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NUMBERS
Numeral : In Hindu Arabic system, we use ten symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 called digits to represent any number. A group of digits, denoting a number is called a numeral Consider a number 689745132  Ten Crores (108) Crores(107)Ten Lacs (Millions) Click to edit Master subtitle style (106)Lacs(105)Ten Thousands (104)Thousands (103)Hundreds (102)Tens(101)Units(100) 689745132 We read it as : 'Sixty-eight crores, ninety-seven lacs, forty-five thousand, one hundred and thirty-two'.
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Place Value or Local Value of a Digit in a Numeral In the numeral :

689745132
• • • •

Place value of 2 is

(2 x 1) = 2

Place value of 3 is (3 x 10) = 30 Place value of 1 is (1 x 100) = 100 Place value of 6 is (6 x 108 ) = 4/1/12 600000000

Face Value
The face value of a digit in a numeral is the value of the digit itself at whatever place it may be. In the numeral, 689745132 the face value of 2 is 2; the face value of 3 is 3 and so on.
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Thus..TYPES OF NUMBERS • Natural Numbers : Counting numbers 1. 5. 2. 4. are called natural numbers. 3. • (i) 4/1/12 . Whole Numbers : All counting numbers together with zero form the set of whole numbers..... 0 is the only whole number which is not a natural number.

} represents the set of non-positive integers.…. 1.-1.. {….} together form the set of integers. 2. 0.1.-2..-3. (i) Positive Integers : {1.} is the set of all negative integers.…. ….. So.2. 4/1/12 . 3.} is the set of all positive integers. -3. 2. 4.…. (iii) Non-Positive and Non-Negative Integers : 0 is neither positive nor negative. 3. .Integers : All natural numbers.3. .} represents the set of nonnegative integers... 2. 1. while {0.…. (ii) Negative Integers : {.2.e. {0. 3. 0 and negatives of counting numbers i. -1.

Prime numbers up to 100 are : 4/1/12 2. 5. 10. 1. Odd Numbers : A number not divisible by 2 is called an odd number. Prime Numbers : A number greater than 1 is called a prime number. 7. etc... if it has exactly two factors. 11. etc. 3.g. 29. 13. 2. namely 1 and the number itself. 17. 7. 31. 3. e. 19.Even Numbers : A number divisible by 2 is called an even number.g. 5. 41. 11. 8. 4. 37. 9. 6. e. . 23.

(4. 4/1/12 . 4.g.C. (iii) There are 25 prime numbers between 1 and 100. (7. e. 9). e. 10.. 8. etc. (8. Note : (i) 1 is neither prime nor composite. 11). is 1.Composite Numbers : Numbers greater than 1 which are not prime. 5).g.. (ii) 2 is the only even number which is prime. are known as composite numbers. if their H. 3). Co-primes : Two numbers ‘a’ and ‘b’ are said to be co-primes. are coprimes. 12. 6.F. 9. (2.

84932 is divisible by 2. while 65935 is not. • Divisibility By 3 : A number is divisible by 3. which is divisible by 3.592482 is divisible by 3. . Ex.TESTS OF DIVISIBILITY • Divisibility By 2 : A number is divisible by 2. 6. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3. 2. if its unit's digit is any of 0. 4. since sum of its digits = (5 + 9 + 2 + 4 + 8 4/1/12 + 2) = 30. 8. Ex.

749282 is not divisible by 4. 892648 is divisible by 4. if the number formed by the last two digits is divisible by 4. .• Divisibility By 4 : A number is divisible by 4. since the number formed by the last two digits is 82. But. since the number formed by the last two digits is 48. which is not divisible 4/1/12 by 4. Ex. which is divisible by 4.

