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**Electricity and Magnetism
**

Martin Savage

Lecture 24 (Knight: 33.9, 34.1-5)

LC and AC Circuits

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 2

Lecture 24 Announcements

Lecture HW is due tonight at 10 PM.

Midterm Exam 3 is this coming Friday. Covers

explicitly everything not covered in the previous

exam…and assumes understanding of all previous

material.

Lecture question and lab question are multiple-

choice, tutorial is long answer.

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 3

LC Circuits

A charged capacitor bears a

certain resemblance to a stretched

spring (remember the rubber

diaphragm), storing energy even

when the charge is not moving.

An inductor similarly resembles a

moving mass (remember the

flywheel), storing energy only when

charge is in motion.

We know that a mass and spring can make an oscillator. What about a

capacitor and inductor. Consider the circuit shown in the diagram. What

happens when the switch is closed?

The capacitor discharges by creating a current in the inductor. But

where does the energy go that had been stored in the inductor? There

are no dissipative elements in the system. Therefore, when the charge

of the capacitor goes to zero, all of its previous energy must reside in

the inductor. The current in the inductor falls while charging the

capacitor in the opposite direction. And so on …

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 4

The Oscillation Cycle

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 5

LC circuits (2)

Q L

dI

dt

+

C

1

= 0

d

2

Q

dt

2

Q +

LC

1

= 0

Q = α Sin( ω t + φ )

1

L C

ω

2

=

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 6

Example:

An AM Radio Oscillator

You have a 10mH inductor. What capacitor should you use with it to

make an oscillator with a frequency of 920 kHz? (This frequency is

near the center of the AM radio band.

5 -1 6 -1

2 2 (9.20 10 s ) 5.78 10 s f u r r · · × · ×

11

2 6 -1 2 2

1 1

3.0 10 F 30 pF

(5.78 10 s ) (1.0 10 H)

C

L u

· · · × ·

× ×

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 7

Plumber’s LC Analogy

P

1

Valve = Switch

Rubber Diaphragm = Capacitor

Flywheel = Inductor

Pressure = Potential

Water Flow = Current

Valve

Rubber

Diaphragm

The “plumber’s analogy” of an LC circuit is a

rubber diaphragm that has been stretched

by pressure on the top (P

1

) side. When the

valve starts the flow, the diaphragm forces

water past the flywheel, which begins to

spin. After the diaphragm has become flat,

the momentum of the flywheel forces the

diaphragm to be stretched in the other

direction, and the cycle repeats.

P

2

P

3

Flywheel

V

1

V

3

V

2

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 8

Chapter 33 - Summary (1)

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 9

Chapter 33 - Summary (2)

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 10

Chapter 33 - Summary (3)

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 11

AC Sources and Phasors

You can think of an AC

generator as a battery-

like object with an emf

that varies sinusoidally as

E (t) = E

0

cos ωt, where

E

0

is the maximum emf and

ω is the angular

frequency, with ω=2πf,

where f is the frequency

in Hz.

Alternatively, the emf and other oscillatory

quantities can be represented by a phasor

diagram. The phasor is a vector of length E

0

that rotates counterclockwise around the

origin with angular frequency ω, so that the

angle it makes with the horizontal axis at any

time is ωt. The projection of the phasor on

the horizontal axis at any time gives the emf.

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 12

Resistor AC Circuits

Consider an AC current i

R

through a resistor. Ohm’s

Law gives the potential drop

across the resistor, which we

will call the resistor voltage

v

R

.

R R

v i R ·

If the resistor is connected

in an AC circuit as shown, then

Kirschoff’s loop law tells us

that:

0

soruce R R

V V v A + A · =E

0

( ) cos

R

t t v u · · E E

0

cos cos

R

R R

v

i t I t

R R

u u · · ·

E

In the phasor diagram, the phasors for v

R

and i

R

are parallel.

source

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 13

Example:

Finding Resistor Voltages

In the circuit shown, find

(a) the peak voltage across

each resistor, and

(b) the instantaneous resistor

voltages at t=20 ms.

