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**Vapor and Combined Power Cycles
**

Study Guide in PowerPoint

to accompany

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th edition

by Yunus A. Çengel and Michael A. Boles

2

We consider power cycles where the working fluid undergoes a phase change. The

best example of this cycle is the steam power cycle where water (steam) is the

working fluid.

Carnot Vapor Cycle

3

The heat engine may be composed of the following components.

The working fluid, steam (water), undergoes a thermodynamic cycle from 1-2-3-4-1.

The cycle is shown on the following T-s diagram.

4

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700 700

s [kJ/kg-K]

T

[

C

]

6000 kPa

100 kPa

Carnot Vapor Cycle Using Steam

1

2

3

4

The thermal efficiency of this cycle is given as

q

th Carnot

net

in

out

in

L

H

W

Q

Q

Q

T

T

,

= = ÷

= ÷

1

1

Note the effect of T

H

and T

L

on q

th, Carnot

.

•The larger the T

H

the larger the q

th, Carnot

•The smaller the T

L

the larger the q

th, Carnot

5

To increase the thermal efficiency in any power cycle, we try to increase the

maximum temperature at which heat is added.

Reasons why the Carnot cycle is not used:

•Pumping process 1-2 requires the pumping of a mixture of saturated liquid and

saturated vapor at state 1 and the delivery of a saturated liquid at state 2.

•To superheat the steam to take advantage of a higher temperature, elaborate

controls are required to keep T

H

constant while the steam expands and does work.

To resolve the difficulties associated with the Carnot cycle, the Rankine cycle was

devised.

Rankine Cycle

The simple Rankine cycle has the same component layout as the Carnot cycle

shown above. The simple Rankine cycle continues the condensation process 4-1

until the saturated liquid line is reached.

Ideal Rankine Cycle Processes

Process Description

1-2 Isentropic compression in pump

2-3 Constant pressure heat addition in boiler

3-4 Isentropic expansion in turbine

4-1 Constant pressure heat rejection in condenser

6

The T-s diagram for the Rankine cycle is given below. Locate the processes for heat

transfer and work on the diagram.

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 12

0

100

200

300

400

500

s [kJ/kg-K]

T

[

C

]

6000 kPa

10 kPa

Rankine Vapor Power Cycle

1

2

3

4

Example 10-1

Compute the thermal efficiency of an ideal Rankine cycle for which steam leaves

the boiler as superheated vapor at 6 MPa, 350

o

C, and is condensed at 10 kPa.

We use the power system and T-s diagram shown above.

P

2

= P

3

= 6 MPa = 6000 kPa

T

3

= 350

o

C

P

1

= P

4

= 10 kPa

7

Pump

The pump work is obtained from the conservation of mass and energy for steady-flow

but neglecting potential and kinetic energy changes and assuming the pump is

adiabatic and reversible.

( )

m m m

mh W m h

W m h h

pump

pump

1 2

1 1 2 2

2 1

= =

+ =

= ÷

Since the pumping process involves an incompressible liquid, state 2 is in the

compressed liquid region, we use a second method to find the pump work or the Ah

across the pump.

Recall the property relation:

dh = T ds + v dP

Since the ideal pumping process 1-2 is isentropic, ds = 0.

8

The incompressible liquid assumption allows

v v const

h h v P P

~ =

÷ ~ ÷

1

2 1 1 2 1

.

( )

The pump work is calculated from

( ) ( )

( )

W m h h mv P P

w

W

m

v P P

pump

pump

pump

= ÷ ~ ÷

= = ÷

2 1 1 2 1

1 2 1

Using the steam tables

1

1

3

1

191.81

10

.

0.00101

f

f

kJ

h h

kg P kPa

Sat liquid m

v v

kg

¦

= =

¦

=

¹

¦

`´

)

¦

= =

¦

¹

w v P P

m

kg

kPa

kJ

m kPa

kJ

kg

pump

= ÷

= ÷

=

1 2 1

3

3

0 00101 6000 10

6 05

( )

. ( )

.

9

Now, h

2

is found from

2 1

6.05 191.81

197.86

pump

h w h

kJ kJ

kg kg

kJ

kg

= +

= +

=

Boiler

To find the heat supplied in the boiler, we apply the steady-flow conservation of mass

and energy to the boiler. If we neglect the potential and kinetic energies, and note

that no work is done on the steam in the boiler, then

( )

m m m

m h Q m h

Q m h h

in

in

2 3

2 2 3 3

3 2

= =

+ =

= ÷

10

We find the properties at state 3 from the superheated tables as

3

3

3

3

3043.9

6000

350

6.3357

o

kJ

h

P kPa

kg

kJ

T C

s

kg K

¦

=

¦

=

¹

¦

`´

=

)¦

=

¦

·

¹

The heat transfer per unit mass is

3 2

(3043.9 197.86)

2845.1

in

in

Q

q h h

m

kJ

kg

kJ

kg

= = ÷

= ÷

=

11

Turbine

The turbine work is obtained from the application of the conservation of mass and

energy for steady flow. We assume the process is adiabatic and reversible and

neglect changes in kinetic and potential energies.

