Physics 122B

Electricity and Magnetism
Martin Savage
Lecture 24 (Knight: 33.9, 34.1-5)
LC and AC Circuits

March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 2
Lecture 24 Announcements


Lecture HW is due tonight at 10 PM.

Midterm Exam 3 is this coming Friday. Covers
explicitly everything not covered in the previous
exam…and assumes understanding of all previous
material.

Lecture question and lab question are multiple-
choice, tutorial is long answer.
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 3
LC Circuits
A charged capacitor bears a
certain resemblance to a stretched
spring (remember the rubber
diaphragm), storing energy even
when the charge is not moving.
An inductor similarly resembles a
moving mass (remember the
flywheel), storing energy only when
charge is in motion.
We know that a mass and spring can make an oscillator. What about a
capacitor and inductor. Consider the circuit shown in the diagram. What
happens when the switch is closed?
The capacitor discharges by creating a current in the inductor. But
where does the energy go that had been stored in the inductor? There
are no dissipative elements in the system. Therefore, when the charge
of the capacitor goes to zero, all of its previous energy must reside in
the inductor. The current in the inductor falls while charging the
capacitor in the opposite direction. And so on …
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 4
The Oscillation Cycle
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 5
LC circuits (2)
Q L
dI
dt
+
C
1
= 0
d
2
Q
dt
2
Q +
LC
1
= 0
Q = α Sin( ω t + φ )
1
L C
ω
2
=
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 6
Example:
An AM Radio Oscillator
You have a 10mH inductor. What capacitor should you use with it to
make an oscillator with a frequency of 920 kHz? (This frequency is
near the center of the AM radio band.
5 -1 6 -1
2 2 (9.20 10 s ) 5.78 10 s f u r r · · × · ×
11
2 6 -1 2 2
1 1
3.0 10 F 30 pF
(5.78 10 s ) (1.0 10 H)
C
L u

· · · × ·
× ×
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 7
Plumber’s LC Analogy
P
1
Valve = Switch
Rubber Diaphragm = Capacitor
Flywheel = Inductor
Pressure = Potential
Water Flow = Current
Valve
Rubber
Diaphragm
The “plumber’s analogy” of an LC circuit is a
rubber diaphragm that has been stretched
by pressure on the top (P
1
) side. When the
valve starts the flow, the diaphragm forces
water past the flywheel, which begins to
spin. After the diaphragm has become flat,
the momentum of the flywheel forces the
diaphragm to be stretched in the other
direction, and the cycle repeats.
P
2
P
3
Flywheel
V
1
V
3
V
2
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 8
Chapter 33 - Summary (1)
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 9
Chapter 33 - Summary (2)
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 10
Chapter 33 - Summary (3)
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 11
AC Sources and Phasors
You can think of an AC
generator as a battery-
like object with an emf
that varies sinusoidally as
E (t) = E
0
cos ωt, where
E
0
is the maximum emf and
ω is the angular
frequency, with ω=2πf,
where f is the frequency
in Hz.
Alternatively, the emf and other oscillatory
quantities can be represented by a phasor
diagram. The phasor is a vector of length E
0

that rotates counterclockwise around the
origin with angular frequency ω, so that the
angle it makes with the horizontal axis at any
time is ωt. The projection of the phasor on
the horizontal axis at any time gives the emf.
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 12
Resistor AC Circuits
Consider an AC current i
R

through a resistor. Ohm’s
Law gives the potential drop
across the resistor, which we
will call the resistor voltage
v
R
.
R R
v i R ·
If the resistor is connected
in an AC circuit as shown, then
Kirschoff’s loop law tells us
that:
0
soruce R R
V V v A + A · =E
0
( ) cos
R
t t v u · · E E
0
cos cos
R
R R
v
i t I t
R R
u u · · ·
E
In the phasor diagram, the phasors for v
R
and i
R
are parallel.
source
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 13
Example:
Finding Resistor Voltages
In the circuit shown, find
(a) the peak voltage across
each resistor, and
(b) the instantaneous resistor
voltages at t=20 ms.
eq 1 2
(5 ) (15 ) 20 R R R · + · O + O · O
0
eq eq
cos (100 V) cos 2 (60 Hz)
cos (5.0 A) cos 2 (60 Hz)
(20 )
R
R R
t v t
i I t t
R R
u r
u r · · · · ·
O
E
1
0
2
25 V for R =5
75 V for R =15
R
V I R
O
¹
· ·
'
O
¹
2
( 20 ms) (5.0 A) cos 2 (60 Hz)(2.0 10 s) 1.545 A
R
i t r

