C. b. 21 bits are reserved for network. c. 8 bits Host.

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Class D
a.1110 in the first field indicates type D. b. 2 million networks with up to 254 host. c. Class D format allows multicast in which a datagram is directed to multiple host.

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Class E
a.11110 in the first field indicates type E. b. These addresses are reserved for future use.

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IPv4 Datagram Header


0 VERS 4 HLEN 8 TOS FLAG 16 19 TOTAL LENGTH FRAGMENT OFFSET CHECKSUM

31

IDENTIFICATION TTL PROTOCOL

SOURCE ADDRESS DESTINATION ADDRESS OPTIONS (if any) + PADDING


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Problems with IPv4: Limited Address Space


IPv4 has 32 bit addresses. Flat addressing (only netid + hostid with fixed boundaries) Results in inefficient use of address space. Class B addresses are almost over. Addresses will exhaust in the next 5 years. IPv4 is victim of its own success.

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Advantages of IPv6:
Large address space Better Header format New options Allows extension Support for resource allocation Support for more security

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IPv6 Addresses
128-bit addresses Multiple addresses can be assigned to

an interface Provider-based hierarchy to be used in the beginning Addresses should have 64-bit interface

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IPv6 Addresses:
HEX in blocks of 16 bits

BC84 : 25C2 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 55AB : 5521 : 0018


leading zero suppression

BC84 : 25C2 : 0 : 0 :55AB : 5521 : 18

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Compressed format removes strings

of 0s

BC84 : 25C2 :: 55AB : 5521 : 18 :: can appear only once in an address. can also be used to compress leading or trailing 0s Mixed Notation (X:X:X:X:X:X:d.d.d.d) e.g., ::144.16.162.21
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IPv6 Header Format


0 Vers 4 Priority Payload Length 12 16 Flow Label Next Header Hop Limit 24 31

Source Address

Destination Address

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IPv6 Header Fields


Version number (4-bit field)

The value is always 6. Priority (4 bit field) : specifies priority Flow label (24-bit field or 3 bytes) Used to label packets requesting special handling by routers. Payload length (16-bit field) Length of the packet following the IPv6 header, in octets.
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Next header (8-bit field)

The type of header immediately following the IPv6 header. Hop limit (8-bit field) Decremented by 1 by each node that forwards the packet. Packet discarded if hop limit is decremented to zero.
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IPv6 Header Fields


Source Address (128-bit field)

An address of the initial sender of the packet. Destination Address (128-bit field) An address of the intended recipient of the packet. May not be the ultimate recipient, if Routing Header is present.

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Header Changes from IPv4


Longer address - 32 bits 128 bits Fragmentation field moved to separate header Header checksum removed Header length removed (fixed length header) Length field excludes IPv6 header Time to live Hop limit Protocol Next header 64-bit field alignment TOS replaced by flow label, traffic class

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THANKYOU!!!

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