This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Control Technology Concepts

E. T. Masih

**What is Open Loop Control?
**

With open-loop control, the system responds to an input signal (called command signal) and varies the output accordingly. But the system cannot automatically correct for any outside disturbances External forces or variations Load, gradient, wind resistance

Output speed varies

Constant input signal

Engine & Transmission

**What is Open Loop Control?
**

Similarly in the case of a Hydraulic Motor speed controlled by a simple throttle valve. The speed of the motor can be varied by adjusting the throttle valve. But other factors will also affect the motor speed such as – Load pressure System pressure Fluid viscosity Leakage

**How Close Loop will Work?
**

Consider again the example of the car,but this time we will outfit the car with a CRUISE control device. The required speed can be set by potentiometer providing electrical command input to the system, the vehicle is also fitted with speed sensor which provides a Feedback signal to controller.

40 30 20 10 50 60

External forces or variations

70

Cruise Control

Control Signal

Speed Feed-back Signal

Engine & Transmission

Car output Speed constant

**Electrohydraulic Closed Loop System
**

Electrohydraulic application of close loop can be divided into three basic types -

**1. Position Control (Linear or Rotary)
**

2. Velocity Control (Linear or Rotary) 3. Force Control (Pressure, Torque or Load Control) A system may apply a combination of types. A hydraulic press may be position controlled to a certain point, then switched over to pressure control to perform the actual pressing operation.

Position Control

The purpose of a position control system is to move a load to a certain position or series of positions. The motion might be purely rotary movement as shown in the figure where a missile guidance radar is turned by hydraulic motor In other cases, it may be desirable to convert rotary motion to linear motion as shown in the figure. The hydraulic motor turns a ball or lead screw to move the table.

Hydraulic Motor

Position Control

Ball screws (lead screw) are typically used when very high positional accuracies are needed. One rotation of the motor will move the table a distance equal to the width of one thread on the ball screw, this called PITCH If the Pitch of the ball screw is 0.2 inch, then one rotation of the motor will move the table 0.2 inches. One rotation of the motor equals 360 degrees. If we can control the rotation of the motor to 10 then we can control the motion of the table to within 1/360th of 0.2 inches. 1 0.2 x 360 = 0.00056 inch In order to control the hydraulic actuator in these applications, a valve is required which will, first of all make the actuator move forward, move backward and stop.

Position Control

If a sliding spool valve is used, we can represent this basic requirement with three position valve as shown in the figure. Since all the valve require interface with Digital Controller (PLCs) so the valves need to be electrically operated There are different Industrial applications for which a wide range of valves are available from simple On/Off solenoid valves to Proportional valves, Servo Valves and Microprocessor driven valves.

Position Control

The selection of the valve is dependent on the accuracy requirements and the level of sophistication involved in the control strategy.

**Following are the valve categories:
**

1. Non-feedback Proportional Valves 2. On/Off Solenoid Valves

**3. Feedback Proportional Valves
**

4. High Performance Proportional Valves 5. Servo Valves 6. Digital Servo Valves

**On/Off Solenoid Valves
**

These solenoid valves can be two or three position valves. They may be either directly solenoid operated or solenoid pilot operated. When solenoids are energized valve is either fully open or fully closed, this valve, on its own does not provide any control over the actuator‟s speed or Acceleration or Deceleration.

Flow P to A A B

t

P T

Flow P to B

**On/Off Solenoid Valves
**

Load may stop any where within this

zone

Limit Switch Switching Logic

P

Flow in both direction is either fully On or Fully OFF. A typical Position Control System using ON/OFF solenoid Valve is shown above. Depending on the size of the valve, RESPONSE TIMES can range from 20 mSec to 100 mSec.

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

This category includes both direct acting proportional valve without spool position feedback (LVDT) and two stage proportional valves with single stage feedback. Proportional valves differ from On/Off solenoid valves in that it is possible to control the spool position to any point within its range of travel by varying electrical current to solenoid. Proportional valves are controlled by Proportional Solenoids. Proportional solenoids are differently designed which work with a constant DC voltage but varying electrical current thus providing varying force to the valve spool.

**Linear Variable Differential Transformer
**

DCV Demodulator Primary

Secondary DCV Oscillator

Secondary

A high frequency (1000 Hz) signal is fed to the primary coil, which creates a magnetic field in the core. This AC signal is usually produced by a DC Oscillator device, which can be built into the housing of the LVDT. The output of the secondary coil can again be converted to DC by using a demodulator.

Non-Feedback Proportional Valve

Flow Velocity Max flow set by input signal

Acc & Dec

4W 12 V

t

Amplifier

Input Potentiometer

**Electronically Controlled Valves
**

Introduction:

Proportional valves are extension of Solenoid operated conventional hydraulic valves, as we consider conventional valves we find that all conventional valves are basically OnOff valves in both categories of Pressure Control and Directional Control. There exist a confusion between Servo Valves and Proportional Valves.

Servo Valves:

These are strictly Infinite continuous position / Force control valves and they essentially work with Close Loop Control strategy

**Electronically Controlled Valves
**

Proportional Valves:

These are extension of conventional valves, which provide better proportional control, and they can work in open loop control strategy without Feed Back. Basic Difference between Proportional valves and Conventional Valves:

**1. Mechanical design change:
**

Proportional Valve spool is designed and machined differently. 2. Electrical design change: Proportional Solenoids are designed differently to provide proportional current control but conventional Solenoids are only On-Off solenoids.