eq 1 2

(5 ) (15 ) 20 R R R · + · O + O · O

0

eq eq

cos (100 V) cos 2 (60 Hz)

cos (5.0 A) cos 2 (60 Hz)

(20 )

R

R R

t v t

i I t t

R R

u r

u r · · · · ·

O

E

1

0

2

25 V for R =5

75 V for R =15

R

V I R

O

¹

· ·

'

O

¹

2

( 20 ms) (5.0 A) cos 2 (60 Hz)(2.0 10 s) 1.545 A

R

i t r

· · × ·

1

2

7.7 V for R =5

23.2 V for R =15

R R

v i R

O

¹

· ·

'

O

¹

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 14

Capacitor AC Circuits (1)

Consider an AC current i

C

through a capacitor as shown. The capacitor

voltage v

C

= E = E

0

cos ωt = V

C

cos wt. The charge on the capacitor will

be q = Cv

C

= CV

C

cos ωt.

( )

cos sin

C C C

dq d

i CV t CV t

dt dt

u u u · · ·

cos( / 2)

C C

i CV t u u r · +

The AC current through a capacitor leads the capacitor voltage

by π/2 rad or 90

0

.

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 15

Capacitor AC Circuits (2)

The AC current through

a capacitor leads the

capacitor voltage by π/2 rad

or 90

0

. The phasors for v

C

and i

C

are perpendicular,

with the i

C

phasor ahead of

the v

C

phasor.

This is analogous to the

behavior of the position

and velocity of a mass-

and-spring harmonic

oscillator.

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 16

We can then use a form of

Ohm’s Law to relate the peak

voltage V

C

, the peak current I

C

, and

the capacitive reactance X

C

in an

AC circuit:

Capacitive Reactance

For AC circuits we can define a

resistance-like quantity, measured

in ohms, for capacitance. It is

called the capacitive reactance X

C

:

1 1

2

C

X

C f C u r

= ·

and

C

C C C C

C

V

I V I X

X

· ·

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 17

Question

The instantaneous value of the emf E represented by this

phasor is:

(c) Increasing;

(b) Decreasing;

(c) Constant;

(d) It is not possible to tell without knowing t.

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 18

Example: Capacitive Reactance

What is the capacitive reactance of a 0.10 µF capacitor at a 100 Hz

audio frequency and at a 100 MHz FM radio frequency?

-1 -7

1

(100 Hz) 15, 900

2 (100 s )(1.0 10 F)

C

X

r

· · O

×

8 -1 -7

1

(100 MHz) 0.0159

2 (1.0 10 s )(1.0 10 F)

C

X

r

· · O

× ×

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 19

Example: Capacitive Current

A 10 µF capacitor is connected to a 1000 Hz oscillator with a

peak emf of 5.0 V.

What is the peak current in the capacitor?

-1 -5

1

(1000 Hz) 15.9

2 (100 s )(1.0 10 F)

C

X

r

· · O

×

(5.0 V)

0.314 A

(15.9 )

C

C

C

V

I

X

· · ·

O

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 20

Voltage Dividers

r

V

out

The circuit indicates a potentiometer, a resistor with a sliding

contact. The overall resistance of the unit is R, while the resistance

from the sliding tap to the bottom is r.

What is the voltage V

out

delivered between the output terminals?

/ I R ·E

out

r

V I r

R

· ·E

Thus, the potentiometer divides the input voltage and delivers

some fraction of it proportional to r/R. This is a voltage divider.

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 21

Analyzing an RC Circuit

Draw the current

vector I at some

arbitrary angle.

All elements of

the circuit will

have this current.

Draw the resistor

voltage V

R

in phase

with the current.

Draw the capacitor

voltage V

C

90

0

behind the current.

Make sure all phasor

lengths scale

properly.

Draw the emf E

0

as the vector sum

of V

R

and V

C

. The

angle of this

phasor is ωt,

where the time-

dependent emf is

E

0

cos ωt.

The phasors

V

R

and V

C

form

the sides of a

right triangle,

with E

0

as the

hypotenuse.

Therefore,

E

0

2

= V

R

2

+V

C

2

.

