Phil Macfarland, Justin Arthur, Tom England

Central Nervous System
• Central Nervous System (CNS) composed of

the brain and spinal cord

Central NS vs. Peripheral NS

Regions of the Brain • http://www.cfm .neure.cfm?

Sagittal brain MR .

Axial brain MR Sagittal reference .

Coronal brain MR Sagittal reference .

Axial Brain MR Coronal Brain MR .

Neuron Organization • The nervous system consists of neurons and supporting cells • Sensory Neurons • Motor Neurons • Interneurons .

Axon Membrane • Resting membrane potential • Sodium-Potassium pump • Leak Channels • -70mV • Equilibrium potential .

Generation of Action Potential • Graded Potentials • Gated ion channels • Dendrites • Action Potential • Response to stimuli= depolarization 1. 3.into the cell Spike= Na+ gate closes K+ gate opens. Na+ gate opens. 2. 4.out the cell Return to resting potential .

Synapse .

Neurotransmitters • Chemicals stored in the synaptic vesicles • Open gates that let molecules in/out. causing various actions and regulating levels of atoms such as Na+ and K+ • Found at neuron/muscle junctions • Must be quickly eliminated to regulate well .

Types of Neurotransmitters • Acetylcholine (Ach) • Muscle contraction • Glutamate • Physiological stimulation • Glycine and GABA • Neural control of body movements and brain functions .

improper levels can cause Parkinson’s and schizophrenia • Norepinephrine • Aids adrenaline • Serotonin • Regulates sleep and emotion .Types of Neurotransmitters • Dopamine • Aids body controlling movements.

Neuropeptides • Polypeptides that may act like neurotransmitters or act more long-term as neuromodulators • Many axons can produce both transmitters and modulators • Substance P • Released when painful stimuli is receieved .

Drugs and Neurotransmitters • Nervous cells exposed to stimulus that makes significant amounts of chemically mediated signals may lose their ability to respond to said stimulus • Cocaine intensifies pleasure by binding to dopamine transporters • More dopamine than can be bound is made. so cells respond by removing receptors .



Brain Breakdown • Forebrain • Thalamus • Hypothalamus • Pituitary • Cerebrum • Frontal Lobe • Temporal Lobe • Parietal Lobe • Occipital Lobe .

Brain Breakdown (contd..) • Midbrain • Eyes • Ears • Hindbrain • Medulla Oblongata • Pons • Cerebellum .


Forebrain • Thalamus • Receives sensory information to organize and pass to appropriate areas • Hypothalamus • Maintains homeostasis in the body • Pituitary Gland • Secretes various hormones • Growth. thyroid gland function. temperature regulation. metabolism. water balance in the kidneys . blood pressure. sex organ functions.

orientation. parts of speech. planning. recognition. emotions. perception of stimuli • Occipital Lobe • Visual processing . memory. speech • Parietal Lobe • Movement. perception of auditory stimuli.Cerebrum • Frontal Lobe • Reasoning. movement. problem solving • Temporal Lobe • Perception & recognition.



Midbrain • Simple job • Processing sensory and motor functions • Connects hindbrain to the forebrain .

• Comprised of white matter and a thing outer layer of densely folded gray matter. • Contains neurons that relay information between body muscles and cerebellum. balance equilibrium.Hindbrain • Cerebellum • Controls motor movement. . and muscle tone. coordination.

blood & heart vessel function.Hindbrain • Medulla Oblongata • Controls autonomic functions • Breathing. and sneezing • Relays nerve signals between brain and spinal cord • Coordination of body movements . swallowing. digestion.

• Part of brain stem. • Arousal • Sleep • Relay information between cerebrum and cerebellum . • Transfers messages between parts of brain and spinal cord.Hindbrain • Pons • Connects cerebral cortex with the medulla oblongata.

• Transfers: • Motor • Sensory • Cognitive information • Controls: • Eye movement • Arousal • Attention .Corpas Callosum • Nerve fibers that divide the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres. • Allows communication between the hemispheres.

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