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Job Analysis

Mechanism of JA & JD Job Analysis Job Design Job Enlargement Job Description Job Specification Job Enrichment Job Bandwidth Job Rotation Job Evaluation Job Simplification

Job Analysis: Flippo JA as the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this analysis are job descriptions & job specifications.

JA is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a basic technical procedure, one that is used to define the duties, responsibilities and accountability of a job.

Job analysis is the systematic gathering and organization of information concerning jobs. Job analysis puts a job under the microscope to reveal important details about it. Generally it identifies the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of particular job.
A task is a basic element of work that is a logical and necessary step in performing a job duty.

A duty consists of one or more tasks that constitute a significant activity performed in a job.
A responsibility is one or several duties that identify and describe the major purpose or reason for the jobs existence.

Job analysis provides information to answer the following questions Where does the work come from? What machines and special equipment must be used? What knowledge, skills, and abilities does the job holder need to perform the job? How much supervision is necessary? Under what working conditions should this job be performed? What are the performance expectations for this job?
Information through these questions can help the management to develop more effective HRM policies and programmes.

Objectives of Job Analysis 1. Job redesign

(job rotation, job simplification, job enlargement, job enrichment)

2. 3.

Work standards Miscellaneous

(recruitment, selection, training, performance appraisal, job evaluation, safety)

Step I Step II

Process of Job Analysis Organizational Analysis Organizing Job Analysis Programme

- In charge, budget, time schedule - Use of job analysis information - Selecting representative jobs for analysis - Understanding of job design

Step - III Data Collection (Observation, Interview, Questionnaire, Checklist, Critical incidents,
Log records, Technical conference method, and Position Analysis Questionnaire .) The PAQ contains 194 job elements which are organized into six sections: Information input, Mental processes, Work output, Relationships with other persons, Job context (physical & social), and other characteristics.

Step IV

Job Description

JD is a written statement that describes the tasks, duties and responsibilities that need to be discharged for effective job performance

- Job identification (job title, code number, department/div.) - Job summary (activities or tasks performed) - Job duties & responsibilities - Working conditions - Social environment - Machines, tools & equipments - Supervision - Relation to other jobs

Step - V

Job Specification

It is a written statement that specifies the personnel qualities, traits, skills, qualification, aptitude, etc. required to effectively perform a job.

- Education - Experience - Training - Judgment - Initiative - Skills - Responsibility - Communication skills - Emotional characteristics

Types of Job Analysis Information

1. Work activities
- Description of tasks (how, why, when task performed) - Interface with other jobs & equipment - Procedures used - Behaviours required on the job - Physical movements


Machines, Tools, Equipment and Work Aids

- machines & tools - materials, products


Job Context
- working conditions - organizational context - social context - work schedule - incentives


Personal Requirements
- specific skills - specific education and training - work experience - physical characteristics - Aptitudes

Uses of Job Analysis HRP Organizational design (relationship among jobs) Team building Recruitment & selection Placement & orientation Training & development Performance appraisal Job evaluation Remuneration Job designing Employee counseling Career path planning Internal mobility Discipline & grievances Health & safety

Guidelines for Conducting a Job Analysis Determine the desired applications of the job analysis. Select the jobs to be analyzed Gather the job information Verify the accuracy of the job information (by job incumbents and their immediate supervisors) Document the job analysis by writing a job description (duties, responsibilities, KSA necessary for the job)

Recent developments in JA
Team building Total Quality Management Flexi time Flexible work Broad Job Banding

Potential Problems with Job Analysis

Lack of support from top management

Analysts rely on only one of the methods of data collection (single means and source) No training or motivation of job holders

Activities may be distorted (where training or preparedness do not exist, job holders tend to submit distorted data either intentionally or inadvertently)