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• Reinforced concrete structural systems such as floors, roofs, decks, etc., are almost monolithic, except for precast systems. • Forms are built for beam sides the underside of slabs, and the entire construction is poured at once, from the bottom of the deepest beam to the top of the slab.

**Beam and Girder System
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• This system is composed of slab on supporting reinforced concrete beams and girder.. • The beam and girder framework is, isupported by columns. • In such a system, tare placed monolithically with the slab. • The typical monolithic structshown in Fig. 1.

Beam and Girder Floor System

Introduction to T-Beams

Positive Bending Moment • In the analysis and design of floor and roof systems, it is common practice to assume that the monolithically placed slab and supporting beam interact as a unit in resisting the positive bending moment.

Occurrence and Configuration of TBeams • Common construction type. the slab forms the beam flange.used in conjunction with either on-way or two-way slabs. • Sections consists of the flange and web or stem.. while the part of the beam projecting below the slab forms is what is called web or stem. .

T-Beam as Part of a Floor System .

• Both type of beam are referred to as Flanged beams • When subject to hogging moments the top surface is subject to tension and hence the beams are designed as rectangular sections. . • When subject to sagging moments the resulting beam cross section is either a T-section or a L.e the slab is in compression.The Effective Flange Width (be) • When reinforced concrete slabs are cast integrally with the supporting beams they may contribute to the compressive strength of the beams during flexure. where the top surface. i. as shown in figure 1 and 2.section.

• The question arises of what width of the slab is to be taken as the effective width? Where b = effective width bw = web width .

5 BS 8110-1: 1997 gives the following recommendation for a T-beam. . for a continuous beam.1.7 times the effective span). the effective width b should be taken as: – Web width + 0.Clause 3.4. may be taken as 0.2 lz or – Actual flange width if less Where lz is the distance between points of zero moment (which.

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Be for single span .

5 Effective flange width = be < (bw + lz/5) 350 + 6000/5 1550 mm Actual flange width = 4000 mm Therefore. Clause 3.1. be = 1550 mm .4.BS8110:Part 1:1997.

be For Continuous span .

1.4.Clause 3.5 Effective flange width = be < (bw + lz/5) 300 + ( 0.7x6000/5 ) 1140 mm Actual flange width = 4000 mm Therefore.BS8110:Part 1:1997. be = 1140 mm .

Example 1 .

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Under Reinforced .

Balanced Reinforced .

Over Reinforced .

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• Determine the ultimate moment of resistance of the T-section as shown in figure. Bf=800 • Given. • fy =460N/mm^2 FLANGE =150 • fcu=30N/mm^2 • D =420mm • As =1470mm^2 .ANALYSIS OF FLANGE SECTION.

d Fst Z=d-(s/2) As =1470mm^2 .45fcu Depth.Bf=800 hf=150 Bf=800 =150 X S 0.

9 =66mm . 0. • Force compression. • s= (0. Fcu= Force tension.95x460x1470) / (0. • Using concept of equilibrium of force.45x30x800) • s=59mm • x=s/0.95fyAs • Solve the equation to find s. Fy • Therefore.CALCULATION.45 fcubfs=0.

• Then we need to find the moment resist by the beam.• Since x < height of flange beam.(s/2) z=420-(59/2)= 390mm . • First we need to find the lever arm.then the neutal axis lies on the flange. z z=d.hf .

45x30x800x59x390x10^-6 =249 kN m .• Now by taking the moment at the centroid of the reinforcement. the moment of resistance.M M=Fcu x z =0.45fcubfsz =0.

.FLANGE BEAM WITH COMPRESSION REINFORCEMENT. • From the equation for solving t beam with stress block lies within the web.

• Compression=Tension • 0.9(d/2) • By substituting s=0.45d into moment equation . the limit of the depth of the neutral axis is x=d/2.45fcu[(bf-bw)hf +bws]=0.or s=0.95fyAs • And by taking the moment at the tensile steel. • M= 0.45fcu[(bf-bw)hf (d-(hf /2)) + bws(d(s/2))] • However.

45d(d-(0.45d/2))] • Simplify it.45fcu (bf-bw)hf (d-(hf /2)) + 0. • M= 0. .45fcu[(bf-bw)hf (d-(hf /2)) + bw0. compression reinforcement is required.156fcubd^2 • Therefore if the applied moment is greater than this maximum moment.• M= 0.

.• In order to find the area of steel compression reinforcement.95fy(d-d’) • Where Ma= apply moment • M =maximum moment • d’ =distance from surface of flange to center of steel compression reinforcement. • A’s= Ma – M/ (0.

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Alternative 1: Using an Exact method to determine the depth of N.A .

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Alternative 2: Designing for the Conservative Condition of x = 0.5d .

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