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Failure Mode and Effects Analysis of Product
• Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
– – – – What is it? Need FMEA Methods Example
• FMEA in-class exercise
considers how that item can fail and then determines how that failure will affect (or cascade through) the system Acronyms • FMEA: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis • FMECA: Failure Modes and Effects and Criticality Analysis .What is an FMEA? Description: • A procedure that examines each item in a system.
Need for Conducting a FMEA • Improves design by discovering unanticipated failures • Highlights the impact of the failures • Potentially helpful during legal actions • Provides a method to characterize product safety .
– Determine the effect (both locally and globally) on the system. – Identify failure modes for each component/system. .Method to Conduct an FMEA – Identify all components or systems at given level of the design hierarchy. Typically there will be several ways in which a component can fail. – List the function of each identified component or system.
– Identify how the failure mode can be detected (may point out what needs to be inspected on a regular basis). – Identify any compensating provisions or design changes to mitigate the failure effects. – Determine the failure’s probability of occurrence. .Method to Conduct an FMEA – Classify the failure by its effects on the system operation.
and component levels • This type of FMEA is used to analyze hardware. functions or a combination . subsystem.DESIGN FMEA (DFMEA) • The Design FMEA is used to analyze products before they are released to production. • Design FMEAs are normally done at three levels – system. • It focuses on potential failure modes of products caused by design deficiencies.
• This type of FMEA focuses on potential failure modes of the process that are caused by manufacturing or assembly process deficiencies.PROCESS FMEA (PFMEA) • The Process FMEA is normally used to analyze manufacturing and assembly processes at the system. . subsystem or component levels.
. and the environment. • Potential Effects are consequences to the design. concerns of designers. the user. excess function. Safety and regulation noncompliance are critical issues. Possible considerations are partial function.What to Do • Function comes from Functional Analysis. intermittent function. Functional Decomposition • Potential Failure Mode comes from things that have gone wrong in the past. and brainstorming.
IN-CLASS PROBLEM 1 Most cars have a fuel filter between the fuel tank and the engine. Consider the consequences of a) Anti-function (opposite of filtering) b) Partial function c) Intermittent function d) Excess function .
. testing. misuse.What to Do • Potential Causes of failure should be engineering related such as incorrect material. etc. poke yoke. and other design checks that are intended to prevent the problem. • Current Design Controls are things like inspections. wear and human related such as inexperience. corrosion.
What to Do • Assign values to Severity. Occurrence. and Detection using the tables. • Determine the Risk Priority Number (Severity* Occurrence * Detection) • Develop an action plan • Implement an action plan .
In-Class Problem 2 Coffee Machine Process Map Inputs Hot Water Soap Scrubber Clean Carafe Cold Water Measuring Mark Full Carafe Clean Carafe Outputs Cleaned Carafe Dirty Water Wet Scrubber Full Carafe Inputs Customer Order Size Specification Complete Order Hot Coffee Cup Filled Cup Customer Cream Sugar Amount Desired Complete Order Money Receive Coffee Order Outputs Complete Order Fill Carafe w/Water Pour Coffee into Cup Filled Cup Pour Water into Maker Place Filter in Maker Put Coffee in Filter Filled Maker Empty Carafe Maker w/Filter Maker w/Filter & Coffee Operating Maker Heat Brewed Coffee Hot Coffee Filter Maker w/Filter Fresh Coffee Dosing Scoop Maker w/Filter & Coffee Brewing Coffee Offer Cream & Sugar Customer Reply Amount Specified Complete Order Complete Transaction Turn Maker On Make Change Temperature Taste Strength Smile Happy Customer 15 Coffee Delivery Say Thank You Select Temperature Setting .
Determine Failure Modes Step 1: For Each Input. Determine the Potential Failure Modes 16 .
Identify Effects and Assign Severity 17 .Identify Effects and Severity Step 2: For Each Failure Mode.
Identify Failure Causes and Score Step 3: Identify Potential Causes of Each Failure Mode and Assign Score 18 .
Step 4: List Current Controls for Each Cause and Assign Score Identify Controls and Score 19 .
RPNs Step 5: Calculate RPNs 20 .
Assign Responsible Persons.Identify Actions and Responsibilities Step 6: Develop Recommended Actions. and Take Actions 21 .
and Detection Levels and Compare RPNs 22 . Occurrence.Compare RPNs Step 7: Assign the Predicted Severity.
Compliance with regulation is unlikely. Very poor performance. Non-compliant with regulations. Probable failure with hazardous effects. Non vital faults will be noticed by many users Minor effect on performance. User is slightly dissatisfied. Some users may notice. Severe High Severity Very High Severity Extreme Severity Maximum Severity 6 7 8 9 10 Degraded performance.Severity Ranking Effect None Very Slight Slight Minor Moderate Rank 1 2 3 4 5 Criteria No effect Negligible effect on Performance. Unpredictable failure with hazardous effects almost certain. but safe and usable. Inoperable but safe. Reduced performance with gradual performance degradation. Very dissatisfied user. User dissatisfied. User dissatisfied. . Slight effect on performance.
01 per thousand 0.1 per thousand rate of occurrence 0.Occurrence Ranking Occurrence Extremely Unlikely Remote Likelihood Very Low Likelihood Low Likelihood Moderately Low Likelihood Medium Likelihood Moderately High Likelihood Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Criteria Less than 0.5 per thousand rate of occurrence 1 per thousand rate of occurrence 2 per thousand rate of occurrence 5 per thousand rate of occurrence 10 per thousand rate of occurrence Very High Severity Extreme Severity Maximum Severity 8 9 10 20 per thousand rate of occurrence 50 per thousand rate of occurrence 100 per thousand rate of occurrence .
Detection Ranking Detection Extremely Likely Very High Likelihood High Likelihood Moderately High Likelihood Medium Likelihood Moderately Low Likelihood Low Likelihood Very Low Likelihood Remote Likelihood Extremely Unlikely Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Criteria Can be corrected prior to prototype/ Controls will almost certainly detect Can be corrected prior to design release/Very High probability of detection Likely to be corrected/High probability of detection Design controls are moderately effective Design controls have an even chance of working Design controls may miss the problem Design controls are likely to miss the problem Design controls have a poor chance of detection Unproven. unreliable design/poor chance for detection No design technique available/Controls will not detect .
the Process Potential FMEA parallels and formalizes the mental discipline that an engineer goes through in any manufacturing planning process.Advantages • As a systematic approach. . • The Process Potential FMEA identifies significant process variables to focus controls for occurrence reduction and detection of failure conditions. thus establishing a priority system for corrective and preventive action considerations. • The Process Potential FMEA identifies potential product related process failure modes. • The Process Potential FMEA identifies potential manufacturing and/or assembly process causes. • The Process Potential FMEA develops a list of potential failure modes ranked according to their affect on the customer. • The Process Potential FMEA assesses the potential customer effects of the failures.
. • Examination of human error is limited and sometimes overlooked. • Requires open communication and cooperation of the participants to be effective.Drawbacks • The required detail makes the process time consuming. • The process relies on recruiting the right participants. • Assumes the causes of problems are all single event in nature (combinations of events are captured as a single initiating event). the process will not be effective. • The personnel involved need to be candid about issues in their own area. • Without the follow up sessions. • Some complex processes can take hours or days to complete the FMEA.
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