( )

m m m

m h W m h

W m h h

turb

turb

3 4

3 3 4 4

3 4

= =

= +

= ÷

We find the properties at state 4 from the steam tables by noting s

4

= s

3

= 6.3357

kJ/kg-K and asking three questions.

4

4

4

4

10 : 0.6492 ; 8.1488

?

?

?

f g

f

f g

g

kJ kJ

at P kPa s s

kg K kg K

is s s

is s s s

is s s

= = =

· ·

<

< <

<

12

4 4

4

4

6.3357 0.6492

0.758

7.4996

f fg

f

fg

s s x s

s s

x

s

= +

÷

÷

= = =

4 4

191.81 0.758(2392.1)

2005.0

f fg

h h x h

kJ kJ

kg kg

kJ

kg

= +

= +

=

The turbine work per unit mass is

3 4

(3043.9 2005.0)

1038.9

turb

w h h

kJ

kg

kJ

kg

= ÷

= ÷

=

13

The net work done by the cycle is

(1038.9 6.05)

1032.8

net turb pump

w w w

kJ

kg

kJ

kg

= ÷

= ÷

=

The thermal efficiency is

1032.8

2845.1

0.363 36.3%

net

th

in

kJ

w kg

kJ

q

kg

or

q = =

=

14

Ways to improve the simple Rankine cycle efficiency:

• Superheat the vapor

Average temperature is higher during heat addition.

Moisture is reduced at turbine exit (we want x

4

in the above example > 85

percent).

• Increase boiler pressure (for fixed maximum temperature)

Availability of steam is higher at higher pressures.

Moisture is increased at turbine exit.

• Lower condenser pressure

Less energy is lost to surroundings.

Moisture is increased at turbine exit.

Extra Assignment

For the above example, find the heat rejected by the cycle and evaluate the thermal

efficiency from

q

th

net

in

out

in

w

q

q

q

= = ÷ 1

15

Reheat Cycle

As the boiler pressure is increased in the simple Rankine cycle, not only does the

thermal efficiency increase, but also the turbine exit moisture increases. The reheat

cycle allows the use of higher boiler pressures and provides a means to keep the

turbine exit moisture (x > 0.85 to 0.90) at an acceptable level.

Let’s sketch the T-s diagram for the reheat cycle.

T

s

t

16

Rankine Cycle with Reheat

Component Process First Law Result

Boiler Const. P q

in

= (h

3

- h

2

) + (h

5

- h

4

)

Turbine Isentropic w

out

= (h

3

- h

4

) + (h

5

- h

6

)

Condenser Const. P q

out

= (h

6

- h

1

)

Pump Isentropic w

in

= (h

2

- h

1

) = v

1

(P

2

- P

1

)

The thermal efficiency is given by

q

th

net

in

w

q

h h h h h h

h h h h

h h

h h h h

=

=

= ÷

÷

( - ) + ( - ) - ( - )

( - ) + ( - )

( - ) + ( - )

3 4 5 6 2 1

3 2 5 4

6 1

3 2 5 4

1

17

Example 10-2

Compare the thermal efficiency and turbine-exit quality at the condenser

pressure for a simple Rankine cycle and the reheat cycle when the boiler pressure is

4 MPa, the boiler exit temperature is 400

o

C, and the condenser pressure is 10 kPa.

The reheat takes place at 0.4 MPa and the steam leaves the reheater at 400

o

C.

q

th

x

turb exit

No Reheat 35.3% 0.8159

With Reheat 35.9% 0.9664

18

Regenerative Cycle

To improve the cycle thermal efficiency, the average temperature at which heat is

added must be increased.

One way to do this is to allow the steam leaving the boiler to expand the steam in the

turbine to an intermediate pressure. A portion of the steam is extracted from the

turbine and sent to a regenerative heater to preheat the condensate before entering

the boiler. This approach increases the average temperature at which heat is added

in the boiler. However, this reduces the mass of steam expanding in the lower-

pressure stages of the turbine, and, thus, the total work done by the turbine. The

work that is done is done more efficiently.

The preheating of the condensate is done in a combination of open and closed

heaters. In the open feedwater heater, the extracted steam and the condensate are

physically mixed. In the closed feedwater heater, the extracted steam and the

condensate are not mixed.

