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Unit 4 Water, Air and Land

Ch. 11 Water

11.1 Water Resources

EQ: Describe the Earths water resources.

The Water Cycle

Earth aka The Water Planet in all forms: solid, liquid, and gas Water cycle continual movement of water between the earth and the atmosphere Renewable resource recycled through the biosphere

Parts of the Water Cycle

Evaporation liquid to gas, leaves behind salts and other impurities moves from surface to atmosphere Condensation water vapor in the air rises and cools and changes to tiny liquid droplets that form clouds Precipitation water falls back to earths surface

Global Water Distribution

71 % of earth is covered with water
97% of that water is salt water in the ocean 3% is freshwater
77% of that is frozen in the icecaps 22% is in the form of groundwater 1% surface water (lakes, rivers)

Surface Water
Fresh water on earths land Lakes, rivers, streams, and wetlands Most cities built around fresh water supply on the surface Provide drinking water, irrigation, food, power, and transportation

Surface water; river systems

Flowing network of rivers and streams on land Streams form from snowmelt, rainfall that drains downhill Streams combine to form larger streams making a river system Ie Mississippi and Amazon

Surface water; watersheds

Watershed area of land that is drained by a river Pollution anywhere in the watershed can pollute the river

Makes up the majority of freshwater available for human use Groundwater water beneath the earths surface in rock and sediment formations
Water table level underground where rocks and soil are saturated with water
Can form a spring where water table meets surface comes from rain that soaks into the soil

Groundwater; aquifers
Aquifer underground formation that contains water
Consist of materials like rock, sand and gravel with a lot of open space between pieces Underground caves and lakes formed when groundwater dissolves rocks like limestone

Important water source for cities and agriculture Porosity - % of small holes or spaces per volume of rock Permeability ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow through it

Groundwater; recharge zone

Recharge zone area of earths surface that allows water to percolate down into an aquifer Pollution in a recharge zone can percolate into the aquifer Buildings and pavement can form impermeable barriers blocking percolation into recharge zone. Well a hole dug into the ground that drills into the groundwater

Well will dry up if water table drops below the well

11.2 Water Use and Management

EQ: Describe ways that water is used around the world.

Global Water Use

Residential use - mostly personal hygiene, home cleaning, some for drinking and cooking Water Treatment removes elements which are poisonous to humans (Hg, arsenic, lead)
300L per day per person in US Use outside the home = of total use

Potable safe to drink Pathogens organisms that cause illness in water that is contaminated by sewage or animal feces See page 296-297 for treatment methods

Global Water Use

Industrial use 19% of water use
Manufacture goods, dispose of waste, generate power Power plant cooling system

Agricultural use 67% of worlds use 80% of water used is lost to evaporation
Irrigation providing plants with a water source other than precipitation

Water Management Projects

History streams and rivers have been altered to make use of the water i.e. Romans built aquiducts Goals of WM projects:
Bring water to dry areas to make habitable Create reservoirs for recreation, drinking and generating power

Water Diversion Projects

Provides water for dry areas River water is diverted through canals to location i.e. Colorado river provides water for 7 states usually runs dry before it ever reaches Mexico or the Gulf of Mexico

Dams and Reservoirs

Dam structure built across a river to restrict the flow of water
Hydroelectric dam use flowing water to generate electricity Dam problems floods land, destroys ecosystems, displaces people, sediment gets deposited at dam instead of flowing downstream, farm land below dam is less productive, failure of dam

Reservoir artificial lake formed behind a dam

Provides recreation, flood control, irrigation, drinking water

Water Conservation
Helps to ensure water for everyone at a reasonable price Agriculture a lot of water lost to evaporation
Industry recycling of cooling and wastewater
Drip-irrigation systems

Home water saving toilets and shower, water lawns at night, xeriscaping

Economic incentives for businesses

Solutions for the future

Conservation of water not always enough to prevent water shortages Desalination removing salt from salt water, very expensive Transporting Water bringing in freshwater from other locations

US 50% freshwater is in Alaska considering towing bags of water from rivers down to California Towing icebergs

11.3 Water Pollution

EQ: Compare point source pollution with non-point source pollution.