· · × ·
1
2
7.7 V for R =5
23.2 V for R =15
R R
v i R
O
¹
· ·
'
O
¹
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 14
Capacitor AC Circuits (1)
Consider an AC current i
C
through a capacitor as shown. The capacitor
voltage v
C
= E = E
0
cos ωt = V
C
cos wt. The charge on the capacitor will
be q = Cv
C
= CV
C
cos ωt.
( )
cos sin
C C C
dq d
i CV t CV t
dt dt
u u u · · ·
cos( / 2)
C C
i CV t u u r · +
The AC current through a capacitor leads the capacitor voltage
by π/2 rad or 90
0
.
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 15
Capacitor AC Circuits (2)
The AC current through
a capacitor leads the
capacitor voltage by π/2 rad
or 90
0
. The phasors for v
C

and i
C
are perpendicular,
with the i
C
phasor ahead of
the v
C
phasor.
This is analogous to the
behavior of the position
and velocity of a mass-
and-spring harmonic
oscillator.
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 16
We can then use a form of
Ohm’s Law to relate the peak
voltage V
C
, the peak current I
C
, and
the capacitive reactance X
C
in an
AC circuit:
Capacitive Reactance
For AC circuits we can define a
resistance-like quantity, measured
in ohms, for capacitance. It is
called the capacitive reactance X
C
:
1 1
2
C
X
C f C u r
= ·
and
C
C C C C
C
V
I V I X
X
· ·
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 17
Question
The instantaneous value of the emf E represented by this
phasor is:
(c) Increasing;
(b) Decreasing;
(c) Constant;
(d) It is not possible to tell without knowing t.
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 18
Example: Capacitive Reactance
What is the capacitive reactance of a 0.10 µF capacitor at a 100 Hz
audio frequency and at a 100 MHz FM radio frequency?
-1 -7
1
(100 Hz) 15, 900
2 (100 s )(1.0 10 F)
C
X
r
· · O
×
8 -1 -7
1
(100 MHz) 0.0159
2 (1.0 10 s )(1.0 10 F)
C
X
r
· · O
× ×
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 19
Example: Capacitive Current
A 10 µF capacitor is connected to a 1000 Hz oscillator with a
peak emf of 5.0 V.
What is the peak current in the capacitor?
-1 -5
1
(1000 Hz) 15.9
2 (100 s )(1.0 10 F)
C
X
r
· · O
×
(5.0 V)
0.314 A
(15.9 )
C
C
C
V
I
X
· · ·
O
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 20
Voltage Dividers
r
V
out
The circuit indicates a potentiometer, a resistor with a sliding
contact. The overall resistance of the unit is R, while the resistance
from the sliding tap to the bottom is r.
What is the voltage V
out
delivered between the output terminals?
/ I R ·E
out
r
V I r
R
· ·E
Thus, the potentiometer divides the input voltage and delivers
some fraction of it proportional to r/R. This is a voltage divider.
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 21
Analyzing an RC Circuit
Draw the current
vector I at some
arbitrary angle.
All elements of
the circuit will
have this current.
Draw the resistor
voltage V
R
in phase
with the current.
Draw the capacitor
voltage V
C
90
0

behind the current.
Make sure all phasor
lengths scale
properly.
Draw the emf E
0

as the vector sum
of V
R
and V
C
. The
angle of this
phasor is ωt,
where the time-
dependent emf is
E
0
cos ωt.
The phasors
V
R
and V
C
form
the sides of a
right triangle,
with E
0
as the
hypotenuse.
Therefore,
E
0
2
= V
R
2
+V
C
2
.
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 22
RC Filter Circuits
Now consider a circuit that
includes both a resistor and a
capacitor. Because the
capacitor voltage V
C
and the
resistor voltage V
R
are 90
0

apart in the phasor diagram,
they must be added like the
sides of a right triangle:
( )
2 2 2 2 2
0
2
2 2 2 2 2
( ) ( )
( )
C R C
C
V V IR IX
R X I R C I u

