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Definition of Motivation

The act or process of stimulating to action, providing an incentive or motive, especially for an act.

1) Internal drive to satisfy an

unsatisfied need 2) Stimulus of behavior

Motivation as a process:

Energy- A measure of intensity or drive. *Direction- Towards organizational goal.

*Persistence- Exerting effort to achieve goal

Basic model of motivation

Needs or expectations Result in Drive force (Behavior or Action)

To Achieve

Desired Goals


Which Provides

Need & Importance of Motivation

Helps in realizing Organizational goals Helps in increasing productivity Reduce turnover & absenteeism Maintain good industrial relations Helps in getting right personnel Reduce employee grievances

Frustration: occurs when needs can not be met

Satisfaction: occurs when needs are met

Despair: occurs when there is frustration without


Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Stresses two fundamental premises:
Human beings are wanting creatures whose needs

depend on what they already have. (You need what you DONT already have)
Peoples needs are arranged in a hierarchy

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs





Physiological- wage, salaries and working conditions 2. Safety- security (safe job), other benefits eg sick pay and safe working conditions 3. Social- team working and other functions that aim

at building a bond within the workforce

4. Esteem- positive feedback and chances for promotion 5. Self- actualization- creating challenges and tasks

that are stimulating


Needs may not follow definite hierarchical order Need priority model may not be applicable at all times. Behaviour is guided by multiplicity of behaviour. Satisfying one need at a time may not be valid. In many level of motivation is low always.

Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory

Dissatisfaction and demotivation Not dissatisfied but not motivated Positive satisfaction and motivation

Achievement Recognition Advancement The work itself Possibility of growth Responsibility

Compensation Fringes Supervision

Work Conditions

Hygiene : Job Dissatisfaction

Motivators: Job satisfaction

Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement

Company Policy & Admn Supervision Interpersonal Relations Working Conditions Salary*



Dissatisfiers/Maintenance Factors
Presence is not motivational. Absences

causes dissatisfaction

Policies Salary Interpersonal relationships Job security Work conditions Status Technical supervision Personal life

Not unhappy if they are absent; willing to work to

get them
Achievement Recognition Advancement The work itself Possibility of growth Responsibility

McGregor's Theory Y

McGregors Theory
He believed there were 2 types of managers that affected motivation

Theory X Managers Believe that workers Dont like working Do as little work as possible Cant be trusted Only interested in pay Must be told what to do

Theory Y Managers Believe that workers Enjoy their work Work hard to gain rewards Can be trusted Are motivated by factors other than pay Can work independently

McGregor's Theory X

Motivational Theories X & Y

SA Esteem Theory Y - a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals motivated by higher order needs Theory X - a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals motivated by lower order needs

Safety & Security Physiological

What Employees Want




Working conditions.

Company policies.
Job security. Pay and benefits. Relationships with coworkers. Supervision.


Case Study
The manager of A.B.C.Ltd. Realised that the level of moral and motivation of their employees was very low and there was dissatisfaction among the employees. Labour productivity was also found to be very low. After investigating the causes of dissatisfaction, the managers decided that if employees were to be motivated, there was a need to establish and maintain good interpersonal relation, over and above good salary, job security, proper working conditions and supervision.

So they put in sincere efforts to improve all these factors during one year. Yet, surprisingly, they came to know that in spite of reduction in the degree of dissatisfaction, the level of morale and motivation was low and there was no significant increase in their productivity. Therefore, the managers are worried.
What managerial problem is involved in the above case? Suggest solution and make argument to justify your answer.

Non Monetary Forms of Motivation