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 22

RC Filter Circuits

Now consider a circuit that

includes both a resistor and a

capacitor. Because the

capacitor voltage V

C

and the

resistor voltage V

R

are 90

0

apart in the phasor diagram,

they must be added like the

sides of a right triangle:

( )

2 2 2 2 2

0

2

2 2 2 2 2

( ) ( )

( )

C R C

C

V V IR IX

R X I R C I u

· + · +

]

· + · +

]

E

( )

0

2

2

I

R C u

·

+

E

( )

0

2

2

R

R

V IR

R C u

· ·

+

E

( )

0

2

2

/

c C

C

V IX

R C

u

u

· ·

+

E

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 23

Frequency Dependence

( )

0

2

2

R

R

V IR

R C u

· ·

+

E

( )

0

2

2

/

c C

C

V IX

R C

u

u

· ·

+

E

Define the crossover frequency

where V

R

=V

C

as ω

C

:

1

C

RC

u ·

0 0

At / 2 0.707

C R C

V V u u · · · · E E

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 24

Filters and Transmission

An RC filter is a circuit that passes a

signal with attenuation of some frequencies.

Define the transmission of an RC filter as

T = v

out

/v

in

with ω

C

= 1/(RC):

LoPass

2 2 2

/ 1/( )

( ) 1 ( / )

C

C

C

T

R C

u u u

u u u

· ·

+ +

HiPass

2 2 2

1

( ) 1 ( / )

C

R

T

R C u u u

· ·

+ +

0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000

ww

C

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

T

High Pass Low Pass

Cross-over Point

Note log scale

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 25

Example: Designing a Filter

For a science project you have built a radio to listen to AM

radio broadcasts at frequencies near 1 MHz. The basic circuit

is an antenna, which produces a very small oscillating voltage

when it absorbs energy from an electromagnetic wave, and an

amplifier. Unfortunately, your neighbor’s short wave broadcast

at 10 MHz interferes with your reception. You decide to place

a filter between the antenna and the amplifier. You have a 500

pF capacitor.

What frequency should you select for the filter’s cross over

frequency?

What value of resistance should be used in the filter?

1 2

(1.0 MHz)(10.0 MHz) 3.16 MHz

C

f f f · · ·

6 -1 10

1 1 1

100

2 2 (3.16 10 s )(5.0 10 F)

C C

R

C f C u r r

· · · · O

× ×

T

low

(ω

1

) = T

high

(ω

2

)

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 26

Question

Which of these RC filter circuits has the largest cross-over

frequency ω

C

?

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 27

AC Inductor Circuits

Consider an AC current i

R

through an inductor. The changing

current produces an instantaneous inductor voltage v

L

.

L

L

di

v L

dt

·

If the inductor is connected in an AC

circuit as shown, then Kirschoff’s loop

law tells us that:

0

soruce L L

V V v A + A · =E

0

( ) cos

L

t t v u · · E E

In the phasor diagram, the

inductor current i

L

lags the

voltage v

L

by 90

0

, so that i

L

peaks T/4 later than v

L

.

cos

L L

L

v V

di dt tdt

L L

u · ·

cos sin cos cos

2 2

L L L

L L

V V V

i tdt t t I t

L L L

r r

u u u u

u u

| ` | `

· · · ·

÷ ÷

. , . ,

l

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 28

We can then use a form of

Ohm’s Law to relate the peak

voltage V

L

, the peak current I

L

, and

the inductive reactance X

L

in an AC

circuit:

Inductive Reactance

For AC circuits we can define a

resistance-like quantity, measured

in ohms, for inductance. It is

called the inductive reactance X

L

:

2

L

X L f L u r = ·

and

L

L L L L

L

V

I V I X

X

· ·

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 29

Example: Current and Voltage

of an Inductor

A 25 µH inductor is used in a circuit that

is driven at 100 kHZ. The current through

the inductor reaches a peak value of 20 mA

at t=5.0 µs.

What is the peak inductor voltage, and when, closest to t=5.0 µs,

does it occur?

