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An Introduction To The Air Prevention And Control Of Pollution Act, 1981

Dr. D. D. Basu, Senior Scientist Central Pollution Control Board

AIR AND ITS COMPOSITION


Air is a precious resource that supplies us with oxygen, which is essential for our bodies to live. Without it, we would die within minutes.

Pure air is a mixture of several gases that are invisible and odourless. It consists of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and less than 1% of argon, carbon dioxide, and other gases as well as varying amounts of water vapour.

Air pollution has been defined as the presence in the atmosphere of any air pollutant. As per Section 2(a) of Air (Prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1981.
Air pollutant has been defined as any solid,

liquid or gaseous substance [(including noise)] present in the atmosphere in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or property or environment.

Stockholm Conference, 1972


the environment cannot be improved in conditions of poverty, unless we are in a position to provide employment and purchasing power for the daily necessities of the tribal people and those who live in around our jungles, we cannot prevent them from combing the forests for food and livelihood; from poaching and from despoiling the vegetation. How can we speak to those who live in villages and slums about keeping the oceans, the rivers and the air clean when their own lives are contaminated at the source -- Indira Gandhi, Stockholm Conference, 1972

In its preamble it is stated, "WHEREAS decisions were taken at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in June, 1972, in which India participated, to take appropriate steps for the preservation of the natural resources of the earth which, among other things, include the preservation of the quality of air and control of air pollution

The legislative and regulatory measures which have been developed aim at preservation, conservation and protection of the environment after Stockholm Conference, 1972 . Some important legal instruments are: Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 Water (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act, 1974 Forest Conservation Act, 1980 Air (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act,1981 Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 National Environment Tribunal Act, 1995 National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997.

Air Pollutants, their sources and effects


Pollutant
Natural
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) SO2 is the chemical compound produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes and are also a precursor to particulates in the atmosphere. Volcanos (67%)

Possible Sources
Anthropogenic
combustion of fossil fuel (coal, heavy fuel oil in thermal power plants, office, factories) paper Industry extravtion & distribution of fossil fuels smelting of metals (sulfide ores to produce copper, lead and zinc) Petroleum refining combustion process in diesel, petrol, natural gas driven vehicles High temperature combustion (internal combustion engines, fossil fuel-fired power stations, industrial) Burning of Bio-mass and Fossil Fuels

Effects
Human / flora / fauna
respiratory illness visibility impairment aggravate existing heart and lung diseases

Environment & Property


acid rain aesthetic damage

Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Oxides of nitrogen are a generic term for a group of highly reactive gases that contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts.NOx are emitted as nitrogen oxide (NO) which is rapidly oxidized to more toxic nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a reddish-brown toxic gas with a characteristic sharp, biting odor and is a prominent air pollutant.

Lightning Forest fires Bacterial activity of soil

irritates the nose and throat increase susceptibility to respiratory infections

Precursor of ozone formed in the troposphere Form atmospheric fine particulate matter burden as a result of oxidation to form nitrate aerosol

Pollutant

Possible Sources

Effects

Natural
Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (PM10, size 10m, coarse fraction PM10 PM2.5). called thoracic fraction) Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of suspended solid and liquid particle in semi equilibrium with surrounding gases. The major constituents of RSPM are organic and elemental carbon, metals/elements like silicon, magnesium, iron, ions like sulphates, nitrates, ammonium etc. PM10 can settle in the bronchi and lungs and cause health problems Coarse particles are produced by the mechanical break-up of larger solid particles. Wind blown dust such as road dust, fly ash, soot, agricultural processes physical processes of crushing, grinding and abrasion of surfaces. photochemically produced particles, such as those found in urban haze Pollen grains, mould spores, and plant and insect parts Non-combustible materials released when burning fossil fuels.

