KPP1033 - Psikologi Pendidikan

DR. SUPPIAH NACHIAPPAN 012-5270801 / 05-4506044

Kuliah 7: Perkembangan Konsep kendiri dan Personaliti

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Pelajar dapat: Membezakan konsep kendiri dan personaliti Membanding dan membezakan Perkembangan kendiri – penghargaan Kendiri, ‘self efficacy’ konsep kendiri positif dan negatif. Menerangkan Perkembangan personality –Freud & Jung

-Self-concept or self identity is the mental and conceptual understanding and persistent. - In other words, it is the sum total of a being's knowledge and understanding of his or her self. - The self-concept is different from self-consciousness, which is an awareness or preoccupation with one's self. - Components of the self-concept include physical, psychological, and social attributes, which can be influenced by the individual's attitudes, habits, beliefs and ideas. - These components and attributes can not be condensed to the general concepts of self-image and the self-esteem.

Many of the successes and failures that people experience in many areas of life are closely related to the ways that they have learned to view themselves and their relationships with others. It is also becoming clear that self-concept has at least three major qualities of interest to counselors: (1) it is learned, (2) it is organized, and (3) it is dynamic.

As far as we know, no one is born with a self-concept. It gradually emerges in the early months of life and is shaped and reshaped through repeated perceived experiences, particularly with significant others. The fact that self-concept is learned has some important implications: Because self-concept does not appear to be instinctive, but is a social product developed through experience, it possesses relatively boundless potential for development and actualization. Because of previous experiences and present perceptions, individuals may perceive themselves in ways different from the ways others see them.

# Most researchers agree that self-concept has a generally stable quality that is characterized by orderliness and harmony. # Each person maintains countless perceptions regarding one's personal existence, and each perception is orchestrated with all the others. # It is this generally stable and organized quality of self-concept that gives consistency to the personality. # This organized quality of self-concept has corollaries. Self-concept requires consistency, stability, and tends to resist change. # If self-concept changed readily, the individual would lack a consistent and dependable personality.

- The more central a particular belief is to one's selfconcept, the more resistant one is to changing that belief. - At the heart of self-concept is the self-as-doer, the "I,“. - This allows the person to reflect on past events, analyze present perceptions, and shape future experiences. - Basic perceptions of oneself are quite stable, so change takes time. - Perceived success and failure affect self-concept. - Failure in a highly regarded area lowers evaluations in all other areas as well. - Success in a prized area raises evaluations in other seemingly unrelated areas.

- To understand the active nature of self-concept, it helps to imagine it as a gyrocompass: continuously active system that dependably points to the "true north" of a person's perceived existence. - This guidance system not only shapes the ways a person views oneself, others, and the world, but it also serves to direct action and enables each person to take a consistent "stance" in life. - Rather than viewing self-concept as the cause of behavior, it is better understood as the gyrocompass of human personality, providing consistency in personality and direction for behavior. - The dynamic quality of self-concept also carries corollaries. The world and the things in it are not just perceived; they are perceived in relation to one's self-

concept.

- Self-concept development is a continuous process. In the
healthy personality there is constant assimilation of new ideas and expulsion of old ideas throughout life. Individuals strive to behave in ways that are in keeping with their self-concepts, no matter how helpful or hurtful to oneself or others. Self-concept usually takes precedence over the physical body. Individuals will often sacrifice physical comfort and safety for emotional satisfaction. Self-concept continuously guards itself against loss of selfesteem, for it is this loss that produces feelings of anxiety. If self-concept must constantly defend itself from assault, growth opportunities are limited.

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-Individuals perceive different aspects of themselves at different times with varying degrees of clarity. Therefore, inner focusing is a valuable tool for counseling. - Any experience which is inconsistent with one's self-concept may be perceived as a threat, and the more of these experiences there are, the more rigidly selfconcept is organized to maintain and protect itself. - When a person is unable to get rid of perceived inconsistencies, emotional problems arise. - Faulty thinking patterns, such as dichotomous reasoning (dividing everything in terms of opposites or extremes) or overgeneralizing (making sweeping conclusions based on little information) create negative interpretations of oneself.

- Self, self-concept, self-esteem and personality are terms that overlap to some extent with each other, with each referring to a particular component of our total being. - The self, refers to our sense of personal existence; it is that part of ourselves of which are consciously aware. - The self-concept is our idea of personal identity; it refers to the cluster of perceptions and attitudes we have about ourselves at any given moment. - Another way of looking at self-concept is as an expression of the way we have come to think about ourselves. - Thus, out of our awareness of ourselves grows the idea (or \ concept) of the type of person we perceive ourselves to be.

- Self-concept is the cognitive part of self-esteem. Self-concept is the purely descriptive aspect of our selfperceptions. Examples: „I am a student‟, „I weigh 62 kg‟, „I have many friends‟. - These are descriptive statements that can be verified. - Self-esteem is the affective dimension of selfperception. - That is, not only do we have ideas about who we are, we also have feelings about who we are. - Self-esteem is the evaluative component of our selfperceptions and is reflected in statements such as, “I am an excellent (or average or poor student”, “My weight is ideal”, or “I am a friendly person.”

- Out of All these emerges what is commonly referred to as personality. - Why personalities differ so greatly among individuals? - Distinct levels of awareness of the self - Distinct ideas (self-conceptions) about their awareness - Distinct levels of self-esteem and as consequence, distinct feelings about themselves as individuals – and distinct ways of projecting themselves to others.