• Ex. if its unit's digit is either 0 or 5. Thus.• Divisibility By 5 : A number is divisible by 5. Sum of its digits = (3 + 5 + 2 + 5 + 6) = 21. Thus. while 30934 and 40946 are not. The number 35256 is clearly divisible by 2. if it is divisible by both 2 and 3. 20820 and 50345 are divisible by 5. which is divisible by 3. . 4/1/12 35256 is divisible by 2 as well as 3. Divisibility By 6 : A number is divisible by 6.

if the number formed by the last three digits of the given number is divisible by 8. . • Ex.Divisibility By 8 : A number is divisible by 8. since the number formed by last three digits is 360. 953360 is divisible by 8. 529418 is not divisible by 8. which is divisible by 8. 4/1/12 But.

since sum of digits = (6 + 8 + 9 + 5 + 6) = 34. 4/1/12 while 96375 is not. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9. which is not divisible by 9. 96410. Divisibility By 10 : A number is divisible by 10. • Ex. if it ends with 0.Divisibility By 9 : A number is divisible by 9. 10480 are divisible by 10. since sum of digits * (6 + 0 + 7 + 3 + 2) = 18. But. 60732 is divisible by 9. 68956 is not divisible by 9. which is divisible by 9. . Ex.

if the difference of the sum of its digits at odd places and the sum of its digits at even places.(1 + 2 + 8) = 11. • Ex. The number 4832718 is divisible by 11.(sum of digits at even places) = (8 + 7 + 3 + 4) . which is divisible by 11. is either 0 or a number divisible by 11. 4/1/12 . since : (sum of digits at odd places) .Divisibility By 11 : A number is divisible by 11.

• Ex. 34632 is divisible by 12. which is divisible by 3. (i) The number formed by last two digits is 32. 34632 is divisible by 4 as well as 3. . Thus. Consider the number 34632. which is divisible by 4.Divisibility By 12 : A number is divisible by 12. 4/1/12 Hence. (ii) Sum of digits = (3 + 4 + 6 + 3 + 2) = 18. if it is divisible by both 4 and 3.

• Ex. if it is divisible by both 3 and 5. if the number formed by the last4 digits is divisible by 16. • Divisibility By 16 : A number is divisible by 16.Divisibility By 14 : A number is divisible by 14. • Divisibility By 15 : A number is divisible by 15. if it is divisible by 2 as well as 7.7957536 4/1/12 is divisible by 16. since the .

• Divisibility By 80 : A given number is divisible by 80. if it is divisible by both3 and 8. if it is divisible by both 5 and 8. if it is divisible by both 5 and 16. 4/1/12 . • Divisibility By 40 : A given number is divisible by 40.• Divisibility By 24 : A given number is divisible by 24.

36 is divisible by both 4 and 6. Ex. 4/1/12 .Note : If a number is divisible by p as well as q. where p and q are co-primes. If p and q are not co-primes. then the given number need not be divisible by pq. then the given number is divisible by pq. since 4 and 6 are not co-primes. even when it is divisible by both p and q. but it is not divisible by (4x6) = 24.

4.b) (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2 (ab + bc + ca) 7.b)2 = 4ab (a + b)2 + (a .b) (a2 + ab + b2) (a3 + b3 + c3 -3abc) = (a + b + c) (a2 + b2 + c2 . 9.2ab (a + b)2 .b2) = (a + b) (a . (a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab 2.b)2 = a2 + b2 . (a . 4/1/12 . (a3 + b3) = (a +b) (a2 . 5. 3.BASIC FORMULAE 1. then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc. (a3 .b3) = (a .ab .(a . 10.bc .ca) If a + b + c = 0.ab + b2) 8. 6.b)2 = 2 (a2 + b2) (a2 .

an) is divisible by (x + a) for all even values of n.an ) is divisible by (x .a) for all values of n. (xn .DIVISION ALGORITHM OR EUCLIDEAN ALGORITHM • If we divide a given number by another number. then : Dividend = (Divisor x Quotient) + Remainder • (xn . 4/1/12 • • .

that Now. If yes.TEST FOR A NUMBER TO BE PRIME Let p be a given number and let n be 2≥ p n the smallest counting number such . 4/1/12 Ex. Test whether 137 is prime or not ? . p is prime. the p is not prime otherwise. test whether p is divisible by any of the prime numbers less than or equal to n.

P.. (a + 2d).Arithmetic Progression (A.) : • If each term of a progression differs from its preceding term by a constant. This constant difference is called the common difference of the A. then such a progression is called an arithmetical progression. (a + d)..(a + 3d). The nth term of this A. is given by • • 4/1/12 . with first term ‘a’ and common difference ‘d’ is given by a.P.. An A.P.P...