19

Cycle with an open feedwater heater

20

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 12

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

s [kJ/kg-K]

T

[

C

]

3000 kPa

500 kPa

10 kPa

Rankine Steam Power Cycle with an Open Feedwater Heater

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Cycle with a closed feedwater heater with steam trap to condenser

21

Let’s sketch the T-s diagram for this closed feedwater heater cycle.

T

s

22

Cycle with a closed feedwater heater with pump to boiler pressure

23

Let’s sketch the T-s diagram for this closed feedwater heater cycle.

T

s

Consider the regenerative cycle with the open feedwater heater.

To find the fraction of mass to be extracted from the turbine, apply the first law to the

feedwater heater and assume, in the ideal case, that the water leaves the feedwater

heater as a saturated liquid. (In the case of the ideal closed feedwater heater, the

feedwater leaves the heater at a temperature equal to the saturation temperature at

the extraction pressure.)

Conservation of mass for the open feedwater heater:

24

y m m = /

6 5

Let be the fraction of mass extracted from the turbine for the feedwater

heater.

( )

m m

m m m m

m m m m y

in out

=

+ = =

= ÷ = ÷

6 2 3 5

2 5 6 5

1

Conservation of energy for the open feedwater heater:

( )

E E

m h m h m h

ym h y m h m h

y

h h

h h

in out

=

+ =

+ ÷ =

=

÷

÷

6 6 2 2 3 3

5 6 5 2 5 3

3 2

6 2

1

25

Example 10-3

An ideal regenerative steam power cycle operates so that steam enters the turbine at

3 MPa, 500

o

C, and exhausts at 10 kPa. A single open feedwater heater is used and

operates at 0.5 MPa. Compute the cycle thermal efficiency.

The important properties of water for this cycle are shown below.

States with selected properties Selected saturation properties

State P

kPa

T

°C

h

kJ/kg

s

kJ/kg-K

P

kPa

T

sat

°C

v

f

m

3

/kg

h

f

kJ/kg

1 10 10 45.81 0.00101 191.8

2 500 500 151.83 0.00109 640.1

3 500 3000 233.85 0.00122 1008.3

4 3000

5 3000 500 3457.2 7.2359

6 500 2942.6 7.2359

7 10 2292.7 7.2359

26

The work for pump 1 is calculated from

w v P P

m

kg

kPa

kJ

m kPa

kJ

kg

pump 1 1 2 1

3

3

000101 10

05

= ÷

= ÷

=

( )

. (500 )

.

Now, h

2

is found from

h w h

kJ

kg

kJ

kg

kJ

kg

pump 2 1 1

05 1918

192 3

= +

= +

=

. .

.

27

The fraction of mass extracted from the turbine for the open feedwater heater is

obtained from the energy balance on the open feedwater heater, as shown above.

3 2

6 2

(640.1 192.3)

0.163

(2942.6 192.3)

kJ

h h kg

y

kJ

h h

kg

÷

÷

= = =

÷

÷

This means that for each kg of steam entering the turbine, 0.163 kg is extracted for

the feedwater heater.

The work for pump 2 is calculated from

w v P P

m

kg

kPa

kJ

m kPa

kJ

kg

pump 2 3 4 3

3

3

000109 3000 500

2 7

= ÷

= ÷

=

( )

. ( )

.

28

Now, h

4

is found from the energy balance for pump 2 for a unit of mass flowing

through the pump.

4 2 3

2.7 640.1

642.8

out in

pump

E E

h w h

kJ kJ

kg kg

kJ

kg

=

= +

= +

=

Apply the steady-flow conservation of energy to the isentropic turbine.

5 5 6 6 7 7

5 5 6 7

5 6 7

5

[ (1 ) ]

(1 )

[3457.2 (0.163)(2942.1) (1 0.163)(2292.7)]

1058.6

in out

turb

turb

turb

turb

E E

m h W m h m h

W m h yh y h

W

w h yh y h

m

kJ

kg

kJ

kg

=

= + +

= ÷ ÷ ÷

= = ÷ ÷ ÷

= ÷ ÷ ÷

=

29

The net work done by the cycle is

1 2

5 5 1 1 3 2

5 5 5 1 5 2

1 2

(1 )

(1 )

[1058.6 (1 0.163)(0.5) 2.7]

1055.5

net turb pump pump

net turb pump pump

net turb pump pump

net turb pump pump

W W W W

m w m w m w m w

m w m w m y w m w

w w y w w

kJ

kg

kJ

kg

= ÷ ÷

= ÷ ÷

= ÷ ÷ ÷

= ÷ ÷ ÷

= ÷ ÷ ÷

=

Apply the steady-flow conservation of mass and energy to the boiler.