**Electronically Controlled Valves
**

Proportional Solenoids: Proportional Solenoids are of two types: 1. Force Solenoid 2. Stroke Solenoid

Force controlled Solenoids consists of modified DC solenoids, which provide linear adjustable forces by altering the current signal to the solenoid

Current Control Voltage

Force

Amplifier

**Electronically Controlled Valves
**

Proportional Force Solenoids are wet pin DC units, which tend to resemble conventional DC solenoids, but have a modified internal construction, which optimizes the linearity of the solenoid. A force-controlled solenoid operates on the principle that solenoid force output is linear with respect to current input.

This linear relationship of force output to current input works effectively over strokes of about 0.06 inch, (1.5 mm).

**Force Travel Curve:
**

This can be more easily understood by studying the force travel curve.

**Electronically Controlled Valves
**

Since a given amount of current creates a given force, the force travel curve exhibits this linear relationship at various current levels. When current to the solenoid is held constant, the solenoid force will also remain constant over a stroke output 0.06 inch (1.5 mm).

800 mA

600 mA

Force (Lbs)

400 mA 200 mA

0.060” (1.5 mm) Stroke

Stroke

**Electronically Controlled Valves
**

Suppose 200 mA signal is raised to 400 mA, the force increases, but remains constant over the same stroke output 0.06 inch. Maximum output for Force controlled solenoids falls in the range from 12 to 14 Lbs. Since adjustable forces can be achieved over a small stroke, installation dimensions for the solenoid are relatively small. Therefore, the solenoid can generate forces required to pilot operate proportional pressure valve, directional control valves, and some variable displacement pump controls. These solenoids are wet pin type solenoids; it has a removable screw to bleed any trapped air.

Proportional Pressure Relief Valve

To System

Signal Input

Main Valve

Main Valve

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

Application of Force Solenoid: Application of force solenoid is limited to Proportional Pressure Control Valves, which can be remotely controlled from the Central Control Unit. The valve proportional solenoid is driven by a control AMPLIFIER. The Amplifier is designed to accept low power signal from a small in put device (Potentiometer), amplify it to the necessary power level & transmit it as a drive signal to the solenoid. A well designed amplifier does much more than simply amplify the input signal.

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

Stroke Control Solenoids:

Stroke Control Solenoids are used with Proportional Directional Valves, where spool movement is directly proportional to the magnetic force applied by the solenoid, which is directly proportional to the command voltage applied.

**These Four Port valves are the most versatile valves among all types of valves.
**

The spool configuration is modified to provide precise metering in the inlet and outlet sections of the valve. This valve can meter oil in both directions and also provide equal pressure drop in both sides, this ability provide good controllability of Hydraulic Cylinders and Motors.

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

Another advantage is achieving Acceleration, Deceleration and Counterbalancing by using only one proportional DC valve, when interfaced with appropriate electronic controls.

With conventional valving, such controllability is sometime not possible even when as many as six to seven valves are used.

**Proportional Spool Types
**

The clearance between the proportional valve bore and spool is kept close to 3 to 4 µm.

**Total spool overlap is kept around 11% by the manufacturer.
**

The spools are designed to provide metering flow in both directions.

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

Closed center spool configuration is shown in figure. The triangular metering notches in the spool land are machined.

P to B A to T

P to A B to T

T

A

P

B

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

A restricted center spool is illustrated in Figure, which provides a restricted flow path from P to A and B, with port T blocked. The restricted center position is achieved with square metering notches on both spool lands, allowing about 3% metered oil of the full flow rating of the spool. The spool is normally used to control hydraulic motors to provide necessary make up oil in center position.

Square Metering Notches

P to B A to T

P to A B to T

T

A

P

B

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

A restricted center spool is shown in Figure, which provides a restricted flow path from Ports A and B to T with port P blocked. While in center position, the square metering notches again provide 3% of metered flow.

Float Center

P to B A to T

P to A B to T

T

A

P

B

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

Spools with 2:1 Area Ratio:

When selecting a proportional spool to actuate cylinders, which have pistons with area ratios close to 2:1, the system designer must consider several factors. In cylinders with 2:1 area ratio, the Head- end delivers half the volume of oil that enters the Cap-end side.

Conversely, the Cap-end delivers twice the volume of oil that flows into the Head-end. If an equal area closed or restricted center spool is used to control a cylinder with 2: 1 area ratio, the pressure drop across the valve is likely to be unequal in both directions.

This condition can lead to serious cylinder control problems.

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

This is done by eliminating half of the control grooves on land „A‟; the flow area becomes half of that of land „B‟. This arrangement keeps the total pressure drop across the valve fairly equal thus maintaining good controllability of cylinders, which have area ratio close to 2:1.