· + · +
]
· + · +
]
E
( )
0
2
2
I
R C u

·
+
E
( )
0
2
2
R
R
V IR
R C u

· ·
+
E
( )
0
2
2
/
c C
C
V IX
R C
u
u

· ·
+
E
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 23
Frequency Dependence
( )
0
2
2
R
R
V IR
R C u

· ·
+
E
( )
0
2
2
/
c C
C
V IX
R C
u
u

· ·
+
E
Define the crossover frequency
where V
R
=V
C
as ω
C
:
1
C
RC
u ·
0 0
At / 2 0.707
C R C
V V u u · · · · E E
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 24
Filters and Transmission
An RC filter is a circuit that passes a
signal with attenuation of some frequencies.
Define the transmission of an RC filter as
T = v
out
/v
in
with ω
C
= 1/(RC):
LoPass
2 2 2
/ 1/( )
( ) 1 ( / )
C
C
C
T
R C
u u u
u u u

· ·
+ +
HiPass
2 2 2
1
( ) 1 ( / )
C
R
T
R C u u u

· ·
+ +
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
ww
C
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
T
High Pass Low Pass
Cross-over Point
Note log scale
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 25
Example: Designing a Filter
For a science project you have built a radio to listen to AM
radio broadcasts at frequencies near 1 MHz. The basic circuit
is an antenna, which produces a very small oscillating voltage
when it absorbs energy from an electromagnetic wave, and an
amplifier. Unfortunately, your neighbor’s short wave broadcast
at 10 MHz interferes with your reception. You decide to place
a filter between the antenna and the amplifier. You have a 500
pF capacitor.
What frequency should you select for the filter’s cross over
frequency?
What value of resistance should be used in the filter?
1 2
(1.0 MHz)(10.0 MHz) 3.16 MHz
C
f f f · · ·
6 -1 10
1 1 1
100
2 2 (3.16 10 s )(5.0 10 F)
C C
R
C f C u r r

· · · · O
× ×
T
low

1
) = T
high

2
)
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 26
Question
Which of these RC filter circuits has the largest cross-over
frequency ω
C
?
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 27
AC Inductor Circuits
Consider an AC current i
R
through an inductor. The changing
current produces an instantaneous inductor voltage v
L
.
L
L
di
v L
dt
·
If the inductor is connected in an AC
circuit as shown, then Kirschoff’s loop
law tells us that:
0
soruce L L
V V v A + A · =E
0
( ) cos
L
t t v u · · E E
In the phasor diagram, the
inductor current i
L
lags the
voltage v
L
by 90
0
, so that i
L

peaks T/4 later than v
L
.
cos
L L
L
v V
di dt tdt
L L
u · ·
cos sin cos cos
2 2
L L L
L L
V V V
i tdt t t I t
L L L
r r
u u u u
u u
| ` | `
· · · ·
÷ ÷
. , . ,
l
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 28
We can then use a form of
Ohm’s Law to relate the peak
voltage V
L
, the peak current I
L
, and
the inductive reactance X
L
in an AC
circuit:
Inductive Reactance
For AC circuits we can define a
resistance-like quantity, measured
in ohms, for inductance. It is
called the inductive reactance X
L
:
2
L
X L f L u r = ·
and
L
L L L L
L
V
I V I X
X
· ·
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 29
Example: Current and Voltage
of an Inductor
A 25 µH inductor is used in a circuit that
is driven at 100 kHZ. The current through
the inductor reaches a peak value of 20 mA
at t=5.0 µs.
What is the peak inductor voltage, and when, closest to t=5.0 µs,
does it occur?
5 -1 5
2 (1.0 10 s )(2.5 10 H) 16
L
X L u r