Anthropogenic
Road traffic emissions particularly from diesel vehicles Industrial combustion plants some public power generation Commercial and residential combustion Non-combustion processes (e.g. quarrying) agricultural activities

Human / flora / fauna


cardio-pulmonary problems asthma, bronchitis, and pneumonia in older people

Environment & Property


Visibility reduction

Pollutant

Possible Sources Natural Anthropogenic Fine particles are largely formed from gases. Ultrafine particles are formed by nucleation, which is the initial stage in which gas becomes a particle. These particles can grow up to a size of 1m either through condensation, when additional gas condensates or coagulation Vehicular emission Industrial combustion plants some public power generation Commercial and residential combustion

Effects Human / flora / fauna Environment & Property oxidative stress respiratory symptoms such as irritation of the airways, coughing, or difficulty breathing decreased lung function aggravated asthma chronic bronchitis irregular heartbeat cardiopulmonary disordera premature death in people with heart or lung disease aesthetic damage visibility reduction

Particulate Matter 2.5 (PM2.5, size 2.5m, fine fraction size up to 2.5 m, respirable fraction) Airborne particles smaller than 2.5 m called fine particles. Composed mainly of carbonaceous materials (organic and elemental), inorganic compounds (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium), and trace metal compounds (iron, aluminium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead). pose the greatest problems, PM2.5, tend to penetrate into the gas exchange regions of the lung, and very small particles (< 100 nanometers) may pass through the lungs to affect other organs. The smallest particles, however, less than 100 nm (nanoparticles) can get into the bloodstream and affect the cardiovascular system

Pollutant Natural Ozone(O3) Ozone is a pale blue gas, soluble in water and nonpolar solvents with specific sharp odor somewhat resembling chlorine bleach. Ozone is a secondary pollutants formed in the atmosphere by reaction between oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight. Peak O3 levels occur typically during the warmer times of the year. Lead Lead is a bright silvery soft, dense, ductile, highly malleable, bluish-white metal that has poor electrical conductivity heavy metal and is highly resistant to corrosion.

Possible Sources Anthropogenic formed by the reaction of sunlight on air containing hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides emitted by car engines, industrial operations, chemical solvents to form ozone electronic equipment such as photocopiers

Effects Human / flora / fauna lung function deficits respiratory illness premature death, asthma, bronchitis, heart attack, and other cardiopulmonary problems. ground-level ozone and pollution which interferes with photosynthesis and stunts overall growth of some plant species Environment & Property Ozone cracking in car tires, gaskets, O-rings is caqused by attack of ozone on any polymer possessing olefinic or double bonds within its chain structure, ozone present in the upper troposphere acts as a greenhouse gas, absorbing some of the infrared energy emitted by the earth.

ozone is present in the atmosphere in the stratosphere, in a region also known as the ozone layer between about 10 km and 50 km above the surface food (lead is absorbed by plants)

Waste incineration Metal processing Paint Industry lead solder in food cans, breast milk, drinking water, Cosmetics, ceramic pottery, burning of firewood or kerosene, indigenous remedies, tobacco and tobacco products, contaminated drinking water, toys, industrial effluents, lead acid batteries, ammunition, paints and varnishes, water pipes automobile exhaust,

Pb is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and is believed to have adverse effects on the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, kidneys, and the immune system causes blood disorders like anemia increase in blood presssure. potent neurotoxin that accumulates both in soft tissues and the bones. causes nephropathy, and colic-like abdominal pains. weakness in fingers, wrists, or ankles. Miscarriage and reduction of fertility in males, delayed puberty in girls permanently reduce the cognitive capacity of children

Pollutant Natural Carbon monoxide (CO) . also called carbonous oxide, is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas which is slightly lighter than air. It is highly toxic to humans and animals in higher quantities. Mainly formed by incomplete combustion of carbon containing fuels.