T

A

P

B

Number of Control Grooves are less on land „A‟ than land „B‟

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

Flow paths for Three Position Proportional Spools

A

B

Closed Center

P - A= Q, B - T= Q P - B= Q, A - T= Q

P A T B Closed Center

Motor/Cylinder spool (with cylinder area ratio close to 1:1) Cylinder spool (with cylinder area ratio close to 2:1) Cylinder spool (with cylinder area ratio close to 2:1)

P - A= Q, B T= Q/2 P - B= Q/2, A- T= Q

P A T B Closed Center

P - A= Q/2, B - T= Q P -B= Q, A - T= Q/2

P

A

T

B Closed Center

P A= Q, B T= Blocked P B= Q/2, A T= Q

P T

Regenerative Spool

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

A regenerative spool with restricted center is shown in the Figure 1.7, this spool allows oil to bleed from Port A and B to Port T, while Port P is closed. The right spool land is extended with square metering notch to meter oil from port B to T when spool is centered. When the spool is shifted to left, flow from port B to port T is blocked. But when spool is shifted to right oil flows from port P to Port B easily. This spool is very

Suitable to be used for regenerative circuits where extension speed is required to be equal to the retracted speed.

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

Regenerative spool with restricted center.

P to B A to T

P to A B to T

T

A

P

B

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

The control amplifier carry out the following functions Minimize power loss through unnecessary electrical heat . generation. Automatically compensate for changing resistance as . solenoids change temperature (Solenoid resistance can . change as much as 40% during operation) Eliminate the effects of supply voltage fluctuations. Provide various adjustments such as gain, deadband . compensation, & ramping capabilities Center the valve for safety purposes if power is lost or if a . feedback device fails.

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

Proportional Valve Response

Typical response times for this class of valve range from 50 to 150 mSec, depending on valve size. The valve‟s response time can be considerably lengthened by using a simple Ramp Generator. The ramp generator can be used to convert an On/Off signal to one that gradually rises in a controlled manner as shown in the figure. With a ramp generator, it is now possible to control the speed of the spool movement, and therefore control the acceleration & deceleration of the actuator.

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

Instantaneously Changing output

+V

+V

Gradually Changing output

Ramp Generator Adjust 00 t Ramp Rate Can be Changed 00

**Non-Feedback Proportional Valve
**

With a ramp generator, it is now possible to control the speed of the spool movement, and therefore control the acceleration and deceleration of the actuator. Since the spool movement is controlled electrically instead of hydraulically, spool movement is not affected by significantly by changes in fluid viscosity or variation in pilot pressure. The main advantage of using a proportional valve is that they can precisely control the acceleration and deceleration of the load, proving smooth mechanical movement and reducing or eliminating Destructive System Pressure SHOCKS

**Proportional Valves with Feedback
**

In order to precisely control the movement of an actuator a position Transducer is used. A position transducer will provide a feedback signal which is proportional to actuator position. One very simple position transducer is a linear potentiometer as shown in the figure.

An input signal corresponding to the desired actuator position is fed into the Amplifier.

**Proportional Valves with Feedback
**

Stroke = 1000 mm (40 in)

Proportional Valve

0V

10 V

Feedback +10V

e

Input 0 to +10 V Amplifier

**Proportional Valves with Feedback
**

The signal is amplified by the amplifier and sent to the valve solenoid, which moves the spool & creates flow through the valve to the cylinder.

**As the cylinder moves the load, a feedback signal (voltage) is sent from the potentiometer.
**

The feedback signal is received by the amplifier at the SUMMING JUNCTION. The summing junction subtracts the feedback signal from the input signal (Command Signal) to produce the ERROR SIGNAL. At any instant of time, the ERROR signal is proportional to Input Command signal minus Feedback Signal.

**Proportional Valves with Feedback
**

Consider the System shown in the Figure : In this system a 40 inch stroke cylinder is being used to position the load. The input (command) signal ranges from 0 to +10 volts. Where 0 volts = Cylinder is fully retracted (0 inch position)

**+10 volts = Cylinder is fully extended (40 inch position)
**

Therefore each ¼ volt (0.25 v) applied to the input represents 1 inch of desired movement.

The feedback potentiometer is also powered with +10 volt supply.

**Proportional Valves with Feedback
**

Thus each 0.25 volt of feedback signal corresponds to 1 inch of movement.

The feedback signal is connected to an INVERTING input on the amplifier.This serves to invert the feedback signal (reverse its polarity from Plus To Minus voltage).

This is done so that the Summing Junction can subtract feedback voltage from command voltage by summing a positive command with a negative feedback.

**How Proportional Valve Works?
**

Now let us examine how Proportional Valve will work Assume that the cylinder starts at the 0 position (fully retracted) Next we apply an input signal in the form a step of +5 Volt. This +5V signal correspond to a desired position of 20 inch. This step input will cause the valve to open and move the LOAD. As the load moves, the feedback signal starts at 0V and constantly increases.

+10V

Input Signal

+5V

0V

Switch Closed

**How Proportional Valve Works?
**

Now let us Freeze the changes in one second steps to simplify what is happening.