P. A G.P. when r>1 .Geometric Progression (G. is called a geometrical progression. The constant ratio is called the common ratio of the G. • In this G. with first term ‘a’ and common ratio ‘r’ is : a. Sn= a(1-rn )/(1-r) . Tn = arn-1 sum of the n terms.) : • A progression of numbers in which every term bears a constant ratio with its preceding term.…….P. ar. when r<1 Sn= a(rn-1)/(r- •   4/1/12 1) . ar2.P.

. + n3) =n2(n+1)2/4 4/1/12 .. + n2) = n (n+1) (2n+1)/6 (iii) (13 + 23 + 33 + .. + n) =n(n+1)/2 (ii) (l2 + 22 + 32 + ..SOME IMPORTANT RESULTS : (i) (1 + 2 + 3 +….

Ex.287)2] = ½[(600)2 + (26)2] = 1/2 (360000 + 676) = 180338. (a2 + b2) = 1/2 [(a + b)2 + (a. 1.2 x 1400 x 2 =1960000 + 4 5600 = 1954404. Simplify : (i) 1605 x 1605 ii) 1398 x 1398 Sol. Evaluate : (313 x 313 + 287 x 287). i) 1605 x 1605 = (1605)2 = (1600 + 5)2 = (1600)2 + (5)2 + 2 x 1600 x 5 = 2560000 + 25 + 16000 = 2576025.   4/1/12 .2)2 = (1400)2 + (2)2 .b)2] (313)2 + (287)2 = 1/2 [(313 + 287)2 + (313 .2. Sol. (ii) 1398 x 1398 = (1398)2 = (1400 . Ex.

5. 3. 3. 17. Which of the following are prime numbers ? (i) 241 (ii) 337 (iii) 391 (iv) 571 Sol. 5. 3. (i) Clearly. 11. 571 is a prime number. (19)2 >337. 13.17. Prime numbers less than19 are 2. 13. 7. 241 is a prime number. We find that 391 is divisible by 17. 23. 19. Prime numbers less than 24 are 2. (24)2 > 571. 7. 19. Clearly. Prime numbers less than 16 are 2. (iii) Clearly. 7. (20 )2 > 391.Ex. 571 is not divisible by any one of them. 13. 337 is a prime number. (ii) Clearly. 11. 11. 3. 337 is not divisible by any one of them. 241 is not divisible by any one of them. 7. Prime numbers less than 20 are 2. 11. 5.13. 5. 17. 4/1/12 (iv) . 3. (16)2 > 241. 391 is not prime.

e. Required unit's digit = unit's digit in (4)102 + (4)103. Now.  (4)102 gives unit’s digit 6.4 . unit's digit in (264)102 + (264)103 = unit's digit is (6 + 4) i. 4/1/12   . 4. = 0. (4)11x (7)5 x (11)2 = (2 x 2)11 x (7)5 x (11)2 = 211 x 211 x75x 112 = 222 x 75 x112 Total number of prime factors = (22 + 5 + 2) = 29. 5. Find the unit's digit in (264)102 + (264)103 Sol.Ex.  (4)103 gives unit’s digit of the product (6 x 4) i. 42 gives unit’s digit 6.e. Hence. Find the total number of prime factors in the expression (4)11 x (7)5 x (11)2.. Ex. Sol.

Which of the following numbers is divisible by 3 ? (i) 541326 (ii) 5967013 Sol. Let the missing digit be x. 5967013 is not divisible by 3.7.Ex. Ex. For (34 + x) to be divisible by 9. (i) Sum of digits in 541326 = (5 + 4 + 1 + 3 + 2 + 6) = 21. Hence. (ii) Sum of digits in 5967013 =(5+9 + 6 + 7 + 0+1 +3) = 31. which is not divisible by 3. 541326 is divisible by 3.6. Sum of digits = (1 + 9 + 7 + x + 5 + 4 + 6 + 2) = (34 + x). Hence. 4/1/12 . Hence. the digit in place of * must be 2.What least value must be assigned to * so that the number 197*5462 is divisible by 9 ? Sol. which is divisible by 3. x must be replaced by 2 .