Possible Sources Anthropogenic Exhaust of internal combustion engines, especially of vehicles with petrol engines Burning of carbon fuels organic combustion in waste incineration power station processes Iron smelting burning of crop residues

Effects Human / flora / fauna CO enters the bloodstream through lungs and combines with hemoglobin forms carboxyhemoglobin.Thi s condition is known as anoxemia, which inhibits bloods oxygen carrying capacity to organs and tissues. Persons with heart disease are sensitive to CO poisoning and may experience chest pain if they breathe the gas while exercising. adverse effects on the fetus of a pregnant woman Infants, elderly persons, and individuals with respiratory diseases are also particularly sensitive. anti-inflammatories, vasodilators and encouragers of neovascular growth Environment & Property

produced during normal animal metabolism (by the action of heme oxygenase 1 and 2 on the heme from hemoglobin breakdown and produces carboxyhemoglobin in normal persons) in low quantities and has some normal biological functions (signalling molecule) volcanic activity forest and bushfires

Pollutant

Possible Sources

Effects

Natural

Anthropogenic

Human / flora / fauna

Environ ment & Property

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (BaP) (particulate phase only) is a five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon whose metabolites are mutagenic and highly carcinogenic

coal tar (after a forest fire), eruption of volcanoes

Benzene (C6H6) Benzene is a colorless, sweet smelling liquid. Benzene is generated whenever carbon-rich materials undergo incomplete combustion. Benzene is generated whenever carbon-rich materials undergo incomplete combustion.

volcanoes forest fires

Incomplete combustion of fuels (processing of coal and crude oil) Combustion of natural gas Road transport Industrial plant Tobacco smoke coal tar automobile exhaust fumes (especially diesel engines), in all smoke resulting from the combustion of organic material charbroiled food, burnt toast, cooked meat products, in burnt foods such as coffee Combustion of fuel (automotive fuel, wood and stationary fossil fuel, other aromatics evaporation (fuel storage containers, during refueling Industrial emission Coke oven Perchlorethlyene is emitted from some dry cleaning facilities tobacco smoke, wood smoke glues, paints, furniture wax, and detergents

Mutagenic and highly carcinogenic (skin, lung, and bladder cancer in humans and in animals) skin rash or eye irritation Bronchitis

Hematotoxic, neurotoxic, leukemogenic, carcinogenic effects Chronic exposure to benzene may cause chromosomal damage, immune suppression, aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, leukemia, non-Hodgkinss lymphoma, and cancer of the lung and nasopharynx Effect the Reproductive system, developing fetus and fertility in men, low birth weights, delayed bone formation, and bone marrow damage

Pollutant Natural Ammonia (NH3) A compound of nitrogen and hydrogen, a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent odour. Contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers, and either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Arsenic (As) is a solid layered, a ruffled analogue of graphite, metallic gray in color and is a semiconductor. It is a potent poison IARC) recognizes arsenic and group 1 carcinogen (IARC)

Possible Sources Anthropogenic Farms Fertilizers Industry Industrial sites that store ammonia or use it as a refrigerant can release high levels if the chemical leaks or is spilled

Effects Human / flora / fauna irritating to skin, eyes, throat, and lungs and cause coughing burns Lung damage and death may occur after exposure to very high concentrations of ammonia

putrefaction of nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter Ammonia and ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rainwater, fertile soil and in seawater during volcanic erruption The kidneys secrete NH3 to neutralize excess acid

Environment & Property Odour

volcanic ash, weathering of the arsenic-containing mineral and ores as well as groundwater. food, water, soil and air

Smelting of metals, Combustion of fuels (especially of lowgrade brown coal) Use of pesticides. wood preservation, glass production, nonferrous metal alloys, electronic semiconductor manufacturing. coke oven emissions associated with the smelter industry Combustion of fossil fuels Nickel plating Metallurgical processes

epigenetic changes multi-system organ failure As poisoning

Nickel (Ni) a silvery-white lustrous corrosion-resistant metal with a slight golden tinge

urease (an enzyme which assists in the hydrolysis of urea) contains nickel

Nickel sulfide fume and dust is believed to be carcinogenic allergy, dermatitis. Sensitivity to nickel may also be present in patients with pompholyx.

explosive air

in

PLAYERS OF THE RULE OF POLLUTION CONTROL

Polluter Generator of Pollution Pollute Victims of Pollution

Regulator Referee

Polluters- Generator of Pollution


Anthropogenic sources (human activity)

"Stationary Sources" include smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices.

