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Communicating in Organizations

What is
It is the process by which information is exchanged and understood by two or more people.

The Manager as Information Nerve Center

External Information Internal Information

Manager as Monitor Information processor Communicator

Manager as Disseminator Distributes information to subordinates

Manager as Spokesperson Distributes information to people outside the organization

The Communication Process

Managers Communication is Purpose-directed

Managers facilitate strategic conversations by using open communication, actively listening to others, applying the practice of dialogue, and using feedback for learning and change

Communicating Among People

Communication Channels

Channel Richness: amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode

Capacity of Information Channel

Influenced by Three Characteristics

1. The ability to handle multiple cues simultaneously. 2. The ability to facilitate rapid, two-way feedback. 3. The ability to establish a personal focus for the communication.

Non-Verbal Communication
actions speak louder than words it is not what you say but how you say it

Messages sent through human actions and behavior rather through words Occurs mostly face-to-face Three factors in message interpretation.
Verbal Impact: 7 percent Vocal Impact: 38 percent Facial Impact: 55 percent

Involves the skill of grasping facts and feelings to interpret a messages genuine meaning Requires attention, energy, and skill

Ten Keys to Effective Listening

Organizational Communication
Formal Communication Channels
Downward Communication Upward Communication Horizontal Communication

Team Communicational Channels Personal Communication Channels

Developing Personal Communication Networks Management by Wandering Around The Grapevine

Formal Communication Channels

Team Communication Channels

Centralized Network Team members must communicate through one individual to solve problems or make decisions Decentralized Network Team members freely communicate with one another and arrive at decisions together

Personal Communication Channels

Exist outside the formally authorized channels and do not adhere to the organizations hierarchy of authority There are 3 types: Personal Networks Management by Wandering Around (MBWA) The Grapevine
Gossip chain: A single individual conveys news to many. Cluster chain: A few individuals each convey information to many.

Communicating During Turbulent Times

Open Communication
Sharing all types of information throughout the company, across functional and hierarchal levels

A group communication process in which people together create a stream of shared meaning that enables them to understand each other and share a view of the world.

Dialogue and Discussion: the Differences

Conversation Lack of understanding, disagreement, divergent points of view Discussion
State positions Advocate convictions Convince others Build oppositions


Reveal feelings Explore assumptions Suspend convictions Build common ground

Long-term, innovative solutions Unified group Shared meaning Transformed mind-sets

Short-term resolution Agreement by logic Opposition beaten down Mind-sets held onto

Source:Adapted from Edgar Schein, On Dialogue, Culture, and Organization Learning, Organizational Dynamics (Autumn 1993), 46.

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Copyright 2004 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Communicating During Turbulent Times

Crisis Communication
Maintain your focus Be visible Get the awful truth out Communicate a vision for the future

Feedback and Learning

Occurs when managers use evaluation and communication to help individuals and the organization learn and improve