After a fraction of a second when +5 V input is applied, the cylinder has not yet responded, though the input is +5 V and the feedback is 0V. The error signal will therefore be +5V, causing the amplifier to produce a corresponding output to the valve solenoid, which will cause the spool to shift providing oil through valve. But the actual rate of flow and therefore the speed of cylinder (LOAD) motion will now be determined by several other factors, which are given below -

**How Proportional Valve Works?
**

The other factors involved –

1. The gain of the Amplifier, which means how much current will the amplifier output due to the +5V error signal at its input? 2. The flow rating of the valve, which means how much oil can pass through the valve for the given amount of spool shift or how big is the valve? 3. Pressure drop (ΔP) across the valve, which means how hard the pump is pushing the oil through the valve?

**How Proportional Valve Works?
**

Let us assume now that we have taken care all of these things into account, and we have found that an input signal of +5V produces :

**Cylinder Speed = 8 inches per second
**

If the cylinder continued to move at this speed for the whole 20 inches of motion, it would cover the distance in : . 20 inches 8 inches / Sec = 2.5 sec

Consider, though, what would happen after 1 second, it would move 8 inches, but after moving 8 in, the feedback signal will be – 8 inches X 0.25 V/in = 2 Volts

**How Proportional Valve Works?
**

The error signal into the amplifier would now change to 5 Volts - 2 Volts = 3 Volts

If we assume that there is a direct relationship between Input Command signal and flow through the valve, then the flow (Cylinder speed) will now be 3/5th of what it was when we started. The speed is now 8 inches/second X 3 Volts = 4.8 inches/second 5 Volts

Now the speed has dropped from 8 in/sec to 4.8 in/sec.

The next second , the cylinder will travel only 4.8 in , for a total movement of 8 inches + 4.8 inches = 12.8 inches

**How Proportional Valve Works?
**

The feedback signal will be now 12.8 inches X 0.25 volts/inch = 3.2 Volts The error signal will change again 5 Volts - 3.2 Volts = 1.8 Volts The speed will decrease again 8 inches/second X 1.8 Volts = 2.88 inches/second . 5 Volts

As we can observe, the cylinder starts at a maximum speed but continually slows down as it gets closer to its commanded position

**How Proportional Valve Works?
**

Please consider the following facts The cylinder speed is determined by flow rate through the . valve. The flow rate is determined by the amount of spool . movement in the valve. Amount of spool movement is determined by the output of . the amplifier. Amplifier output is determined by the size of the Error Signal coming in. .

**How Proportional Valve Works?
**

The movement of the cylinder is represented by the graph, the graph clearly shows the travel which requires only 2.5 seconds has taken total 7 seconds

20.0 in

Input step signal

15.7 in

12.8 in 8.0 in

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Time (Seconds)

**Basis of Proportional Control
**

After carefully looking into how proportional valve works we can clearly understand the Basis of Proportional Control P x (desired Value - Actual Value) Where P is a constant Proportional Gain set by the designer. Unfortunately, Proportional Control alone is not sufficient in all control applications. One or more of the requirements for Response time, Overshoot, and Oscillations may be impossible to fulfill at any proportional gain, so Derivative Control is added.

Derivative Control

The biggest problem with Proportional Control alone is that improving response time and avoiding overshoot and ripples is not possible.

Responding quickly suggests high Proportional Gain, minimizing overshoot and oscillations suggests small Proportional Gain. Achieving both at the same time may not be possible in all Systems.

But we can derive information about the rate of change of the process OUTPUT. If the OUTPUT is changing rapidly. We can reduce the size of the change suggested by the Proportional Control.

Derivative Control

The rate of change of signal is also known as its DERIVATIVE The derivative at the current time is simply the CHANGE in value from the previous value to the current value. This implies that we should subtract a change – D x (Current Value - Previous Value)

Where D is a constant derivative gain. The only thing we need to do is to save the previous sampled value in memory.

In practice, Proportional-Derivative(PD) controllers work well

The net effect is slightly slower response with far less overshoot & ripples than a proportional controller alone.

Integral Control

Remaining problem is that PD control alone will not always settle exactly to the desired OUTPUT. The problem occurs if each error remain below the threshold for action by the proportional term. The derivative term won‟t help unless the output is changing, Some thing else needs to drive the plant towards the setpoint and that is INTEGRAL TERM. An integral is sum over time. The sum of all past errors. I x Σ (Set Value – Actual Value) t Where I is the Integral Gain, Integral is sum over time.

**Close Loop System Analysis
**

The best way that we can simplify a Closed Loop System, is to review each important component, or group of components, as a block.

**The block reacts to the input, in order to produce the OUTPUT.
**

The relationship between the Input and Output is referred to as the block‟s TRANSFER FUNCTION, or GAIN (G)

Input

G

Transfer Function

Output

**Close Loop System Analysis
**

The GAIN of the block is explained below -

Output Gain = G = Input

Equation # 1

For example, suppose that we have to represent a 4 is to 1 reduction gear box Input Speed . 4:1 Output Speed

Reduction Gearbox

**Close Loop System Analysis
**

A 4:1 reduction gear causes the output shaft to turn once for every 4 turns. Therefore, the TRANSFER FUNCTION of the gear box is: Output Gain = G = . Input 1 = . 4 = 0.25

Since the input and output both are SPEED, the transfer function is just a multiplication factor. For example, if the input speed were 500 RPM, the output speed would be:

**500 RPM X 0.25 = 125 RPM
**

But this may not be the case every time, input, output may be different. For example -

**Close Loop System Analysis
**

Let us look at block representing a hydraulic PUMP Input Speed 1000 rpm . Hydraulic Pump 1.93 in3/rev Output Flow rate 1950 in3 /min

The input to the Pump is the drive speed (RPM) .The output is the flow rate (in3 /min), The transfer function is:

G =

Output Input = 1950 in3/min 1000 rev/min = 1.95 in3/rev

The transfer function does not give a math model of the component under all possible dynamic conditions.