TANGGAPAN/FIKIRAN MEREKA BERBEZA

- Bagaimana seseorang berkelakuan bergantung sebahagiannya ke atas konsep kendirinya – iaitu apa yang ia fikirkan tentang dirinya termasuk kekuatannya, kelemahannya dan personalitinya. - Konsep kendiri ditakrifkan –penilaian seseorang ke atas dirinya atau bagaimana ia menganggap tentang dirinya sendiri sama ada secara positif atau negatif. - Konsep kendiri meliputi aspek fizikal dan psikologi. - Konsep kendiri berkaitan dengan pembelajaran yang dialami sejak kanak-kanak masih kecil lagi. - Faktor persekitaran, ibu bapa (pujian dan penghargaan) – membina keyakinan.

- Kanak-kanak seperti individu lain mempunyai kepercayaan dan nilai-nilainya sendiri. - Pengaruh ibu bapa, keluarga dan guru memberi kesan bermakna ke atas pembinaan konsep kendiri mereka - Kanak-kanak menerima kesan negatif sekiranya orang penting di sekeliling mereka tidak memberi keyakinan, tidak memberi peluang untuk mencuba dan menyatakan pendapat. - Guru memainkan peranan penting di dalam bilik darjah untuk membina konsep kendiri kanakkanak. - Konsep kendiri mempunyai peranan yang penting kerana ia mempengaruhi pembelajaran dan tingkah laku.

- Melalui interaksi dengan orang lain. - Bertindak balas terhadap seseorang. - Menilai usahanya. - Memberi layanan kepada kanak-kanak. - Memberi perhatian. - Menggalakkan usaha-usahanya. - Memujinya atas usaha yang ditunjukkan adalah antara perkara yang akan memberi sumbangan ke arah konsep kendiri yang positif dan/atau negatif jika kanak-kanak banyak menerima kritikan.

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Konsep Kendiri Positif - Menghargai - Puas hati dengan pencapaiannya - Mudah berkawan - Puas hati dengan bahan-bahannya - Peramah - Memuji orang lain - Murah hati - Puas hati dengan dirinya

TIDAK PUAS HATI

- Simpati kepada diri - Mementingkan diri sendiri - Mencari simpati - Menyalahkan orang lain - Angan-angan dan risau - Minta pertolongan - Selalu beri komen yang menyinggung - Selalu tidak puas hati

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- Penghargaan kendiri ialah perasaan harga diri seseorang. Ia merupakan hasil daripada semua pemikiran, perasaan, sensasi dan pengalaman yang telah kita kumpulkan sepanjang hidup kita. - Penghargaan Kendiri yang tinggi ditunjukkan oleh ciri-ciri yang berikut: * Bertindak dengan bebas * Menerima tanggungjawab * Bangga dengan kejayaan * Menghadapi cabaran baru * Menunjukkan pelbagai corak emosi dan perasaan * Menghadapi kekecewaan dengan baik * Berasa dirinya ada kebolehan untuk mempengaruhi orang lain.

- Jika mempunyai penghargaan kendiri yang rendah: - Tidak menaruh keyakinan terhadap bakatnya sendiri - Merasakan orang lain tidak menghargainya - Berasa tidak berdaya, iaitu kurang yakin, sikap dan tindakannya tidak positif. - Mudah dipengaruhi oleh orang lain - Menyatakan emosi dan perasaan yang terhad - Mengelakkan situasi yang menimbulkan kerisauan - Mudah kecewa dan pertahankan diri.

-Pandangan tentang diri dan rasa penghargaan kendiri berkembang secara beransur-ansur sepanjang hidup pada peringkat bayi dan seterusnya. - Jika pandangan pertama terhadap kanak-kanak positif, maka perasaan kanak-kanak tentang dirinya akan menjadi kuat dan sihat atau di sebaliknya. - Semakin kanak-kanak membesar pengalamannya bertambah luas. Rakan sebaya, saudara-mara, jiran, guru dan rakan sekolah berinteraksi dengannya. - Penilaian semula yang dibuat tentang dirinya.

- Psychotherapist, Carl Rogers (1961) said that the main reason individuals have low self-esteem is that they have not been given adequate emotional support and social approval. - For many students, periods of low self-esteem come and go. - But for some students, persistent, low self-esteem translates into other, more serious problems. - Persistent, low self-esteem is linked with low achievement, depression, eating disorders, and delinquency (Harter, 1999). - Among the reasons given for the self-esteem decline in both boys and girls are physical changes of puberty, increased achievement demands and expectations and inadequate support from schools and parents.

- This brief overview of self-concept theory has focused on describing the ways people organize and interpret their inner world of personal existence. - The beginnings of self-concept theory and its recent history have been discussed. - Three major qualities of self-concept--that it is: (1) learned, (2) organized, and (3) dynamic--have been presented. - Individuals have within themselves relatively boundless potential for developing a positive and realistic self-concept. - This potential can be realized by people, places, policies, programs, and processes that are intentionally designed to invite the realization of this potential.

KPP1033 - Psikologi Pendidikan

DR. SUPPIAH NACHIAPPAN 012-5270801 / 05-4506044

Bersama Cikgu Jo dan Daneng

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