• MUHAMAD ZAKI ZAFRI BIN ZAINAL • PATRICK PAUL RAJ A/L PHILIP
• 1. CULTURAL (ZAKI) = FEMINIST THEORY • 2. SOCIOLOGICAL (PATRICK PAUL) = MARXIST THEORY
and linguistics at the University of Malaya.SIEW YUE KILLINGLEY
• Siew-Yue Killingley was born in 1940 in Kuala Lumpur. literature.
• After graduating she taught English language. when she taught in schools while still a student at the University of Malaya. in a Cantonesespeaking family. and moved to England in 1968. phonetics.
• Her work as a teacher began in 1961.
tell about a Ceylonese girl named Rukumani that having secret affair with a Ceylonese boy named Devanayagam while studying at University.
. Her marriages were arranged against her own wish. relatives and their community as they try to get together in life. their secret affair discovered by their parents. The story tell about how these young couple. Both of them love each other deeply. As they went for longs term vacation. especially Rukumani have struggle and suffer because of their family members.SYNOPSIS
• Siew Yue Killingley in Everything’s Arranged.
DEFINITION • Focusing on it particularly as it concerns questioning the ways Western cultural tradition expressed in literature defines itself partly by stifling the voices of oppressed groups or even by demonizing those groups.
. how these groups have constructed oppositional literary identities. and how different communities of readers might interpret the same text differently due to varied value systems. • Focus on how literary tradition has constructed models of identity for oppressed groups.
and psychological oppression of women" (Tyson)... political...FEMINIST THEORY
DEFINITION • Study and advocate the rights of women.this critique strives to expose the explicit and implicit misogyny in male writing about women" (Richter 1346). • This school of theory looks at how aspects of our culture are inherently patriarchal (male dominated) and ". • concerned with ". social.
.the ways in which literature (and other cultural productions) reinforce or undermine the economic.
1st CRITERIA .Feminists possess a collective identity: they are women (and some man) who are struggling to discover who they are. and where they are going. Bressler. (Charles E. 1994)
. how they arrived at their present situation.
. that if sex were brought into it. such as those of the Modern Girl” (Siew Yue Killingley.If sex is mention infront of a girl. it can give the wrong idea about marriage to them.1st EVIDENCE: “ Marriage was such a spiritual thing. really. it would give her the wrong ideas.
. not woman.Feminist believe is a male dominated world.• 2nd CRITERIA . Bressler. (Charles E.Feminist declare that it is man who defines what it means to be human. .
the men adding a grunt or two when their opinions were asked.Women is controlling the situation while men only hear and add something when the women asked them. 1965)
.” (Siew Yue Killingley.• 2nd EVIDENCE “It was really the women who doing most of the talking.
• 3rd CRITERIA . are people in their own right. . they are not incomplete or inferior men. 1994)
.Women. (Charles E. they declare. Bressler.Feminist critics want to show humankind the errors of such a way of thinking.
.Girls are not allowed to treat a boy freely.” (Siew Yue Killingley.• 3rd EVIDENCE “Young people nowadays have no shame. My mother would have sent me out of the house if I had entertained a boy friend as freely as that. 1965)
• 4th CRITERIA .
. who said that her children could not share one ticket.Women cannot without support of a man 4th evidence= a Chinese women who had a veritable brood with her. and she was having an argument with the ticket inspector.Women cannot be independence .
An approach to literature that examines social groups.
. and values as they are manifested in literature. Emphasize the nature and effect of the social forces that shape power relationships between groups or classes of people.
– The working class will eventually overthrow the capitalist middle class. – The middle class exploits the working class.Class conflict
• Based on the social and economic theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. • Marxist critics apply these economic and social theories to literature by analyzing . Their belief includes : – Value is based on labor.
Evidence = “We have been Ceylonese Tamils for a long time.MARXISM
• 1ST criteria: SOCIAL STATUS – the status of a Ceylonese family in society. Do you think you can spoil our blood now?”
. Evidence = “grooms family would demand more dowry if she did not become a B.A.MARXISM
• 2nd criteria : EDUCATION STATUS – the status of a women with education and without it.
• 3rd criteria : STATUS OF BRANDED OUTFIT – importance given to branded things which indirectly affects the working class Evidence = “Junior Kashmir could be recognized as something inferior from as far away as twenty yards whereas Senior Kashmir ‘got class’
Evidence = 1. “Mr. “Rukumani’s mother in order to shift some blame from herself.”
. sometimes tried to get her mother in law on her side”
• 4TH criteria : STATUS OF A HOUSEWIFE – under a control of mother in law and husband as a working class people.Sambanthan accused his wife of not teaching her daughter morals.
HAPPY LITERATURE HOURS. ┏(-_-)┛┗(-_...)┓┗(-_-)┛┏(-_-)┓