( )

m m

m h Q m h

Q m h h

q

Q

m

h h

in

in

in

in

4 5

4 4 5 5

5 5 4

5

5 4

=

+ =

= ÷

= = ÷

30

The heat transfer per unit mass entering the turbine at the high pressure, state 5, is

5 4

(3457.2 642.8) 2814.4

in

q h h

kJ kJ

kg kg

= ÷

= ÷ =

The thermal efficiency is

1055.5

2814.4

0.375 37.5%

net

th

in

kJ

w kg

kJ

q

kg

or

q = =

=

If these data were used for a Rankine cycle with no regeneration, then q

th

= 35.6

percent. Thus, the one open feedwater heater operating at 0.5 MPa increased the

thermal efficiency by 5.3 percent. However, note that the mass flowing through the

lower-pressure turbine stages has been reduced by the amount extracted for the

feedwater and the net work output for the regenerative cycle is about 10 percent

lower than the standard Rankine cycle based on a unit of mass entering the turbine at

the highest pressure.

31

Below is a plot of cycle thermal efficiency versus the open feedwater heater pressure.

The feedwater heater pressure that makes the cycle thermal efficiency a maximum is

about 400 kPa.

0 450 900 1350 1800 2250

0.360

0.362

0.364

0.366

0.368

0.370

0.372

0.374

0.376 0.376

P

ofwh

[kPa]

q

t

h

q

th

vs OFWH Pressure

32

Below is a plot of cycle net work per unit mass flow at state 5 and the fraction of mass

y extracted for the feedwater heater versus the open feedwater heater pressure.

Clearly the net cycle work decreases and the fraction of mass extracted increases

with increasing extraction pressure. Why does the fraction of mass extracted

increase with increasing extraction pressure?

0 450 900 1350 1800 2250

900

950

1000

1050

1100

1150

1200

0.03

0.05

0.08

0.10

0.13

0.15

0.18

0.20

0.23

0.25

P

ofwh

[kPa]

w

n

e

t

k

J

/

k

g

y

w

net

and y vs OFWH Pressure

33

Placement of Feedwater Heaters

The extraction pressures for multiple feedwater heaters are chosen to maximize the

cycle efficiency. As a rule of thumb, the extraction pressures for the feedwater

heaters are chosen such that the saturation temperature difference between each

component is about the same.

A A T T etc

cond to FWH boiler to FWH

= , .

Example 10-4

An ideal regenerative steam power cycle operates so that steam enters the turbine at

3 MPa, 500

o

C, and exhausts at 10 kPa. Two closed feedwater heaters are to be

used. Select starting values for the feedwater heater extraction pressures.

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 12

0

100

200

300

400

s [kJ/kg-K]

T

[

C

]

3000 kPa

815 kPa

136.2 kPa

10 kPa

Steam

A T = 62.68

A T = 62.68

A T = 62.68

C

C

C

233.9 C

45.85 C

45.8

1

34

Deviation from Actual Cycles

•Piping losses--frictional effects reduce the available energy content of the steam.

•Turbine losses--turbine isentropic (or adiabatic) efficiency.

4a

4s

3

s

T

P

3

P

4

q

turb

actual

isentropic

a

s

w

w

h h

h h

= =

÷

÷

3 4

3 4

The actual enthalpy at the turbine exit (needed for the energy analysis of the next

component) is

h h h h

a turb s 4 3 3 4

= ÷ ÷ q ( )

35

•Pump losses--pump isentropic (or adiabatic) efficiency.

2

a

2

s

1

s

T

P

2

P

1

q

pump

isentropic

actual

s

a

w

w

h h

h h

= =

÷

÷

2 1

2 1

The actual enthalpy at the pump exit (needed for the energy analysis of the next

component) is

h h h h

a

pump

s 2 1 2 1

1

= + ÷

q

( )

•Condenser losses--relatively small losses that result from cooling the condensate

below the saturation temperature in the condenser.

36

The following examples you should try on your own.

Regenerative Feedwater Heater problem

Consider an ideal steam regenerative Rankine cycle with two feedwater heaters, one

closed and one open. Steam enters the turbine at 10 MPa and 500 C and

exhausts to the condenser at 10 kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 0.7