Show that 4832718 is divisible by 11. So. But. digits in place of * and p are 4 and 0 respectively. which is divisible by 11. Hence. Which digits should come in place of * and p if the number 62684*p is divisible by both 8 and 5 ? Sol. (Sum of digits at odd places) . 8.(Sum of digits at even places) = (8 + 7 + 3 + 4) . which becomes divisible by 8.(1 + 2 + 8) = 11.Ex. Sol. Now. Hence. Ex. 0 will replace p. so 0 or 5 must come in place of p. if * is replaced by 4. 4832718 is divisible by 11.   4/1/12 . Since the given number is divisible by 5. the number formed by the last three digits is 4*0. a number ending with 5 is never divisible by 8. 9.

21.Ex. 10.. . How many numbers between 11 and 90 are divisible by 7 ? Sol.1) x 2 = 99 or n = 50.1) x 7 = 84 or n = 11. 77.. Ex. 1 + (n .. This is an A. Then.. Sol. Required number of terms = 11.1) d = 84 => 14 + (n . 7. 11. with a = 1 and d = 2. The required numbers are 14. Tn = 84 => a + (n . This is an A. 5. Let it contain n terms.. . 28.. Let it contain n terms. with a = 14 and d = (21 . 3. Find the sum of all odd numbers upto 100.14) = 7. 84. Required sum = n (first term + last term) 2 = 50 (1 + 99) = 2500. The given numbers are 1.P. Then. 35.P. 2 4/1/12 . 99.

This is an A. n-1=9 or n=10.1024 form a GP.4.13. Sol. .8. Required sum = 30 x (12+99) = 1665.Clearly 2. 2 Ex.. Then. Find the sum of all 2 digit numbers divisible by 3.P.4. 18.16……. All 2 digit numbers divisible by 3 are : 12. + 28 = ? Sol. 2 + 22 + 23 + .16……1024? Sol. Ex. Let the number of terms be n . r = 2 and n = 8. 15.How many terms are there in 2.P...12.Ex. Given series is a G. 21.. sum = a(rn-1) = 2 x (28 –1) = (2 x 255) =510 (r-1) (2-1) 4/1/12 .8. 14.. 12 + (n . with a = 2.. With a=2 and r = 4/2 =2. Let it contain n terms.1) x 3 = 99 or n = 30. 99. Then 2 x 2n-1 =1024 . with a = 12 and d = 3.

231 when divided by 5. Sol. Hence. 16. On dividing 15968 by a certain number. Ex. 210 = 1024. gives 3 as remainder. Dividend .= 179.= ------------. Find the remainder when 231 is divided by 5. 15.Ex. the quotient is 89 and the remainder is 37. Unit digit of 231 is 8. . 8 when divided by 5. Now. Sol. gives 3 as remainder. Find the divisor.Quotient 89 4/1/12 . Unit digit of 210 x 210 x 210 is 4 [as 4 x 4 x 4 gives unit digit 4].Remainder 15968-37 Divisor = -------------------------.

required number = 3105 + 3 = 3108. 4/1/12Hence. What least number must be subtracted from 2000 to get a number exactly divisible by 17 ? Sol. Number to be added to 3105 = (21 . Sol. Number to be added = (19 .18) =3. Required number to be subtracted = 11. . On dividing 2000 by 17. we get 17 as remainder. Ex. we get 11 as remainder. 17. 19. Ex. Find the number which is nearest to 3105 and is exactly divisible by 21. What least number must be added to 3000 to obtain a number exactly divisible by 19 ? Sol.Ex. we get 18 as remainder. On dividing 3105 by 21. On dividing 3000 by 19. 18.17) = 2.

it is divisible by 3 x 8. which is divisible by 8. The sum of the digits in the given number is 36. So. 4/1/12 . where 3 and 8 are co-primes. 24.. the given number is divisible by 8. Is 52563744 divisible by 24 ? Sol. which is divisible by 3. 24 = 3 x 8. Thus.Ex. where 3 and 8 are co-primes. the given number is divisible by 3. So.e. 20. i. So. the given number is divisible by both 3 and 8. The number formed by the last 3 digits of the given number is 744.