Water Pollution
The introduction of chemical, physical, or biological agents into water that degrade the quality and adversely effect the organisms that depend on the water 2 main causes: industrialization and rapid human population growth

Water pollution sources

Point source pollution from a single source
Can be identified and traced to a source Clean-up still may be difficult

Non-point source pollution from many different sources like runoff from a watershed
Difficult to regulate and control When small amounts of pollution accumulate, it turns into a major problem 96% of polluted bodies of water Lawn chemical runoff, motor oil in storm drains

Type of Pollutants
Runoff from agriculture largest source
Pesticides, fertilizers, plant and animal wastes

Sewage-treatment plants 2nd largest Pollutants usually in form of pathogens, nutrients, or sediments
Can also be toxic chemicals

Chemical Pollutants
Toxic chemicals elements and compounds that are directly harmful to living things Inorganic chemicals no carbon
Acids, salts, Heavy metals high mass number (mercury, lead) plant nutrients phosphates and nitrates

Usually enters groundwater or surface water through seepage, runoff, and discharge into bodies of water

Harmful effects of heavy metals

by products of industrial processes Factories either discharge directly into water or seal the heavy metals into drums and dump them into the ocean or bury them Poisonous Causes brain, liver and kidney damage Case: 1950s Mimamata, Japan mercury poisoning 8000 people suffered paralysis or brain damage, 200 people died

Organic chemicals come from living things and can be made in labs (gasoline, oil, plastics, solvents) Discharged from factories accumulate in runoff from agriculture Crude oil common pollutant shipped by water ways and can enter surface water during spills at drilling sites or from shipwrecked or damaged tankers
Devastates an ecosystem when spilled (Exxon Valdez)

Wastewater water that contains waste from homes or industry Wastewater treatment plant wastewater is filtered and treated to make water clean enough to return to a river or a lake

Treating Wastewater
Water contains biodegradable material that can be broken down by living organisms Some toxic substances in wastewater and storm run-off cannot be removed by standard treatment Sewage sludge solid materials that remains after treatment
Hazardous waste sludge has dangerous levels of toxins
Burned and ash buried

Wastewater Treatment Process

Primary Treatment
Filtration water passes through screen to remove large objects 1st Settling Tank smaller particles sink to bottom to form sludge

Secondary Treatment
Aeration water mixed with oxygen and bacteria 2nd settling tank removes bacteria and solid wastes Chlorination chlorine added to disinfect water Water released to lake or stream

Artificial Eutrophication
Eutrophication abundance of nutrients in lakes and ponds
Natural process when organic matter decays and decomposes Changes the types of organisms that live in pond because the level of oxygen decreases

Artificial eutrophication caused by humans from fertilizer runoff and detergents

As the oxygen gets used up the fish and other organisms suffocate

Thermal Pollution
Rise in the temperature of body of water Caused when power plants and factories discharge their cooling water Warmer water doesnt hold as much oxygen

Groundwater pollution
Usually comes when polluted surface water percolates down into the ground
Pollutants include pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilizers, and petroleum products Also leaking underground storage tanks

Clean-up takes many years because it takes so long for groundwater to recharge
Also pollutants can cling to sand and soil particles in ground

Ocean Pollution
85% comes from activity on land Some from dumping wastewater and garbage overboard Oil spills 37 million gallons per year
Accounts for 5% of pollution Most oil enters ocean from runoff 200-300 million gallons from nonpoint sources from land

Water Pollution and Ecosystems

Can cause immediate damage (like dumping of toxic chemicals) Some pollutants accumulate over time causing damage more slowly Biomagnification build up of pollutants at higher levels of the food chain

Cleaning up water pollution

Clean Water Act 1972 restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nations waters
Goal - water clean enough for swimming and fishing by 1983 Goal not met 30% increase in fit waters Many states have stricter water quality standards Many heavy metals removed from water before discharge

Oil Pollution Act 1990 ships in US waters must have double hulls by 2015 See pg 313

Make a Public Service Announcement Poster

Choose a topic
Ways to conserve water Point-source pollution Non-point source pollution Ocean Pollution

Describe it, where it comes from, why it is bad How can we fix it, or decrease the problem Make a catchy slogan