MPa for the closed feedwater heater and 0.3 MPa for the open one. The extracted

steam leaves the closed feedwater heater and is subsequently throttled to the

open feedwater heater. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to

saturation lines, and using only the data presented in the data tables given below

determine

a) the fraction of steam leaving the boiler that is extracted at 0.3 MPa z=0.1425

b) the fraction of steam leaving the boiler that is extracted at 0.7 MPa y=0.06213

c) the heat transfer from the condenser per unit mass leaving the boiler q_out=1509

kJ/kg

d) the heat transfer to the boiler per unit mass leaving the boiler q_in=2677 kJ/kg

e) the mass flow rate of steam through the boiler for a net power output of 250 MW

m_dot=214.1 kg/s

f) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. Eta_th=0.4363

37

38

Cogeneration Plant

A cogeneration plant is to generate power and process heat. Consider an ideal

cogeneration steam plant. Steam enters the turbine from the boiler at 7 MPa,

500 C and a mass flow rate of 30 kg/s. One-fourth of the steam is extracted from

the turbine at 600-kPa pressure for process heating. The remainder of the steam

continues to expand and exhausts to the condenser at 10 kPa. The steam

extracted for the process heater is condensed in the heater and mixed with the

feedwater at 600 kPa. The mixture is pumped to the boiler pressure of 7 MPa.

Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines, and determine

a) the heat transfer from the process heater per unit mass leaving the boiler

Qdot,process = 15,774 kW.

b) the net power produced by the cycle. Wdot,net = 32,848 kW.

c) the utilization factor of the plant Qdot,in = 92,753 kW, Utilization factor = 52.4%.

39

40

Combined Gas-Steam Power Cycle

Example of the Combined Brayton and Rankine Cycles

(a) Explain what’s happening in the various process for the hardware shown below.

We consider power cycles where the working fluid undergoes a phase change. The best example of this cycle is the steam power cycle where water (steam) is the working fluid. Carnot Vapor Cycle

2

The heat engine may be composed of the following components.

The working fluid, steam (water), undergoes a thermodynamic cycle from 1-2-3-4-1. The cycle is shown on the following T-s diagram.

3

**Carnot Vapor Cycle Using Steam
**

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0.0

6000 kPa

T [C]

2

3 4

4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

100 kPa

1

1.0 2.0 3.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

s [kJ/kg-K]

The thermal efficiency of this cycle is given as

th , Carnot

Wnet Q 1 out Qin Qin

Note the effect of TH and TL on th, Carnot. •The larger the TH the larger the th, Carnot •The smaller the TL the larger the th, Carnot

TL 1 TH

4

Rankine Cycle The simple Rankine cycle has the same component layout as the Carnot cycle shown above. The simple Rankine cycle continues the condensation process 4-1 until the saturated liquid line is reached. the Rankine cycle was devised. elaborate controls are required to keep TH constant while the steam expands and does work. To resolve the difficulties associated with the Carnot cycle. •To superheat the steam to take advantage of a higher temperature. we try to increase the maximum temperature at which heat is added. Ideal Rankine Cycle Processes Process Description 1-2 Isentropic compression in pump 2-3 Constant pressure heat addition in boiler 3-4 Isentropic expansion in turbine 4-1 Constant pressure heat rejection in condenser5 . Reasons why the Carnot cycle is not used: •Pumping process 1-2 requires the pumping of a mixture of saturated liquid and saturated vapor at state 1 and the delivery of a saturated liquid at state 2.To increase the thermal efficiency in any power cycle.

P2 = P3 = 6 MPa = 6000 kPa T3 = 350oC P1 = P4 = 10 kPa 6 . Locate the processes for heat transfer and work on the diagram. 350oC. Rankine Vapor Power Cycle 500 6000 kPa 400 3 300 T [C] 200 100 2 1 0 2 4 6 10 kPa 4 8 10 12 0 s [kJ/kg-K] Example 10-1 Compute the thermal efficiency of an ideal Rankine cycle for which steam leaves the boiler as superheated vapor at 6 MPa. and is condensed at 10 kPa.The T-s diagram for the Rankine cycle is given below. We use the power system and T-s diagram shown above.

state 2 is in the compressed liquid region. 7 .Pump The pump work is obtained from the conservation of mass and energy for steady-flow but neglecting potential and kinetic energy changes and assuming the pump is adiabatic and reversible. we use a second method to find the pump work or the h across the pump. ds = 0. Recall the property relation: dh = T ds + v dP Since the ideal pumping process 1-2 is isentropic. m1 m2 m m1h1 Wpump m2 h2 Wpump m(h2 h1 ) Since the pumping process involves an incompressible liquid.

liquid m3 v v f 0.00101 1 kg w pump v1 ( P2 P ) 1 m3 kJ 0.05 kg 8 . h2 h1 v1 ( P2 P1 ) The pump work is calculated from Wpump m(h2 h1 ) mv1 ( P2 P1 ) w pump Wpump m v1 ( P2 P1 ) Using the steam tables kJ h1 h f 191.81 kg P 10 kPa 1 Sat.00101 (6000 10) kPa 3 kg m kPa kJ 6.The incompressible liquid assumption allows v v1 const .

we apply the steady-flow conservation of mass and energy to the boiler. If we neglect the potential and kinetic energies. then m2 m3 m m2 h2 Qin m3h3 Qin m(h3 h2 ) 9 . and note that no work is done on the steam in the boiler.05 Boiler To find the heat supplied in the boiler.86 kg 6.81 kg kg kJ 197.Now. h2 is found from h2 wpump h1 kJ kJ 191.

