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Gerunds

and

Infinitives

Gerunds and infinitives can function as: NOUNS (subjects, objects, subject complements) As subjects, they take a singular verb. Only Gerunds can be object of the preposition.

To form gerunds, use the base form + ing


(dont forget the rules for spelling of ing form of verbs)

I enjoy learning English To form negative gerunds, use not + gerund Not speaking English well is my biggest problem in this country.

Gerunds used as subject of the sentence.


Dancing is fun.

Gerunds used as objects


He enjoys working with children.

Verbs that take only Gerunds


Appreciate Avoid Delay Deny Discuss Dislike Enjoy Excuse Finish understand Keep Mention Mind Miss Postpone Quit Recall Recommend suggest

Gerunds used as object of the preposition


I am thinking about taking the children to Mexico.

Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds


Be excited about, complain about, talk about, think about, worry about Apologize for, blame for, famous for Believe in, interested in, succeed in Take care of, instead of, be accused of Insist on, count on, concentrate on Keep from, prevent from, profit from In addition to, look forward to, be used to

By + gerund You get good grades by studying hard.

go + gerund
Recreational activities: camping, dancing, sightseeing, swimming, skiing, fishing, jogging,

I will go fishing with you tomorrow.

To form infinitives use to + base form of the verb I want to dance To form negative infinitives use Not + infinitive He decided not to go to the party.

Infinitives in the subject position


To live in the United States is my dream It is my dream to live in the United States.

Verbs that take infinitives


Verb + infinitives agree, decide, hope, learn, offer, plan, seem, can afford Verb + Noun phrase + infinitive cause, convince, force, invite, order, tell, warn, encourage Verbs that come directly after the infinitive or have a noun phrase ask, beg, choose, expect, need, want, would like, promise

Adjectives followed by infinitives


Afraid, amazed, anxious, ashamed, careful, delighted, eager, fortunate, glad, happy, lucky, pleased, ready, sad, sorry,

Infinitive of purpose

In order to I came here in order to learn.

Infinitive with too and enough too + adjective or adverb + infinitive She is too young to vote.
Adjective or adverb + enough + infinitive They are old enough to vote.

Gerunds often follow verbs that indicate that an action is happening or has happened.
The action expressed by the verb comes at the same time or after the action expressed by the gerund. We enjoy going to concerts.
(you can only enjoy things you are doing or have done not things you havent done yet.)

Infinitives often follow verbs that indicate that an action will or could happen.
The action expressed by the verb comes before the action expressed by the infinitive. We hope to go to the concert.
(You can hope for things that could happen not things that have already happened)

Some verbs can be followed by both gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning.

Begin, hate, like, start, love, prefer, continue

I like cooking. I like to cook.

She started losing weight She started to lose weight.

Some verbs although they can be used after both gerunds and infinitives have a difference in meaning.
remember forget regret stop try get

She stopped smoking. She stopped to smoke. They forgot buying bread. They forgot to buy bread.

The End!