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CIT-ChE

Log-Interpretation

Basic Concepts of Log Analysis

Porosity 4. Hydrocarbon Type and Pay Counting . Permeability 6. Lithology 3. Introduction 2.Contents 1. Water Saturation 5.

Introduction The basic log analysis: ● Identification of porous and permeable reservoir rocks ● Porosity estimation ● Water saturation calculation ● Differentiation between oil and gas bearing sections .

et c. Signal Excited Signal Received Formation TOOLs Different Logs Physics Fields Many sorts.metho d and experience Formation Evaluation.Features of Well Logging Data Acquisition Logs Application Theory. much data High Vertical and bad horizontal Resolution Badly affected by hole Need integration with other information .

. porosity.The Fundamental Questions • What kind of rock is present? • Are any hydrocarbon present? If so.e. should a test be run and the well completed? • What kind of hydrocarbon is present: oil. net pay. reserves)? . gas or condensate? • How much is there (i. Sw.

pore space. Track 3: Sw Track 4: lithology. Vf in pore space. K Track 2: Φe . .Track 1: Vsh.

Lithology • The first step of log analysis is to determine the Lithology profile (and mineral content analysis). • By Lithology identification. the log analysts can concentrate on the sections containing potential reservoir rock. .

The Criteria to Use for „Sifting‟ Reservoir Rocks Low GR Good SP development Relative separation of resistivity curves Non-Reservoir Rocks High GR Flat SP Resistivity curves “stack” .

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Porosity The porosity of a formation is defined as the volume of the pore space divided by the volume of the rock containing the pore space. This definition ignores the question of whether or not the pores are interconnected. .

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.Measurement of Porosity Porosity may be measured by a variety of methods including: ● Wireline logging ● Core analysis. You should not be surprised when porosity estimates from different techniques do not agree.

Two phases: 1=So+Sw Three phases: 1=Sg+So+Sw .Water Saturation-Sw Water saturation is defined as the volume fraction of the pore space occupied by water (see following figure).

and fluid viscosity (μ) such that: k=(QLμ)/(△PA) . Pressure differential (△P). While porosity is a static property of a rock.Permeability (K) Permeability is a measure of how easily fluids can flow through a formation. If flow is laminar then Darcy’s relation can be used to define K in terms of flow rate (Q). permeability is a dynamic one. length (L). area (A).

Measurement of Permeability There are many ways to estimate permeability. including: One relies upon empirical correlations between porosity and irreducible water saturation ● ● Pressure buildup from DST Pressure draw-down and buildup from FMT Log analysis Core analysis ● ● ● .

Hydrocarbon Type and Pay Counting Hydrocarbon Type: To distinguish between oil and gas. neutrondensity log leave its “fingerprint” on the neutron/density overlay (see the plot on next page). .

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Pay Counting: Not all of pay section will produce hydrocarbons. and there are sections at the base of the interval that will produce water. There are low porosity shale streaks which have no permeability. .

Computer Center Integrated Analysis .

. Other information ...What do our clients want to know? We have: Conventional logging data We can offer: Reservoir property information Special logging data Mud logging data Geological structure information Other data ...

saturation and permeability Calculate hydrocarbon bearing zone thickness Output results .Reservoir Property Calculation Flow Chart Input logging data Environmental correction Generate Lithology Profile Calculate porosity.

Lithology Profile Generated Method △t = △tf * + △t1 *V1+ △t2 * V2 + △t3 * V3 b = f * + 1 * V1 + 2 * V2+ 3 * V3 N = f* + 1 * V1 + 2 * V2 + 3 * V3 1 = + V1 + V2 +V3 V1 V2 V3 .

Porosity Calculation (△tc △tma ) Cp(△tf △tma ) 1. By neutron: N . (As shown in last page) 5.. which can also generate Lithology Profile. By density: D = ma b 3. By 3-porosity crossplot. By sonic: S = (ma b ) Vsh(ma sh) 2. . MRIL or other methods. By core analysis. 4. use directly or need lithology correcting.

Sw Other transforms Other transforms More.054*4 Perm= Swi Kint=104. click here Saturation Permeability .0lg(1.4+A+3.) So = 1 -.Saturation and Permeability Calculation Porosity( ) Resistivit y I Rt R0 b S n w ab nS =( Rw w F R0 Rw a m m Rt ) 0.0*lg -2.

Softwares .

Logging Data Processing Results .

Logging Data Processing Results .

Well … .Petroleum Engineering . Welltest. Mudlog.Log. Tectonic belt.Petroleum Geology . Reservoir. Seismic.Basic Geology Basin. Geological… Geological Problems: .

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