· · × × · O
2
(2.0 10 A)(16 ) 0.320 V
L L L
V I X

· · × O ·
The voltage peaks ¼ cycle before the current, which peaks at 5 µs.
For f = 100 kHz, T = 10 µs, so T/4 = 2.5 µs. Therefore, the voltage
peaks at t =(5.0-2.5) µs = 2.5 µs.
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 30
Analyzing an LRC Circuit
Draw the current
vector I at some
arbitrary angle.
All elements of
the circuit will
have this current.
Draw the resistor
voltage V
R
in phase
with the current.
Draw the inductor
and capacitor
voltages V
L
and V
C

90
0
before and
behind the current,
respectively.
Draw the emf E
0

as the vector sum
of V
R
and V
L
-V
C
.
The angle of this
phasor is ωt,
where the time-
dependent emf is
E
0
cos ωt.
The phasors V
R

and V
L
-V
C
form
the sides of a
right triangle,
with E
0
as the
hypotenuse.
Therefore, E
0
2
= V
R
2
+(V
L
-V
C
)
2
.
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 31
The Series RLC Circuit
The figure shows a resistor, inductor,
and capacitor connected in series. The
same current i passes through all of the
elements in the loop. From Kirchhoff’s
loop law, E = v
R
+ v
L
+ v
C
.
Because of the capacitive and inductive
elements in the circuit, the current i will
not in general be in phase with E, so we will
have i = I cos(ωt-φ) where φ is the phase
angle between current and voltage. If
V
L
>V
C
then the current i will lag E and φ>0.
2 2 2 2 2 2
0
( ) ( )
R L C L C
V V V R X X I ] · + · +
]
E
0 0
2 2 2 2
( ) ( 1/ )
L C
I
R X X R L C u u
· ·
+ +
E E
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 32
Impedance and Phase Angle
We can define the impedance
Z of the circuit as:
2 2
2 2
( )
( 1/ )
L C
Z R X X
R L C u u
= +
· +
Then / I Z ·E
From the phasor diagram ,we
see that the phase angle f of the
current is given by:
( )
tan
L C
L C
R
I X X
V V
V IR
o

· ·
1 1
1/
tan tan
L C
X X L C
R R
u u
o


| ` | `
· ·
÷ ÷
. , . ,
0
cos
R
V o ·E
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 33
Resonance
0
2 2
( 1/ )
I
R L C u u
·
+
E
The current I will be a maximum when ωL=1/ωC.
This defines the resonant frequency of the system ω
0
:
0
1
LC
u ·
( )
0
2
2
2
2
0
1
I
R L
u
u
u
·
]
| `
+
]
÷
. ,
]
]
E
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 34
Example:
Designing a Radio Receiver
An AM radio antenna picks up a 1000 kHz signal with a peak
voltage of 5.0 mV. The tuning circuit consists of a 60 µH
inductor in series with a variable capacitor. The inductor coil
has a resistance of 0.25 Ω, and the resistance of the rest of
the circuit is negligible.
(b) To what capacitance should the capacitor be tuned to listen to
this radio station.
(c) What is the peak current through the circuit at resonance?
(d) A stronger station at 1050 kHz produces a 10 mV antenna
signal. What is the current in the radio at this frequency when
the station is tuned to 1000 kHz.
2 -6 6 2
0
-10
1 1
(60 10 H)(6.28 10 rad/s)
4.23 10 F 423 pF
C
Lu
· ·
× ×
· × ·
so
L C
X X Z R · ·
3
1 0
/ (5.0 10 V) /(0.25 ) 0.020 A 20 mA I R

· · × O · · E
' ' 396 ' 1/ ' 358
L C
X L X C u u · · O · · O
0
2
2 2
'
0.26 mA
( ' ')
L C
I
R X X
· ·
+
E
0
1/ 1000 kHz = 1 MHz LC u · ·
March 7, 2007 Physics 122C - Lecture 23 35
Lecture 24 Announcements


Lecture HW is due tonight at 10 PM.

Midterm Exam 3 is this coming Friday. Covers
explicitly everything not covered in the previous
exam…and assumes understanding of all previous
material.

Lecture question and lab question are multiple-
choice, tutorial is long answer.