CONTINUED.

"Mobile Sources" include motor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft and the effect of sound etc. Military, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare and rocketry. Chemicals, dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture and forestry management. Controlled or prescribed burning is a technique sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement.

Natural sources Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by animals, for example cattle Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust. Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas that is formed from the decay of radium. It is considered to be a health hazard.

CONTINUED.

CONTINUED.

Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires Vegetation, in some regions, emits environmentally significant amounts of VOCs on warmer days. These VOCs react with primary anthropogenic pollutants specifically, NOx, SO2, and anthropogenic organic carbon compounds to produce a seasonal haze of secondary pollutants. Volcanic activity, which produce sulfur, chlorine, and ash particulates

Pollute Victims of Pollution


Living Beings Human beings Plants Animals Civil Structures Old Monuments like Taj Mahal

REGULATORS
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT STATE GOVERNMENT

CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD


STATE POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD/COMMITTEE

INTER AUTHORITY NETWORK


PARLIAMENT

ACTS
BILL RULES CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ACTS BILL RULES Concerned Ministry RULES

State Assembly

BILL
State Government

FORMATION DIRECTION FUND SUPERSEDE


Central Board

FORMATION DIRECTION FUND SUPERSEDE

ADVICE

ADVICE

DIRECTION
INFORMATION

State Board
DIRECTION

FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRAL BOARD


Advise the Central Government on any matter concerning the prevention and control of air pollution and the improvement of the quality of the air; Plan and cause to execute a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution; Coordinate the activities of the State Boards and resolve disputes among them; provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards, carry out and sponsor investigation & research relating to problems of air pollution and for their prevention, control or abatement; Plan and organize training of persons engaged in programmes on the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution Organize through mass media, a comprehensive mass awareness programme on the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution.

CONTINUED
Collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to air pollution and the measures devised for their effective prevention, control or abatement; prepare manuals, codes and guidelines relating to treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents as well as for stack gas cleaning devices and stacks of ducts; Disseminate information in respect of matters relating to air pollution and their prevention & control; Lay down, the air quality standards; and Perform such other functions as may be prescribed by the Government of India.

FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE BOARD

Advise the State Government on any matter concerning the prevention and control of air pollution and the improvement of the quality of the air; Plan and cause to execute a state-wide programme for the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution; Plan and organize training of persons engaged in consultation with the Central board programmes on the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution Organize through mass media, a comprehensive mass awareness programme in consultation with the Central board on the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution. To inspect, at all reasonable times, any control equipment, industrial plant or manufacturing process and to give, by order, such directions to such persons as it may consider necessary to take steps for the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution. To lay down, in consultation with the Central board and having regard to the standards for the quality of air laid down by the Central board , standards for emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere from industrial plants and automobiles or for the discharge of any air pollutant into the atmosphere from any other source whatsoever not being a ship or an aircraft.

STANDARD DEVELOPMENT

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OBJECTIVE, CRITERIA, STANDARD RELATIONSHIP


ECOLOGICAL CRITERIA SCIENTIFIC DOMAIN ENGINEERING

HEALTH CRITERIA GEOLOGICAL CRITERIA

ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA

TECHNICAL CAPABILITY

TECHNICAL DOMAIN

ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVE GOAL STANDARD TIME

ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY

EMISSION EFFLUENT STANDARD

TECHNOLOGY

SOCIAL AWARENESS RISK ASSESSMENT

RISK DOMAIN

EXPOSURE

SOCIO ECONOMIC CAPABILITY

SOCIAL DOMAIN

NATIONAL HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL FRAGILITY

ECONOMICAL CAPABILITY

Revised National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) [NAAQS Notification dated 18th November, 2009]
Concentration in Ambient Air S. No. Pollutants Time Weighted Average Industrial, Residential, Rural and other Areas Ecologically Sensitive Area (notified by Central Government) 20 80 30 80 60 100 40 60 100 180 Methods of Measurement

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), g/m3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2 ), g/m3 Particulate Matter (Size <10m) or PM10 g/m3

