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Anaerobic digestion is a biological process that uses bacteria that function in an oxygen free environment. These bacteria convert volatile solids into carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. Reaction takes place in an enclosed tank that may or may not be heated.
TYPES OF ASD
1) STANDARD RATE :
Standard-rate systems take place in a simple storage tank with sludge added intermittently. The only agitation that occurs comes from the natural mixing caused by gases rising to the surface. Standard-rate operations can be carried out at ambient temperatures, although heat is sometimes added to speed up the biological activity. The required detention time vary from 30 to 60 days.
STANDARD RATE SLUDGE DIGESTER
2) HIGH RATE:
High-rate systems use a combination of active mixing and carefully controlled, elevated temperatures to increase sludge stabilization. These systems mostly use pre-thickened sewage sludge introduced at a uniform rate to maintain constant conditions in the reactor. They differ from low rate digesters in solid loading rate which is much higher in this case. Their limitation is of sludge thickening and non-separation of supernatant
HIGH RATE SLUDGE DIGESTER
TWO STAGE SLUDGE DIGESTION PROCESS
Two digestion tanks (primary & secondary) in series Primary tank is used for digestion of sludge through heating & mixing Secondary tank is used for storage & concentration of digested sludge
TWO STAGE SLUDGE DIGESTION PROCESS
CONDITION OF ASD
Sewage sludge must be treated in the digester for a mean cell residence time of 15 days between 35°C to 55°C (95°F to 131°F) and 60 days at 20°C (68°F). Temperatures greater than 20°C(68°F) and less than 55°C(95°F) can be interpolated, i.e. a temperature of 82°F must have a mean cell residence time of at least 38 days.
Anaerobic digester microbiology
1: Extracellular hydrolysis (e.g. cellulose) 2: Fermentation leading to organic acids (VFAs), acetate, CO2 and H2 3: Fermentation leading to acetic acid (CH3COOH), H2 and O2 4: Methanogenesis leading to CH4,CO2 and H2O
Complex organic material (starch, protein fats)
Hydrolysis Simple organic material (sugar, amino acids) Acidogenesis Volatile fatty acids (propionate, butyrate etc.) Acetogenesis
H2 + CO2 Methanogenesis CH4 + CO2
CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANIZATION
Mixed culture of anaerobic micro-organisms pH 6 to 9 Redox potential under - 300mV Temperature : - Psychrophilic (5 to 20 deg C.) - Mesophilic (25 to 45 deg. C.) -Thermophilic ( 45 to 70 deg. C.)
High growth rate of acidogenic bacteria
Low growth rate of methanogenic, homo- acetogenic and synthrophic bacteria
Methane forming bacteria
Methanobacterium ruminantium Methanobacterium M.o.H. Methanobacterium strain AZ Rods, cocobacillus appearing cells Gram(+) Methanobacterium arbophilicum
Methanobacterium M.o.H. Gram (-) cells Methanospirillum hungatii
Aeromonus Aeromonus sp. Bacteroides Bacteroides sp. Bacillus B cereus + 11 more
Alkaligenes A. bookerii + 3 more Aerobacter A. aerogenes Clostridium C. aminovalericum Neisseria Leptospira N. catarrhalis L. biflexa + 1 more
Escherichia E. coli + 2 more Klebsiella Klebsiella sp.
Microcuccus M. candidus + 4 more
Rhodopseudomonas R. palustris more Streptomyces S. bikiniesis Sarcina S. cooksonii + 1 more
Paracolobactrum P. intermedium + 1 Pseudomonas P. aeruginosa + 8 more Serratia S. indians
Streptococcus S. diploidus Gram (+) Sarcina Methanosarcina barkerii Long rods, Gram(+) cells
Important toxic compounds
Sodium Na+ 4000 - 6000 Ammonia NH4+, NH3 1500 2000 Potassium K+ 3000 - 5000 Calcium Ca2+ 3000 - 5000 Cyanide CN- 0,5 - 1
Methane analogues - Very low levels Alkyl benzene sulfonate - 500 750 Magnesium Mg2+ 3000 Nickel Ni2+ 100 - 1000 Zink Zn2+ 350 - 1000 Chromium Cr3+ 200 - 2000 Heavy metals Depends on sulphide
Sulphide (dissolved) H2S, HS-, S2100 - 150
Sludges from waste water treatment
Agricultural waste, especially manures Organic fraction of household waste Organic waste from the food industry Park- and garden waste
RESULTS OF A.S.D.
Characteristics of the rest product :
The material is dark brown to black
Neutral or soil aroma
Low microbial activity (marginal gas production)
Very low concentrations of VFA (Volatile Fatty Acids)
Elevated C/N ratio (often >10)
A suitable, balanced microflora has to be established
The degradation velocity and efficiency as function of the activity of the microorganisms
The degradation efficiency depends on the composition and size of the microflora The substrate (influent) in anaerobic digestion should have a chemical structure allowing biological degradation ( normally organic in nature)
Environmental factors such as pH, temperature, absence of oxygen and water content have an important influence on the process
APPLICATIONS OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
Wastewater Cannery Distillery Dairy Brewery Jam factory
cream factory Slaughterhouse Starch factory Chemical factory Petrochemical factory
Benefits of Anaerobic Sludge Digestion
Superior Sludge Stabilization Highly Efficient Solids Reduction Improved Dewaterability Reduced Solids Mass and Sludge Volume Reduced Odour Emissions (putrecibility) Reduce BOD of wastewater Pathogen Reduction Generation of Valuable Gas and Energy Reduction of greenhouse gas emmissions(CH4,CO2) Extremely Low Operation Costs
Anaerobic digestion is a biological process and can therefore not handle many anthropogenic substances, that instead destroy the quality of the product
With unsatisfactory control of the process, there is a considerable risk for operational disturbances that may take a long time to cure due to the very slow growth rates of anaerobic microorganisms
Anaerobic digestion requires a more stringent process control and a considerably more sophisticated equipment & large tanks, resulting in high capital investment cost. In small scale plants, where it is difficult to economically justify a stringent process control, this has sometimes led to an unnecessary shut down due to such operation problems Supernatant from anaerobic digestion often have a high OD & high concentration of N & suspended solids.