5 -1 5

2 (1.0 10 s )(2.5 10 H) 16

L

X L u r

· · × × · O

2

(2.0 10 A)(16 ) 0.320 V

L L L

V I X

· · × O ·

The voltage peaks ¼ cycle before the current, which peaks at 5 µs.

For f = 100 kHz, T = 10 µs, so T/4 = 2.5 µs. Therefore, the voltage

peaks at t =(5.0-2.5) µs = 2.5 µs.

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 30

Analyzing an LRC Circuit

Draw the current

vector I at some

arbitrary angle.

All elements of

the circuit will

have this current.

Draw the resistor

voltage V

R

in phase

with the current.

Draw the inductor

and capacitor

voltages V

L

and V

C

90

0

before and

behind the current,

respectively.

Draw the emf E

0

as the vector sum

of V

R

and V

L

-V

C

.

The angle of this

phasor is ωt,

where the time-

dependent emf is

E

0

cos ωt.

The phasors V

R

and V

L

-V

C

form

the sides of a

right triangle,

with E

0

as the

hypotenuse.

Therefore, E

0

2

= V

R

2

+(V

L

-V

C

)

2

.

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 31

The Series RLC Circuit

The figure shows a resistor, inductor,

and capacitor connected in series. The

same current i passes through all of the

elements in the loop. From Kirchhoff’s

loop law, E = v

R

+ v

L

+ v

C

.

Because of the capacitive and inductive

elements in the circuit, the current i will

not in general be in phase with E, so we will

have i = I cos(ωt-φ) where φ is the phase

angle between current and voltage. If

V

L

>V

C

then the current i will lag E and φ>0.

2 2 2 2 2 2

0

( ) ( )

R L C L C

V V V R X X I ] · + · +

]

E

0 0

2 2 2 2

( ) ( 1/ )

L C

I

R X X R L C u u

· ·

+ +

E E

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 32

Impedance and Phase Angle

We can define the impedance

Z of the circuit as:

2 2

2 2

( )

( 1/ )

L C

Z R X X

R L C u u

= +

· +

Then / I Z ·E

From the phasor diagram ,we

see that the phase angle f of the

current is given by:

( )

tan

L C

L C

R

I X X

V V

V IR

o

· ·

1 1

1/

tan tan

L C

X X L C

R R

u u

o

| ` | `

· ·

÷ ÷

. , . ,

0

cos

R

V o ·E

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 33

Resonance

0

2 2

( 1/ )

I

R L C u u

·

+

E

The current I will be a maximum when ωL=1/ωC.

This defines the resonant frequency of the system ω

0

:

0

1

LC

u ·

( )

0

2

2

2

2

0

1

I

R L

u

u

u

·

]

| `

+

]

÷

. ,

]

]

E

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 34

Example:

Designing a Radio Receiver

An AM radio antenna picks up a 1000 kHz signal with a peak

voltage of 5.0 mV. The tuning circuit consists of a 60 µH

inductor in series with a variable capacitor. The inductor coil

has a resistance of 0.25 Ω, and the resistance of the rest of

the circuit is negligible.

(b) To what capacitance should the capacitor be tuned to listen to

this radio station.

(c) What is the peak current through the circuit at resonance?

(d) A stronger station at 1050 kHz produces a 10 mV antenna

signal. What is the current in the radio at this frequency when

the station is tuned to 1000 kHz.

2 -6 6 2

0

-10

1 1

(60 10 H)(6.28 10 rad/s)

4.23 10 F 423 pF

C

Lu

· ·

× ×

· × ·

so

L C

X X Z R · ·

3

1 0

/ (5.0 10 V) /(0.25 ) 0.020 A 20 mA I R

· · × O · · E

' ' 396 ' 1/ ' 358

L C

X L X C u u · · O · · O

0

2

2 2

'

0.26 mA

( ' ')

L C

I

R X X

· ·

+

E

0

1/ 1000 kHz = 1 MHz LC u · ·

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 35

Lecture 24 Announcements

Lecture HW is due tonight at 10 PM.

Midterm Exam 3 is this coming Friday. Covers

explicitly everything not covered in the previous

exam…and assumes understanding of all previous

material.

Lecture question and lab question are multiple-

choice, tutorial is long answer.

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