Annual* 24 Hours** Annual* 24 Hours** Annual* 24 Hours**

50 80 40 80 60 100 40 60 100 180

1. Improved West and Gaeke 2. Ultraviolet Fluorescence 1. Modified Jacob & Hochheiser (Na-Arsenite) 2. Chemiluminescence 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. Gravimetric TOEM Beta attenuation Gravimetric TOEM Beta attenuation UV photometric Chemiluminescence Chemical Method

Particulate Matter Annual* (Size <2.5 m) or PM2.5 g/m3 24 Hours ** Ozone (O3), g/m3 8 hours** 1 hours **

Lead (Pb), g/m3

Annual * 24 Hour**

0.50 1.0

0.50 1.0

1. AAS/ICP Method after sampling using EPM 2000 or equivalent filter paper 2. ED-XRF using Teflon filter

Revised National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) [NAAQS Notification dated 18th November, 2009]
Concentration in Ambient Air S. No. Pollutants Time Weighted Average Industrial, Residential, Rural and other Areas 7 Carbon Monoxide (CO), mg/m3 Ammonia (NH3), g/m3 8 Hours ** 1 Hour** 8 Annual* 02 04 100 Ecologically Sensitive Area (notified by Central Government) 02 04 100 1. 2. 1. 2. 10 11 Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP)particulate phase only, ng/m3 Arsenic (As), ng/m3 Annual* Annual* 01 06 01 06 Chemiluminescence Indophernol blue method Gas chromatography based continuous analyzer Adsorption and Desorption followed by GC analysis Methods of Measurement

Non dispersive Infra Red (NDIR) Spectroscopy

24 Hour**
9 Benzene (C6H6) , g/m3 Annual *

400
05

400
05

Solvent extraction followed by HPLC/GC analysis AAS/ICP method after sampling on EPM 2000 or equivalent filter paper AAS/ICP method after sampling on EPM 2000 or equivalent filter paper

12

Nickel (Ni), ng/m3

Annual*

20

20

EMISSION STANDARD IN QUEST OF BEST PRACITICABLE TECHNOLOGY

DIMENSION OF STANDARDS
BANNING THE PRODUCTS BANNING THE USE OF SUBSTANCE FOR CERTAN PRUPOSE ENCOURGING GREEN PRODUCT (ECO MARK)
FINANCIAL IMPLICATION

PRODUCT DESIGN

STANDARDS

MANUFACTURING PROCESS TECHNOLOGY OPERATING PRACTICE

INTRODUCTION OF 4 R CONCEPT (RECYCLING, RENOVATION, RECHARGE, REUSE) AVOIDING SPILLS INTRODUCTION TO CLEAN TECHNOLOGY STORAGE OF OPTIMIZATION OFF SITE PLANNING

LIMITED SCOPE FOR OLD INDUSTRY MULTIPLICITY OF DEPARTMENTS INVOLVED

LIMITS ON RELEASE INTO AIR & WATER

BEST PRACTICABLE MEANS (TECHNOLOGY) BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY

DISCOURAGE CLEAN TOCHNOLOGY ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY NOT CONSIDERED

PRINCIPLE OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY


SEPERATION TECHNIQUE
SOLID GAS SEPERATION GAS GAS SEPERATION GAS LIQUID SEPERATION

RECOVERY OF SOLVENTS/MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY MODIFICATIONN/CLEANER TECHNOLOGY THERMAL DESTRUCTION FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

GOOD

ENGINEERING

PRACTICES

AND

ENGINEERING

INNOVATIONS

SOLID GAS SEPARATION TECHNIQUE (ARRESTING PARTIQULATE MATTER)

SETTLING OF SOLIDS CYLONE & MULTICLONE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR BAG FILTER

GAS GAS SEPARATION TECHNIQUE


WATER SCRUBBER

CAUSTIC SCRUBBER
VENTURY SCRUBBER CHARCOAL SCRUBBER ADSORPTION

GAS LIQUID SEPARATION


MIST ELIMINATOR

DE MISTER
SOLVENT RECOVERY CONDENSATION ADSORPTION WET SCRUBBING

ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY
BIO FILTERATION

BIO SCRUBBER
BIO TRICKLING MEMBERANE SEPERATION LYPHOLIZATION (Drying Process) DRY SORBENT INJECTION

SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION (For NOx)


SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION

THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT

INCINERATOR

CATALYTIC OXIDATION
FLARING

GOOD ENGINEERING PRACTICES AND ENGINEERING INNOVATION


VALVE: PUMP: FLANGES LOW & ULTRA NOx BURNER BELOW SEAL VALVE DOUBLE SEALED PUMP

LEAK DETECTION AND REPAIR (LDAR PROGRAMME)

TYPICAL PERCENT SHARE OF EMISSIONS IN CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES Fugitive emissions from equipment-40- 60 %

Process vents

5-15 %

Storage tanks

5-15 %

Loading /unloading facilities

15-25 %

WWTP:

10-20 %

AIR EMISSIONS, SOURCE AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES


S.no. Industry Sources of Air pollution Smelter Sulfuric acid plant Pollutant Control Technology

1. 2.

Zinc, Copper and Lead smelter Aluminum


Power

Dust, Fumes, SO2


ESP Alkali Scrubbres Settling Chamber, bag house, ESP Alumina Scrubber ESP, Alumina Scrubber
ESP Dispersion through stack height Control alongwith particulate matter Bag Filter ESP/Baghouse ESP Scrubber Scrubber Stack height Pilling tower height Stack Height/Wet Scrubber Scrubber

Refinery Bake oven Pot Lining


Boiler

Dust Fluoride Dust, Fluoride


Particulate matter SO2 Hg Dust Dust Dust SO2 NOx CO Urea dust NH3 Particulate matter Fluoride NH3 SO2/Acid mist NOx

3.

Thermal Station

4.

Cement Plant

Secondary crusher Kiln Klincker cooler Urea Sulfur Plant

5.

Fertiliser i) Nitrogenious ii) Complex including Sulfuric acid

S.no.

Industry

Sources of Air pollution

Pollutant

Control Technology

6.

Iron & Steel

Coke Oven

Dust, CO, H2S, SOx, NOx

Sinter Plant Blast Furnace Hot metal Desulphurisati on Basic Oxygen Furnace Rolling mill

Dust Flue gases, dust, SOx, NOx Flue gases, dust, NOx, H2S Flue dust, fumes Flue dust (high content of Iron, Zn) CO, Fumes

Air cooled self sealing doors, hydro jet cleaning system, hermetically sealed charging sleeves and screw feeder in charging car, water sealed AP covers, luting charging holes with clay suspension, modified transfer/guide car with emission control system etc. Bag filters, ESP Bag filter, heat exchanger, Water Scrubber, GCP Bag filter, ESP Suction hood, Bag filters, ESP Bag filter, ESP

S.no.

Industry

Sources of Air pollution

Pollutant

Control Technology

7.

Petro-Chemical i) Inorganic Pollutants

EDC/VCM plant and incinerator Process Vent(w.w. stripper) Acrylonitrile plant(Incinerat ors) Naptha pretreatment plant, olefin plant

Chlorine, HCL Ammonia, HCN HCN Hydrogen Sulphide

7.

Petro-Chemical ii)Fugitive Emission

Pumps (EDC)

Single mechanical seal (Unit-I) Double mechanical/Tandem seal. Degassing vent to incinerator-(Unit-III) Double mechanical/Tandem seal. Degassing vent to incinerator- (Unit-IV) Bellow seal (control valve), Extended bonnet (isolation valves), Extended bonnet (isolation valves)-(Unit-I) Bellow seal (control valve) Extended bonnet (isolation valves)-(Unit-III)

Valves (Chlorine)

7.