Note: It is important to apply common sense to use transfer function.

**Close Loop System Analysis
**

Let us consider a simple closed Loop system as shown in the Figure below :

Summing Junction

Error (e)

Input (I)

Output (O)

G

Feedback (F)

H

This system has three basic components

. . 1. Summing Junction 2. Forward Transfer Function (G) 3. Feedback Transfer Function (H)

**Close Loop System Analysis
**

1. The Summing Junction: This part is responsible to add negative feedback signal to positive command input Signal, the result is called the Error (e). 2. The Forward Transfer Function (G): This represents all the components of the system between the Input and the Load, such as the Amplifier, Proportional/Servo Valve, and Hydraulic Actuator. 3. The Feedback Transfer Function (H): It is basically a Sensor or Transducer which measures system output, such as Position,Velocity or Force & provides a compatible signal back to the summing junction.

**Close Loop System Analysis
**

We are now having a system which is some what complicated than straight forward relationship, we have observed earlier. The input is multiplied by „G‟ and fed to the output . The output is multiplied by „H‟ and fed back to the input. The signals are running around in a CIRCLE.

We can simplify our view of Closed Loop System, by using and understanding its Open Loop Gain

**Open Loop Gain is an important factor in determining
**

the Accuracy and Response of a Closed Loop System.

**Open Loop Gain
**

The Open Loop Gain, also referred to as Kv, is an important property of closed loop system. To illustrate the calculation of Kv, we will use a typical position control system.

Stroke = 1000 mm (40 in)

0V

10 V

Feedback

+10V

Input 0 to +10 V

Amplifier Amplifier

**Open Loop Gain
**

This system can be shown block diagram as shown below:

Amplifier

GAMP

Servo Proportional Valve

Cylinder

GSV

Input Feedback

GCYL

LOAD

HFB

Feedback Potentiometer

**Open Loop Gain
**

We will consider each transfer function separately –

**GAMP - Amplifier Gain
**

The amplifier produces an Output Current that is proportional to Input Voltage. The amplifier gain is expressed in terms of Milliamps of output per Volt of input (ma/volt).

**GSV - Servo Valve Gain
**

The Servo Valve creates an Output Flow Rate that is proportional to Input Current from the amplifier. The valve gain is expressed as in3 / sec of output flow per milliamp of current input (in3 / sec / ma) or (in3 / sec ma).

**Open Loop Gain
**

GCYL - Cylinder Gain

The cylinder converts an Input Flow Rate of hydraulic fluid into a Mechanical Speed of motion Output. Its unit of Gain is in/sec of output speed per in3 /sec of input flow per milliamp of input flow. This gain happens to be the same as 1/Cylinder Area = 1/A (in/sec/ in3 /sec or 1/ in2)

**HFB - Feedback Gain
**

The Feedback Transducer converts an input mechanical motion (inches) into an output voltage, (volts/inch)

KV = (GAMP) (GSV) (GCYL) (HFB)…..Equation #2

**Open Loop Gain
**

We can calculate the Open Loop Gain by multiplying all of the Forward Transfer Functions and the Feedback Transfer Function. Example: Calculate the open loop gain of the system below

20 inches (50 cm) Area of the Cylinder 10 in2

0V 10 V

+10V

0.5 in3 /sec/ma 6 cm3/sec/ma

Feedback

Amplifier 1000ma/V

Input 0 to +10 V

**Open Loop Gain
**

Individual Gain of the components is given below –

**GAMP = 1000 ma/V GSV
**

= 0.5 in3 /sec/ma

GCYL = 1/A = 1/10 = 0.1/ in2 HFB = 10 V/ 20 in = 0.5 V/in

**KV = (1000 ma/V) (0.5 in3 /sec/ma) (0.1/ in2) (0.5 V/in) KV
**

= 1000 x .5 x .1 x .5 x ma in3 volts

volts sec ma

in2

in

= 25/sec

Open Loop Gain is also referred to a Velocity Constant or Velocity Error Constant, since it affects the system‟s speed response.

System Response

A closed loop Position Control system might react to a step change in input as shown below Command Position Output Movement (t)

The output CURVE is not a straight-line response but an EXPONENTIAL CURVE. The curve rises rapidly initially (high velocity) but gradually levels off. This is because the error signal is reducing with motion.

System Response

As the actuator approaches command position, the error signal gets smaller, closing the valve more & more. An important part of an Exponential Curve is a variable known as Time Constant, denoted by the Greek word τ (tau)

Time Constant

Output Movement 1τ

Initial Slop

(t)

2τ

3τ

4τ

5τ

One Time Constant is the amount of time it would take for the curve to reach final value if it continued at its initial rate of movement.