86) 2845.3357 kg K The heat transfer per unit mass is Qin qin h3 h2 m (3043.9 P3 6000 kPa kg kJ T3 350o C s3 6.9 197.1 kJ kg kJ kg 10 .We find the properties at state 3 from the superheated tables as kJ h3 3043.

1488 kg K kg K 11 .Turbine The turbine work is obtained from the application of the conservation of mass and energy for steady flow.3357 kJ/kg-K and asking three questions.6492 is s4 s f ? is s f s4 sg ? is sg s4 ? kJ kJ . at P4 10kPa : s f 0. m3 m4 m m h W m h 3 3 turb 4 4 Wturb m(h3 h4 ) We find the properties at state 4 from the steam tables by noting s4 = s3 = 6. sg 8. We assume the process is adiabatic and reversible and neglect changes in kinetic and potential energies.

1) kg kg kJ 2005.758 7.81 The turbine work per unit mass is wturb h3 h4 (3043.758(2392.9 kg 12 kJ kg .3357 0.0) kJ 1038.9 2005.4996 h4 h f x4 h fg kJ kJ 0.6492 0.s4 s f x4 s fg x4 s4 s f s fg 6.0 kg 191.

05) kJ 1032.363 or 36.1 kJ kg 0.3% 13 .8 kg The thermal efficiency is kJ kg kJ 1032.8 w kg th net qin 2845.The net work done by the cycle is wnet wturb wpump (1038.9 6.

Moisture is increased at turbine exit. Lower condenser pressure Less energy is lost to surroundings. • • Extra Assignment For the above example. Moisture is increased at turbine exit. Moisture is reduced at turbine exit (we want x4 in the above example > 85 percent). Increase boiler pressure (for fixed maximum temperature) Availability of steam is higher at higher pressures. find the heat rejected by the cycle and evaluate the thermal efficiency from wnet qout th 1 qin qin 14 .Ways to improve the simple Rankine cycle efficiency: • Superheat the vapor Average temperature is higher during heat addition.

not only does the thermal efficiency increase.90) at an acceptable level. The reheat cycle allows the use of higher boiler pressures and provides a means to keep the turbine exit moisture (x > 0. but also the turbine exit moisture increases. Let’s sketch the T-s diagram for the reheat cycle.Reheat Cycle As the boiler pressure is increased in the simple Rankine cycle. T 15 s .85 to 0.

h4) Turbine Isentropic wout = (h3 .h6) Condenser Const.h1 ) 3 (h3 .Rankine Cycle with Reheat Component Process First Law Result Boiler Const.h4) + (h5 .h4 ) h6 h1 1 (h3 .P1) The thermal efficiency is given by th wnet qin (h .(h2 . P qin = (h3 .h4 ) + (h5 .h4 ) 16 . P qout = (h6 .h1) Pump Isentropic win = (h2 .h1) = v1(P2 .h2 ) + (h5 .h2 ) + (h5 .h2) + (h5 .h6 ) .

9664 No Reheat With Reheat 17 . th 35. and the condenser pressure is 10 kPa.3% 35.4 MPa and the steam leaves the reheater at 400oC.Example 10-2 Compare the thermal efficiency and turbine-exit quality at the condenser pressure for a simple Rankine cycle and the reheat cycle when the boiler pressure is 4 MPa.9% xturb exit 0. the boiler exit temperature is 400oC. The reheat takes place at 0.8159 0.

this reduces the mass of steam expanding in the lowerpressure stages of the turbine. 18 . This approach increases the average temperature at which heat is added in the boiler. the average temperature at which heat is added must be increased. The work that is done is done more efficiently. thus. In the open feedwater heater. A portion of the steam is extracted from the turbine and sent to a regenerative heater to preheat the condensate before entering the boiler.Regenerative Cycle To improve the cycle thermal efficiency. The preheating of the condensate is done in a combination of open and closed heaters. However. the extracted steam and the condensate are not mixed. In the closed feedwater heater. the extracted steam and the condensate are physically mixed. the total work done by the turbine. and. One way to do this is to allow the steam leaving the boiler to expand the steam in the turbine to an intermediate pressure.

Cycle with an open feedwater heater 19 .

