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HISTORY OF ADVERTISING

WHAT ADVERTISING IS? Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services.Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behaviour with respect to a commercial offering.
Any paid form of non-personal communication about

an organisation, product,service, or idea from an identified sponsor to persuade or influence about the product.

Initially when goods were hand made, by local craftsman, in small

quantities, there was no need for advertising. Buyer and seller were personally known to one another, and the buyer was likely to have direct experience of the product. The buyer also had much more contact with the production process, especially for items like clothing (hand-stitched to fit) and food (assembled from simple, raw ingredients). However, once technological advances enabled the mass production of soap, china, clothing etc, the close personal links between buyer and seller were broken. Rather than selling out of their back yards to local customers, manufacturers sought markets a long way from their factories, sometimes on the other side of the world. This created a need for advertising. Manufacturers needed to explain and recommend their products to customers whom they would never meet personally. Manufacturers, in chasing far-off markets, were beginning to compete with each other. Therefore they needed to brand their products, in order to distinguish them from one another, and create mass recommendations to support the mass production and consumption model.

EARLY ADVERTISING
The
word of mouth was the most basic form of advertising since humans started providing each other with goods and services

Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters.

Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found

in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia. and Ancient Rome.

Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another

manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America

EARLY ADVERTISING IN AMERICAN AND ENGLISH MARKET


In the eighteenth century, Great Britain boasted the

most advanced advertising. Handbills and trade cards proclaiming in extravagant terms the excellence of sundry products and services were common. Advertising was a well-established practice in the late colonial and early national periods in America, but these advertisements were neither as appealing to the eye nor as cleverly crafted as were their counterparts in England. There were advances in American advertising in the larger cities during the 1820s and 1830s with improvements in printing technology and a change in advertising philosophy.

Indian Advertising starts with the hawkers calling out

their wares right from the days when cities and markets first made their appearance. There was gradual development from street side sellers to press ads. Trademarks of different company were introduced. Distribution of handbills separately from the products were observed. Billboards was one of the oldest form of advertising.

As a result of industrial revolution there was a mass production of items by manufacturers about which they need to convey to consumers by means of advertising.
New methods of manufacturing led to greatly increased output and decreased costs for the producers of consumer goods.
Advances in packaging technology meant that products could be packaged at the plant rather than shipped to a wholesaler who traditionally broke bulk and put his own name on them. Moreover, the telegraph network was in place and the continent had been crisscrossed by a network of railroads, bringing its farthest reaches within the purview of the incipient consumer culture. Manufacturers believed that buyers were primarily interested in the quality of the product; competition by price was uncommon. National firms included drawings of sprawling factories and factory owners in their advertisements; the larger the factory and thus the more successful the firm, the higher quality the merchandise could be presumed to be.

Singer Sewing Machines, Steinway Pianos, and McCormick Harvesters and Reapers all produced advertisements of this sort

With the emergence of advertising agencies in the later part of the

19th century, advertising became a fully fledged institution with its own way of working and with its own creative values. These agencies were a response to an increasingly crowded marketplace, where manufacturers were realising that promotion of their products was vital if they were to survive. They sold themselves as experts in communication to their clients - who were then left to get on with the business of manufacturing. Through most of the nineteenth century, the principal function of the nation's advertising agencies was to buy space in publications at wholesale and sell it to advertisers at retail. Copywriters emerged who for a fee would craft a series of promotional statements. Many of these men were aspiring novelists, or journalists, who discovered they could more profitably turn their wordcraft to the services of sales

Modern advertisingadvertising with the goal of creating desire for

a product where none previously existedbegan in the early twentieth century. There are four very influential inventions that have shaped the media and thus the advertising industry-the printing press,radio,television and the internet. PRINTING PRESS-As education became an apparent need and reading, as well as printing, developed advertising expanded to include handbills. In the 17th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books and newspapers, which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press
In India ads appear for the first time in print in Hickey's Bengal

Gazette. India's first newspaper (weekly).

The most visible change in advertising in the past hundred years

has resulted from the new technology of broadcasting.


By the end of the decade, however, advertisers and their agents had come to realize radio's possibilities. With its drama and immediacy, radio could convey their message directly to the consumer who would not need to purchase a publication or even be literate. The public had an appetite for radio, but there was no real way to get them to pay directly for the costly broadcasts. Advertising stepped in as the middle component, paying the broadcasters for their listeners' time. This arrangement led to the direct funding of radio dramas by, for instance, Proctor & Gamble, hence the term 'soap opera' . As time passed, many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations, and included: schools, clubs and civic groups. When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularised, each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief mention

of the business' name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows .

Television began in the 1950s and quickly found its way into

almost everyone's living room Television advertising expenditures increased nearly tenfold between 1950 and 1960, reaching $1.6 billion by 1960. Television was commercialized in the United States to an exceptional degree. American advertisers had more minutes to telecast more commercial messages to more market segments (including children) than anywhere else in the world. Through television, advertisers could demonstrate the use of their product and present well-known figures to praise it. As had been the case with radio, those companies that first exploited the commercial potential of television reaped lavish rewards.

The effect of the television on the advertising industry and

the way products were sold was remarkable. Advertising agencies not only had to learn how to produce these mini movies in units of 30 and 60 seconds, they had to learn to effectively segment the audience and deliver the right commercial message to the right group of consumers.
Cable television was the next great innovation, offering a

greater variety of channels with more specific program offerings. That allowed advertisers to narrowcast.
Before the advent of cable television, the networks

attempted to reach demographics by airing at different times throughout the broadcast period. Soap operas were broadcast during the day to reach women, news in the evening to reach an older target audience.

INTERNET
With the advent of the ad server, marketing through the Internet opened

new frontiers for advertisers and contributed to the "dot-com" boom of the 1990s.
The Internet becomes a reality as 5 million users worldwide get online.

Entire corporations operated solely on advertising revenue, offering

everything from coupons to free Internet access.


At the turn of the 21st century, a number of websites including the search

engine Google, started a change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant, attractive ads intended to help. This has led to a plethora of similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive advertising.
During 1999 Internet advertising breaks the $2 billion mark and heads

toward $3 billion as the industry, under prodding from Procter & Gamble, moves to standardize all facets of the industry.

SOCIAL MEDIA ADVERTISING


Traditional advertising has become relatively ineffective since the inception of the Internet, and

although there have been many forms of Internet advertising that have provided some good effect in the past, the New Evolution of Advertising exists in Social Media Adverting Social networking sites can be used to effectively promote your business, but each requires a different skill set and a significant investment of time It generates traffic from the social media sites and in turn builds search engine rankings as well as targeted leads, prospects and customers for your business.