System Response

Because the curve gradually levels off, the actual time to reach the command value (within 1%) is actually equal to 5 TIME CONSTANTS. The value of one time constant can be calculated from the expression given below -

**τ = Distance to be moved, X0 (in) = sec .....equation #3
**

Initial velocity, V0 (in/sec) How do we find out X0 & V0

X0 =

I (volts) HFB (volts/in)

= in

.....equation #4

To find X0 the original input signal is divided by Feedback gain.

System Response

The initial velocity V0 can be calculated by V0 = I. (GAMP) (GSV) (GCYL)

.....equation #5

**Substituting equation #4 & #5 into equation #3 I HFB = I (GAMP) (GSV) (GCYL)
**

.....equation #6

τ =

Therefore -

X0 V0

τ =

1 (GAMP) (GSV) (GCYL) HFB

System Response

As per the equation #2

**KV = (GAMP) (GSV) (GCYL) (HFB)…..Equation #2
**

We can simply state that -

τ =

1 KV

…..equation #7

This equation directly proves that there is a relationship between the system response (τ) and the open loop gain of the system (KV). If the gain is increased, the time constant is reduced, producing faster response.

EXAMPLE:

System Response

We will use the previous system to calculate how long it will take to respond to a 0.2 volt step input. We will assume that maximum valve drive current fro the amplifier is 250 ma and the amplifier gain (GAMP) is 1000 ma/volt.

20 inches (50 cm)

**Area of the Cylinder
**

10 in2

0V 10 V

+10V

0.5 in3 /sec/ma 6 cm3/sec/ma

Feedback

Amplifier

Input 0 to +10 V

System Response

The input is a 0.2 volt step, and amplifier gain is 1000 ma/volt, the amplifier output will be 0.2 volts x 1000 ma/volt = 200 ma

From the previous Example we already know that -

KV =

Therefore,

25/sec 1 = . 25

τ =

1 KV

= 0.04 sec

**The time to come within 1% of final position is 5τ
**

5τ = 5 x 0.04 sec = 0.20 sec

System Response

Limitations of Proportional GAIN

If faster response is needed, then the value of the Open Loop Gain has to be increased, resulting in a lower time constant. This is usually done by increasing the Gain of the Amplifier. As the cylinder Velocity increases, the effects of load inertia become more significant. Increasing the GAIN beyond a certain point will cause the cylinder to OVERSHOOT the commanded position. This may be followed by a series of gradually decreasing Undershoots and Overshoots until the system settles at the commanded position.

System Response

Limitations of Proportional GAIN

In some cases, a gain that is too high can cause the system to go UNSTABLE. This is a situation where the undershoots and overshoots do not die out, but get worse, resulting in loss of control of the LOAD

Command position Output movement

Output overshoots & undershoots before settling at command position

(t) 1τ 2τ 3τ 4τ 5τ

Command position

Output movement

Oscillations get larger and system becomes unstable (t) 1τ 2τ 3τ 4τ 5τ

System Response

The maximum practical GAIN value that ensures system STABILITY and acceptable settling time is determined by -

**The Load Mass (M):
**

The bigger is the MASS, we are trying to move, the greater is the inertia of the moving mass. Since it is hard to stop a big MASS, the system will have a tendency to OSCILLATE.

**The Stiffness of the Actuator (C):
**

A Hydraulic or Mechanical system with a low Stiffness will always have a tendency to OSCILLATE.

System Response

The Damping Coefficient (ξ) x-ee:

This is a measure of how much energy the system can dissipate to reduce oscillations. Natural damping in the system tends to reduce oscillations and limit the loop gain.

**Valve Frequency Response (Fv):
**

The hydraulic control valve itself takes a finite amount of time to respond. This response time must be taken into account. The Input signal to control valve is in milliamps but Output is in terms of spool movement in inches. If the signal frequency is high then Spool movement will not be in the same step.

System Response

Damping Coefficient:

The damping factors are very difficult to predict accurately without actual measurement, and usually change over time. Mechanical friction and hydraulic leakage (across piston seals & valve spools etc.) are the main contributors to damping coefficient.

The damping coefficient in a Hydraulic System is normally between 0.05 and 0.3, with the value of 0.2 being a good trial value for use in initial calculations.

System Response

Natural Frequency of the Load

The Load‟s Mass (M) and the actuator Hydraulic Stiffness (CH) are usually combined into one convenient factor, referred to as the LOAD NATURAL FREQUENCY or ωL The relationship between M, CH and ωL

ωL =

CH

…..equation #8

M

The actuator hydraulic stiffness may have to take into account the mechanical stiffness of the mounting. For Example, the presence of rubber mount or shock absorbing devices will tend to decrease actuator stiffness.

System Response

Natural Frequency of the System (ωS)

In order to establish the Natural Frequency of the System, we have to carefully look into the Natural frequency of the Load, Hydraulic Valve and the Feedback Transducer. We need to know ωS because we can use it to ensure that our system will not become unstable. A very useful mathematical relationship can be established with Open Loop Gain & the Natural Frequency of the System.

KV ≤ 2 ξ ω S

…..equation #9

System Response

Natural Frequency of the System (ωS)

If we want to ensure that the System does not become UNSTABLE, we will have to choose of KV less than 2 ξ ωS. However, a very conservative gain setting may result in a long settling time.