Rankine Steam Power Cycle with an Open Feedwater Heater 600 3000 kPa 500 5 400 500 kPa T [C] 300 200 100 0 0 4 2 1 2 4 6 6 10 kPa 3 7 8 10 12 s [kJ/kg-K] Cycle with a closed feedwater heater with steam trap to condenser 20 .

Let’s sketch the T-s diagram for this closed feedwater heater cycle. T s 21 .

Cycle with a closed feedwater heater with pump to boiler pressure 22 .

that the water leaves the feedwater heater as a saturated liquid.) Conservation of mass for the open feedwater heater: 23 . T s Consider the regenerative cycle with the open feedwater heater. apply the first law to the feedwater heater and assume. (In the case of the ideal closed feedwater heater. the feedwater leaves the heater at a temperature equal to the saturation temperature at the extraction pressure.Let’s sketch the T-s diagram for this closed feedwater heater cycle. To find the fraction of mass to be extracted from the turbine. in the ideal case.

Let y m6 / m5 be the fraction of mass extracted from the turbine for the feedwater heater. min mout m6 m2 m3 m5 m2 m5 m6 m5 (1 y) Conservation of energy for the open feedwater heater: Ein Eout m6h6 m2 h2 m3h3 ym5h6 (1 y )m5h2 m5h3 h h y 3 2 h6 h2 24 .

81 151.8 640. 500oC. and exhausts at 10 kPa.5 MPa.2 2942.2359 7.2359 7.83 0.6 2292.00122 4 5 6 7 3000 3000 500 10 500 3457.00109 191. States with selected properties State P kPa T C h kJ/kg s kJ/kg-K Selected saturation properties P kPa Tsat C vf 3 m /kg hf kJ/kg 1 2 3 10 500 500 10 500 3000 45. A single open feedwater heater is used and operates at 0. Compute the cycle thermal efficiency.00101 0.2359 25 .Example 10-3 An ideal regenerative steam power cycle operates so that steam enters the turbine at 3 MPa. The important properties of water for this cycle are shown below.1 1008.7 7.85 0.3 233.

3 kg 0. h2 is found from h2 w pump 1 h1 kJ kJ 1918 .5 kg Now.00101 (500 10) kPa 3 kg m kPa kJ 0.5 26 .The work for pump 1 is calculated from w pump 1 v1 ( P2 P ) 1 m3 kJ 0. kg kg kJ 192.

3) kg (640.163 kg is extracted for the feedwater heater.00109 (3000 500) kPa 3 kg m kPa kJ 2. kJ h h kg y 3 2 0.7 kg 27 .163 kJ h6 h2 (2942. The work for pump 2 is calculated from w pump 2 v3 ( P4 P3 ) m3 kJ 0.6 192. 0.The fraction of mass extracted from the turbine for the open feedwater heater is obtained from the energy balance on the open feedwater heater.3) This means that for each kg of steam entering the turbine.1 192. as shown above.

h4 is found from the energy balance for pump 2 for a unit of mass flowing through the pump.163)(2292.6 kJ kg .8 kg 2. Ein Eout m5 h5 Wturb m6 h6 m7 h7 Wturb m5 [h5 yh6 (1 y )h7 ] wturb Wturb h5 yh6 (1 y )h7 m5 kJ kg 28 [3457.1 kg kg kJ 642. Eout Ein h4 wpump 2 h3 kJ kJ 640.7 Apply the steady-flow conservation of energy to the isentropic turbine.7)] 1058.1) (1 0.163)(2942.2 (0.Now.

5) 2.163)(0.5 kJ kg kJ kg Apply the steady-flow conservation of mass and energy to the boiler. m4 m5 m4 h4 Qin m5h5 Qin m5 (h5 h4 ) Qin qin h5 h4 m5 29 .6 (1 0.7] 1055.The net work done by the cycle is Wnet Wturb W pump 1 W pump 2 m5 wnet m5 wturb m1w pump 1 m3 w pump 2 m5 wnet m5 wturb m5 (1 y ) w pump 1 m5 w pump 2 wnet wturb (1 y ) w pump 1 wpump 2 [1058.

8) The thermal efficiency is kJ kJ 2814. However.4 kJ kg 0. the one open feedwater heater operating at 0.3 percent. then th = 35. Thus.The heat transfer per unit mass entering the turbine at the high pressure.2 642. 30 .5 If these data were used for a Rankine cycle with no regeneration.5% 1055. is qin h5 h4 (3457.375 or 37.4 kg kg kJ w kg th net qin 2814. note that the mass flowing through the lower-pressure turbine stages has been reduced by the amount extracted for the feedwater and the net work output for the regenerative cycle is about 10 percent lower than the standard Rankine cycle based on a unit of mass entering the turbine at the highest pressure. state 5.6 percent.5 MPa increased the thermal efficiency by 5.

366 0.376 0.Below is a plot of cycle thermal efficiency versus the open feedwater heater pressure. The feedwater heater pressure that makes the cycle thermal efficiency a maximum is about 400 kPa.372 0.362 0.368 0. 0.374 0.364 0.360 0 450 900 1350 Pofw h [kPa] 1800 2250 31 .370 th th vs OFWH Pressure 0.

13 1000 950 0.08 0.18 0. Clearly the net cycle work decreases and the fraction of mass extracted increases with increasing extraction pressure.20 1100 0.03 2250 0.25 0. Why does the fraction of mass extracted increase with increasing extraction pressure? wnet and y vs OFWH Pressure 1200 1150 0.05 900 0 450 900 1350 1800 0.23 w net kJ/kg Pofw h [kPa] 32 y .10 0.15 1050 0.Below is a plot of cycle net work per unit mass flow at state 5 and the fraction of mass y extracted for the feedwater heater versus the open feedwater heater pressure.

68 C C C 815 kPa 136.68 T 62. 400 Steam T [C] 300 233. Two closed feedwater heaters are to be used. Tcond to FWH Tboiler to FWH .Placement of Feedwater Heaters The extraction pressures for multiple feedwater heaters are chosen to maximize the cycle efficiency. 500oC.2 kPa 100 T 62.68 10 kPa 0 2 4 6 45.8 C 1 0 8 10 12 33 s [kJ/kg-K] .85 45. the extraction pressures for the feedwater heaters are chosen such that the saturation temperature difference between each component is about the same. and exhausts at 10 kPa. etc. Example 10-4 An ideal regenerative steam power cycle operates so that steam enters the turbine at 3 MPa. As a rule of thumb. Select starting values for the feedwater heater extraction pressures.9 C 200 3000 kPa T 62.

•Turbine losses--turbine isentropic (or adiabatic) efficiency.Deviation from Actual Cycles •Piping losses--frictional effects reduce the available energy content of the steam. T 3 P3 4a 4s P4 s turb wactual h3 h4 a wisentropic h3 h4 s The actual enthalpy at the turbine exit (needed for the energy analysis of the next component) is h4 a h3 turb (h3 h4 s ) 34 .

•Pump losses--pump isentropic (or adiabatic) efficiency. T 2a 2s P2 1 P1 s pump wisentropic wactual h2 s h1 h2 a h1 The actual enthalpy at the pump exit (needed for the energy analysis of the next component) is h2 a h1 1 pump ( h2 s h1 ) •Condenser losses--relatively small losses that result from cooling the condensate below the saturation temperature in the condenser. 35 .

Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines.The following examples you should try on your own.06213 c) the heat transfer from the condenser per unit mass leaving the boiler q_out=1509 kJ/kg d) the heat transfer to the boiler per unit mass leaving the boiler q_in=2677 kJ/kg e) the mass flow rate of steam through the boiler for a net power output of 250 MW m_dot=214. Eta_th=0. one closed and one open.7 MPa for the closed feedwater heater and 0.1 kg/s f) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.7 MPa y=0. Steam enters the turbine at 10 MPa and 500 C and exhausts to the condenser at 10 kPa. Regenerative Feedwater Heater problem Consider an ideal steam regenerative Rankine cycle with two feedwater heaters.3 MPa z=0.1425 b) the fraction of steam leaving the boiler that is extracted at 0. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 0.3 MPa for the open one. The extracted steam leaves the closed feedwater heater and is subsequently throttled to the open feedwater heater.4363 36 . and using only the data presented in the data tables given below determine a) the fraction of steam leaving the boiler that is extracted at 0.

37 .

The remainder of the steam continues to expand and exhausts to the condenser at 10 kPa.in = 92. 500 C and a mass flow rate of 30 kg/s.Cogeneration Plant A cogeneration plant is to generate power and process heat. c) the utilization factor of the plant Qdot. Utilization factor = 52. b) the net power produced by the cycle. One-fourth of the steam is extracted from the turbine at 600-kPa pressure for process heating. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines.net = 32. The steam extracted for the process heater is condensed in the heater and mixed with the feedwater at 600 kPa. 38 . Wdot.process = 15.848 kW.774 kW. Consider an ideal cogeneration steam plant. Steam enters the turbine from the boiler at 7 MPa.4%. The mixture is pumped to the boiler pressure of 7 MPa. and determine a) the heat transfer from the process heater per unit mass leaving the boiler Qdot.753 kW.

39 .

40 .Combined Gas-Steam Power Cycle Example of the Combined Brayton and Rankine Cycles (a) Explain what’s happening in the various process for the hardware shown below.

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