Petro-Chemical ii)Fugitive Emission

Valves (VCM)

Extended bonnet (control valves) TOFLEEN valves with Teflon packing (Isolation valves) Plug/Ball valve (with welded connections only)-(Unit-III) Plug valve (with CAF packing)-(Unit-IV) With Teflon/metal packing(Unit-IV)

Valves (EDC)

Flanges(EDC) Flanges (VCM)

Metal Gaskets-(Unit-IV) Spiral bound CAF-(Unit-IV)

S.no.

Industry

Sources of Air pollution

Pollutant
Carbon Monoxide SO2 Hydrogen Sulphide NO2 Nickel Particulate matter SOx NOx Nickel

Control Technology

8.

Oil Refinery

Furnace boiler

CO boiler Sulfur recovery unit Low/ultra NOx/ Selective catalytic reduction Sulfur recovery unit Low/ultra NOx

Catalytic cracking

Storage Tank Loading/unloa ding Sulfur recovery unit

VOC

VOC

NOx CO H2S

Floating roof tank and vapour control System Submerges Loading followed by vapour balancing/recovery. Low/ultra NOx

Equipments leak Wastewater treatment

VOC

LDAR Covered lines with vapour collection system.

VOC

Available Techniques for End-of-pipe Treatment of Waste Gases from Chemical Industries

GRANTING CONSENT

WHO NEEDS CONSENT UNDER AIR ACT


START

Is it emitting any air pollutant


Yes Is it in air pollution control area Is the emission conform the standards Consent rejected restrict operation Do appeal to Appellate Authority Is appeal rejected Do it as per direction

No

No need for consent

Consent granted

Yes

Restriction of operation continues

THE AIR ACT, 1981


Consent Conditions (Mandatory Under Section 22)
Lay down the Standards Specification of Control Equipments Chimney Heights Ensure operation of control equipments in good running conditions Technological improvement on control equipments Monitoring Protocol Introduction of LDAR to control fugitive emissions Validity Period of the consent Introduction of Environmental Audit Restriction of Fuels Energy Audit to reduce fuel consumption Adaptation of ISO : 14001 Reporting Air emissions monitoring results to SPCBs Green Belt around the industries

Consent Condition as Guidelines

CONTINUED.

Obligations of Industries
Furnish information sought by PCB Provide access to PCB for sampling, inspection or seizure of any document or material object Not to emit non-conforming emissions

Inform PCB of non-conforming emissions


Comply with written directions of PCB, including: Closure, prohibition or regulation of industry, operation or process Stoppage or regulation of electricity, water or any other services Comply with consent conditions

POWER TO DECLARE POLLUTION CONTROL AREA


The State Government may, after consultation with the State Board, by notification in the official Gazette declare in such a manner as may be prescribed, any area or areas within the State as air pollution control area for the purpose of this act. Burning of any material (not being fuel) in any air pollution control area. Prohibit the use of any fuel, other than an approved fuel, in any air pollution control area or part thereof, may cause or is likely to cause air pollution. Fuel Specification

POWERS OF POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD


S. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 POWERS To obtain information To take sample To entry & inspection To grant consent / authorization To withdrawal consent / authorization Powers to carryout some work AIR ACT Section 25 Section 26 Section 24 Section 21 Section 21 Section 22

7
8 9 10 11

Emergency (remedial action)


Powers to restrict through courts Power to give directions Power to declare pollution control area Power to ensure standard from automobiles

Section 23
Section 22 A Section 31 A Section 19 Section 20

POWER OF GIVE DIRECTIONS In the performance of its functions under this Act The Central Board shall be bound by such directions in writing as the Central Government may give to it. Every State Board shall be bound by such directions in writing as the Central Board or the State Government may give to it.

AIR QUALITY MONITORING

MONITORING WHAT IT IS?

Monitoring is a programme for a systematic observation in order to draw inference (prediction) about the experiment or the phenomena for which it is designed.

By systematic observation means a periodic observation with regular intervals. When (how often) to observe ? frequency of observation

By observation measurement

in

science

means

What to measure? parameters to be defined

The third component of monitoring is the location Where to sample?

Monitoring is, therefore, a programme, or an experimental design composed of

Location of sampling Where to sample?


Frequency of sampling How often? What to sample What are parameters?

POPULATION, SAMPLE AND SAMPLING


Population is a larger body of collection of items or objects.

Sample is specified number of items (objects or bits of information) is drawn from population
Population Sample

Sampling involves selection of elements from a collection in such a way that every element of the collection has the same chance of being selected.

General Requirements for Siting Monitoring Station


The monitor should be outside the zone of influence of sources located within the designated zone of representation for the monitoring site. Height of the inlet must be 3 10 m above the ground level. Large nearby buildings and trees extending above the height of the monitor may present barriers or deposition surfaces for PM. Distance of the sampler to any air flow obstacle i.e. buildings, must be more than two times the height of the obstacle above the sampler. There should be unrestricted airflow in three of four quadrants. The instrument must be located in such a place where free flow of air is available. The instrument should not be located in a confined place, corner or a balcony.

There should be no nearby furnace or incinerator fumes. Certain trees May also be sources of PM in the form of detritus, pollen, or insect parts. These can be avoided by locating samplers by placing them >20 m from nearby trees. Sampling in the vicinity of unpaved roads and streets results in entrainment of dust into the samplers from the movement of vehicles. Samplers are therefore to be kept at a distance of 200m from unpaved roads. The site should be away from absorbing surfaces such as absorbing building material. The clearance to be allowed will depend on the absorbing properties of the material for the pollutant in question, but it will normally be at least Im.

Specific Requirements for Various Area Classes


Residential Area :
The site should be away from major pollution sources. The distance depends upon the source, its height and its emissions. The station should be at least 25m away from domestic emission sources, with larger sources the distance should be greater. The area must predominantly consist of people residing with population density of more than 4000 inhabitanat/km2. There must not be any industrial activities in the area within 2 Kms. There must not be any commercial activities like trading centers or offices with typical sources as DG sets etc. in the area. The site must be away from major roads, highways and traffic zones. Station should be more than 100 m away from any street having a traffic volume in excess of 500 vehicles/day. These should generally be at least 1 km from very large, visibly identifiable source areas occupied by major industries such as cement and steel production or ore processing.

Industrial Zone
The station must be located in a designated industrial area within the cluster of air polluting industries. The monitoring station must be located in the area where maximum ground level concentration is expected. The maximum ground level concentrations may be determined if possible, based on modeling exercises.

Physical requirement of the monitoring site


The site should be available for a long period of time Easy access to the site should be there anytime throughout the year. Site sheltering and facilities such as electricity of sufficient rating, water , telephone connection etc. should be available. It should be vandal proof and protected from extreme weather

Traffic/ Commercial Area


Monitoring site-representing traffic/commercial zone should not be very near with undue influence of traffic emissions. It should be near center of heavy commercial activities. The monitoring station must be located near traffic roads with at least 10,000 vehicles/day. Table: A minimum distance of the sampler from road. (Source: ETC, Canada, 1995)

Average Traffic (vehicle per day)


Minimum sampler (meters) distance of from road

10,000

15,000

20,000

40,000

70,000

110,000

10

20

30

50

100

250

Kerbside
Kerbside, by definition, will be the sites with sample inlets within 1m of the edge of a busy road and sampling heights are at 3m elevation from ground level. If for reasons, 1m of the road edge is not possible, declare the site as roadside location, which has the definition of being a site with sample inlets between 1m of the kerbside of a busy road and the back of the pavement. Typical will be within 5m of the kerbside and the sampling height remains at 3m elevation. Locate station in the central urban area in a congested street surrounded by building where many pedestrian walk. Average daily travel on the street should exceed 10,000 vehicles with average speed of less than 6.7 m/s. Monitoring probe is to be located 0.5-1m from the curb at a height of 3m.

Background Station
Background monitoring station at times for urban network may even 100km away from a large size city. It should be located upwind at distance, so that there are no sources within 3-4 kms around that site The monitoring station must be located in rural area with no nearby sources such as vehicles, industries, DG sets etc. The monitoring station must be located away from domestic emission sources such as coal burning and other household emissions.

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