To ensure acceptable settling time while ensuring stability, the maximum value of GAIN should be set to -

KV (max) = ξ ωS

…..equation #10

Hydraulic Stiffness

For all practical purposes Hydraulic Fluid has always been regarded as INCOMPRESSABLE but this is not absolutely correct.

Hydraulic Fluid under pressure does compress, in much the same way as a SPRING.

Fluid in Actuator and tubing acts like a spring. VALVE

Hydraulic Stiffness

For Slow Moving and lightly Loaded systems, the amount of compression is very small and it can be ignored. In Fast Moving Servo Systems with high Dynamic Loads, the fluid compression effect can not be IGNORED. In fact, the stiffness of the hydraulic fluid may become the limiting factor in the overall performance of the system. To maximize system performance, the stiffness of the fluid should be as high as possible. Factors that affect STIFFNESS of an actuator are basically its SIZE, SHAPE & TYPE of FLUID used,

Hydraulic Stiffness

The stiffness of the actuator is determined by The area of the Piston

** The volume of the Fluid under compression (V, in3)
**

The Bulk Modulus of elasticity of the fluid (E, lbf/in2)

Bulk Modulus of Fluid (E)

Area (A1) Volume (V)

Hydraulic Stiffness

The Bulk Modulus, E, is a measure of how easily the fluid can be compressed. The lower the value, the more compressible the fluid is. Typical value of the Bulk Modulus of Hydraulic Oil is:

E = 2 x 105 lbf/in2

…..equation #11

The stiffness (Also called Spring Rate) of the actuator can be calculated from the formula given below:

E(A1)2 CH = V(in3)

…..equation #12

Hydraulic Stiffness

Whether the valve used is a Servo or Proportional, flow will normally be metered in & out of the cylinder in both direction of movement. Both P to A & B to T flow paths are restricted, and both sides of the piston will be pressurized during movement.

Side 1 Side 2

LOAD

Hydraulic Stiffness

C1

Mass of Piston

C2

M

Stiffness of fluid on Side 1 & 2

This is mechanically represented in the figure.

Hydraulic Stiffness

Hydraulic Stiffness can act either in series or in parallel. The simplest way to view the concept of stiffness is to look at it as a spring

To find the total effect of two or more springs, they are combined in the same way as capacitors in electrical circuit. In case of a Hydraulic cylinder, the stiffness of the two sides of the cylinder act in parallel. Therefore, the total stiffness (CH) is C1+ C2

Series Stiffness C1 C2

M M

M

C1

CH =

C1 C2 C1 + C2 C2

Parallel Stiffness

CH = C1 + C2

…..equation #13

Hydraulic Stiffness

CH in a linear actuator is expressed in unit of lbf/in.

V1 A1 A2 V2

In order to consider the stiffness of the system, it VL1 is necessary to include not only the volume of Valve fluid in the actuator, but also the fluid in the pipe lines between the cylinder and the valve, since the fluid in the lines is also under pressure.

VL2

Total Stroke S

As shown in the Figure, the volume of fluid in the hydraulic lines between the valve and the cylinder are referred to as VL1 and VL2 , V1 and V2 represent cylinder volume itself.

Hydraulic Stiffness

While VL1 and VL2 will remain almost constant, V1 and V2 will change constantly as the piston moves along its stroke. If „S‟ represent the total stroke of the cylinder, and „X0‟ is the initial stroke at a given time, then V1 = A1 (X0) V2 = A2 (S - X0) Using equation 12 & 13, we can now figure out …..equation #14

THE TOTAL HYDRAULIC STIFFNESS FOR AN UNEQUAL AREA ACTUATOR

Hydraulic Stiffness

Total volume on side 1 & side 2 V = VL1 + V1 and V = VL2 + V3 Side 1 and Side 2 Stiffness (Using equation No.12) C1 = E (A1)2 VL1 + V1 C2 = E (A2)2 VL2 + V2

**Total Hydraulic Stiffness is CH = C1 + C2 (Equation No.13) CH = E (A1)2 E (A2)2 + VL1 + V1 VL2 + V2
**

Where: CH = lbf/in E = lbf/in2 (Bulk Modulus) A1 & A2 = in2 VL1, VL2, V1, & V2 = in3

(A2)2 (A1)2 CH = E V + V + V + V L2 2 L1 1

…..equation #15

Hydraulic Stiffness

Stiffness CH Stroke (S)

0

(Retracted)

(Extended)

As the piston moves, V1 and V2 changes constantly, causing stiffness to change constantly, figure shows the stiffness variation for an unequal area cylinder. Stiffness is highest at either end of the stroke.

Stiffness is MINIMUM somewhere around mid-stroke.

**Natural Frequency of the Load
**

It is important to find out the STIFFNESS before we try to find out the Natural frequency of the LOAD. NATURAL FREQUENCY is an essential aspect, because it gives us a measure of the conditions under which load control can be lost, due to instability. Figure below provides an example of Natural Frequency of a system.

Hydraulic stiffness of Actuator

CH

M

fL

time

Initial Movement

M

**Natural Frequency of the Load
**

This simple system consists of a load hung from a spring. If the load is pulled down and released , the load will bounce up and down, this is known as OSCILLATIONS.

The oscillations get smaller and eventually die down due to air resistance and friction in the spring.

How fast the system will oscillate depends on the stiffness of the spring and the mass attached to the spring. Stiffer the spring more oscillations, larger the mass less oscillations.

The FREQUENCY of the OSCILLATIONS, for any combination of spring & mass, is referred to as the NATURAL FREQUENCY of the system.

**Natural Frequency of the Load
**

Basically NATURAL FREQUENCY is the frequency at which a system will tend to OSCILLATE, if it is disturbed in any way. Natural Frequency is measured in – 1. Cycles Per Second (Hertz) fL 2. Radians Per Second (rad/sec) ωL

A hydraulic cylinder will react in the same manner, If the mass is disturbed, it will oscillate, the oscillations will eventually die out due to friction & leakage.

In the case of hydraulic cylinder, the “SPRING” is provided by the compressibility of the oil in the cylinder.

**Natural Frequency of the Load
**

We can calculate the natural frequency of the Cylinder/Load combination from the following formula: CH M

ωL =

…..equation #16

Where: ωL = natural frequency (rad/sec) CH = hydraulic stiffness (lbf/inch) M = mass of the load (lbf. Sec2/inch)

Conversion factor for converting Hz to rad/sec Hz to rad/sec: f = ω/2 rad/sec to Hz: ω = 2f Using the Hz to rad/sec conversion factor, we can convert rad/sec to Hz Here fL = Natural frequency (Hz)

fL =

1 2π

CH M

…..equation #17

**Natural Frequency of the Load
**

The Natural Frequency of a Hydraulic Motor is calculated in the same way as it is done for a linear hydraulic actuator. As we consider the force generated by a hydraulic cylinder, we consider the Torque which is generated by a hydraulic motor The natural frequency of a hydraulic motor is calculated from ωL = CH J 1 2π CH J Where: CH = Hydraulic motor stiffness (lbf in/rad) J = Load Inertia (lbf sec2)

…..equation #18

fL =

…..equation #19

fL = Natural Frequency of the Motor . in Hz.

**Natural Frequency of the Load
**

EXAMPLE: Calculate the natural frequency of the Load/Actuator combination as shown in the figure below. 75 mm or 3in Bore

Load

Load (M)

S = 40 in (1000 mm)

2 in x 0.75 in ID (50 x 20 mm)

Valve

48 in x 0.75 in (1200 x 20 mm)

**Natural Frequency of the Load
**

A1 A2 Π(d)2 = . 4 Π(d)2 = . 4 = = 3.1417 x (3 in)2 = . 4 7.07 in2

3.1417 x (1.5 in)2 2 = 7.07 in . 4

- invoice_1619665930
- PPA Revised Guidelines Short Term
- ORIYA-II
- ORIYA-I
- Berhampur University Pg Prof Prosp 2016 17
- Metalworking Fluids
- India Afghanistan Relations
- India-Afghanistan IR
- PhD Brochure Even Sem 2015-16
- 2 Textiles in Aerospace Applications
- Ph.D-advt
- MPR - September 2015
- GS Mains Previous Year Questions-Modern India
- General Studies Mains Modern India Question Trend 1995 2009
- CEA-Annual Report Draft 12.06.2015
- Numerical Relays for Integrated Control
- Numerical Relays for Integrated Control
- Numerical Relays for Integrated Control
- Integrated-protection-control Using Numerical Relays
- Intercomm List
- IAS Prelims and Mains Syllabus With Both Eco and Geography Syllabus
- 236802995 Brian Snowdon Howard R Vane Modern Macroeconomics
- Unit Step Function
- 22624252 Complete History of India
- Elect Engg i Mains 11

Idea about electro hydraulics, principle of electro hydraulics

Idea about electro hydraulics, principle of electro hydraulics

- Hydraulic Proportional Control_Bosch Rexroth
- Hydraulic Specalist
- Proportional Electro-hydraulic Controls
- Festo Proportional Hydraulics Textbook
- Festo-Hydraulics Advanced Level
- Festo Closed Loop Hydraulics
- The Hydraulic Trainer Volume 2 ( Proportional & Servo Valve Technology )
- Fluid Power Circuits
- FESTO Hydraulics Course
- Hydraulic
- Mobile Hydraulics Manual M-2990-A
- DS4 Hydraulic Training System - Rexroth
- Mobile Hydraulics
- Hydraulics Manual Complete
- electro hydraulic
- Basics of Hydraulic Systems
- The Hydraulic Trainer Volume 1 ( Basic Principles & Components of Fluid Technology )
- Festo Hydraulics
- Hydraulic_Proportional_Closed_Loop_System_Design.pdf
- Electrohydraulics Basic Level
- Festo Hydraulic Basic Level Manual
- Servo Valve, Hydraulic - Equations[1]
- Vickers General Hydraulic Book
- MFB Training
- 06 the Hydraulic Trainer
- Basics of Hydraulic Circuits
- Technical Manual 2011
- Basics of hydraulics
- Hagglunds Hydraulic Motors
- Vol.5-Study of Hydraulic Circuits
- Electro Hydraulics

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd