Electronics

Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.

Electronics
Electrons Distribution in Orbit is 2n Square where n is th orbit 1st Orbit = Max 2 Electrons 2nd Orbit = Max 8 Electrons & so on The Conductivity Depends on •Number of Electrons in Outer Orbit •Distance of Outer Orbit from Nucleus •Density of Atoms within Element

Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.

Electronics
The Stable outer orbit is one which meets 2n square criteria If outer orbit is not stable a atom keeps borrowing electrons from a neighbor & this how electricity is said to be flowing or a current is passing Electrons flow from a atom with excess electron to a one with defficiency. Lesser the number of Electrons, Higher Distance from Nucleus & High Atom Density makes Good Conductors Ex. Copper (Cu), Aluminium (Al) Etc….

Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.

Germanium (Ge) are doped with Elements like Arsenic. Indium etc. .Electronics Elements Like Silicon (Si). to make semiconductors Doping Impurities as above makes atoms to form Structure called Lattice with Either Free Electron or Less Electron (Hole) in some Molecules Semiconductors with Excess Electrons are called N Type & with Holes are called P Types Junction of P & N type Materials makes Diode Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd. Antimony.

Electronics Diode Symbol is P N Triode or Transistor has two junctions instead of one like in diode C (collector) Base E (emitter) Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd. .

.Electronics P N GATE Silicon Rectifiers known commonly as SCR’s SCR’s has Gate which when applied designed voltage cuts off Diode from conducting Diodes & Transistors has ability to Amplify input signals Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.

Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd. .Electronics Other Electronic Components •Capacitors •Resistors •Zener Diodes •Light Emitting Diodes (LED’s) •7 Segment LED’s •etc….

Current. either on or off Digital Circuits are called Logical Circuits Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.Electronics Types of Circuits Analog The inputs & outputs are proportional to Signals like Voltage.e. Digital Uses Binary Mathematics concept of either ‘0’ or ‘1’ I. Frequency etc. .

after 1 Km 0001.e. 0010. 1111 Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.. its read Thousands Hundreds 0 0 Tens 0 Units 0 0000 . . after 1 Km 0001.Electronics Binary Number System Think of Decimal Odometer of a Car. after 0011 …. after 2 Km 0010. after 1 more Km 0002 … 0009 at 10th Km units wheel turns back from 9 to 0 & tens wheel to 1 I. Think of Binary Odometer a device which has only two Digits 0 or 1 0000 . This is called Reset & Carry.

.Electronics Binary Number System Thus Decimal 0001 Decimal 0002 0003 xxxx 0015 Binary 0001 Binary 0010 0011 xxxx 1111 Thus 4 Digit Decimal can be converted to Binary Equivalent The Mathematics of Binary Numbers is known as Boolean Algebra Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.

can symbolized as ‘0’ or ‘1’ Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd. thus .Electronics 0 is Equivalent to either On or Off 1 is Equivalent to either On or Off Transistors Can be used as switches because of there Conducting or Non Conducting depending on Saturation Current Designed. .

Electronics V cc +5v RC 1k RB 10k V in 0 or +5v V out Transistor Invertor Circuit When V in Is 0 V Output (V out) is +5V When V in Is +5 V Output is 0V Thus Circuit Inverts Input V in Inverter Symbol V out Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd. .

.Electronics A V out Y B RL A & B Are Inputs Two Input OR Gate Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.

.Electronics V cc RL A V out Y B A & B Are Inputs Two Input AND Gate Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.

.Electronics An ‘OR’ Gate has two or more input signals but only one output If all inputs are ‘0’ the Output is ‘0’. If any or all inputs are ‘1’ the Output is ‘1’ An ‘AND’ Gate has a ‘High or 1’ Output only when all inputs are ‘High or 1’ The Gates are thus Logical Circuits made of Diodes Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.

.Electronics Three Input OR Gate Four Inputs AND Gate Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.

Electronics Other Types of Gates •NOR Gates •Bubbled AND Gates •NAND Gates •Bubbled OR Gates The Combination of Various kind of Gates on single Silicon Chip are IC’s The Circuits or IC’s are so designed to use Boolean Algebra and provide desired output Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd. .

Electronics Data Processing Circuits Multiplexers .Circuits used for conversion of Binary Number to Decimal Number Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.Means one input into many outputs Decoders . .Circuit with many inputs & only one output Each input can treated as BIT Byte is a binary number with 8 Bits Demultiplexers .

Electronics Encoder .Read only Memory are IC’s that can store Binary Numbers PROM .A Erasable Programmable Read only Memory Binary Number Locations in ROM’s are called Addresses Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.Circuits which convert input signal to Binary coded Number ROM . .A programmable Read only Memory EPROM .

A Logic Circuit with three inputs & 2 ouputs Half Adder .Circuit with two inputs & two outputs Adder Circuits are used for Additions & Subtractions. . Multiplication & Divisions Too are Performed with Adders Shift Registers Shift Counters Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.Electronics Full Adders .

The IC’s has designed Noise Immunity capability Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.Electronics The Design Factors of IC’s consider properties like •Power Dissipation •Propagation Delay Time (Frequency of Circuit) •Temperature Range for Operation The standard IC’s normally are designed for +5 Volts with some margins for errors The external factors like other Electro Magnetic Fields can induce signals known as Noise. .

Electronics The CMOS (Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductors) chips are used to work at 3 to 15 Volts Flip-Flop are electronic circuits which has two stable states System Clocks uses Flip-Flop Circuits System Clocks are essential to control IC’s operations or Cycles of Operations Analog to Digital Converters (A / D) & (D / A) Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd. .

Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.Electronics Some Digital Circuit Equipments are •Calculators •Computers •Digital Temperature Meters •Digital Frequency Meters •Electronic Clocks •Digital Cameras Etc. .

Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.Electronics Some Digital Circuit Equipments used by us are •EFC Control Boxes •ECP’s •LCC Governors •CENTRY Governing Systems •CELECT •CENSE Engine Safety Systems •Power Command Controls •Etc….. .

Electronics Example of a ROM Circuit A B C 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Y 3 Inputs = A B C Outputs = Y3 Y2 Y1 Y0 Y 2 Y 1 Y 0 Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd. .

. •Each Cell Thus can be Addressed by a Row Number & Column Number •Address can be written either in Binary Form or Hexadecimal Form •Desk Top PC’s has RAM Like 16MB. •Cells Normally are arranged in Square Array of M Rows N Columns (M X N) Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd. AND Gates. Thus has 8 Memory Cells •Each Cell Consist of OR Gates. 32MB…. Thus this is 4 Byte RAM •This is 8 Row .Electronics Address 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nibble 0111 1000 1011 1100 0110 1001 0011 1110 •This is 8 X 4 RAM.e.Diode Etc. Single Column RAM. I. 64MB…. Can Store 8 Words of 4 Bits Each •8 Bits Equals 1 Byte.

Symbols •Code is 7 Bit in Form of X6X5X4X 3X2X 1X0 •For Ex. Numbers. Letter ‘a’ Equals 110 0001 Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.e. Calculators Etc. . •Code is Used by most Designers as a Common Standard for Compatibility •Code is Alphanumeric in Nature I. Comprises Letters.Letter ‘A’ Equals 100 0001.Electronics ASCII Characters American Standard Code for Information Exchange •Used to Get into & out of Digital Circuits Like Computers.

Pre Selected •Set High Idle.Electronics Look At How Digital Circuit Technology is Used by Engines What Logic Generating Set Engine Governing Requires •Set Low Idle with Pre Set Facility •Set Rated Speed. Pre Selected •Change RPM’s as Desired by Operator •Increase Fuel or Open Throttle as Per Increase or Decrease in Load Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd. .

.Electronics Thus The EFC is Designed Look at Type of Electrical Components used For EFC’s Component Toggle Switch For LI & HI Potentio Meter Magnetic Pick Up EFC Controller Actuator Signal Type Analog Analog Analog Digital A Analog Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.

. . The Working Logic is Simple Open Actuator with Reference to Pre Sets as per change in Magnetic Pick Up Input Signal. Droop Setting •Etc….Electronics Thus EFC Controller Would Consist of Circuitry •A/ D Convertors for Analog Inputs to Digital •IC with Logic to Provide Output which will be Input to Actuator •D / A Convertor for Providing Analog Signal to Actuator •System Clock to Regulate Logical Circuits •Potentiometers for Pre Sets. Magnetic Pick Up Signal is proportional to Increase or Decrease in Engine RPM because of Change in Load Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.

•Data Links for Input / Output Communications within Components •Control Box with •Analog to Digital Converters & Vice Versa •Memory for Storing Preset Values like Cut Off Oil Pressure. HWT. Intake Temperature Etc. Intake Temperature.Electronics Similarly Typical Safety System Like CENSE will work as below •Analog Inputs from Various Sensors Like LOP. Low Coolant Level Etc…. Coolant Temperature. . Turbo Boost Pressure. •Logical Circuit for Comparing Input & Provide Output in Relation to Pre Stored Values •Display Lamps to Read Fault Codes •Etc…. Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.

Store Operating Data. Provide Data at Latter Stage for Trouble Shooting.Electronics The Systems Like CELECT has more Comprehensive Circuits •Performs Numerous Logical Operations Like •Derating Engine •Shutting Engine •Governing RPM’s •Provide Multiple Torque Curves •Electronically Controlled Injection •The System Typically has RAM. PROM (Programmable Memory) Thus Capable of Pre Calibration as per Application Needs. Flash Fault Codes in Case of Problems Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd. .

.Electronics The Electronic Circuits are normally Reliable However Typical Problems Can be •Component Failures because of •Wrong Polarity Connections •Voltage Inputs Either Low or High than Designed for •Surges Like because of Welding on Equipment •Electrical Noise I. Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.e. . Interference because of Induction from Other Electrical Equipments On Board •Loose Harness / Connections •Bouncing Contacts Like of Ignition Switch •Open or Short Circuited Sensors Etc….

.Electronics The Digital Circuits Like Remote Monitoring ECP’s Requires Soft Ware for Both Programming & Communication Called Drivers For Communications Between More Than One Electronic Equipments Various Data Transmission Systems are used - •Through Parallel Ports •Through Serial Ports •Standard Data Links Like J 232 (SAE Standards) •Bit by Bit Data Transmission Sequence •Etc…... Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd.

Electronics Increase Your Knowledge Read •Digital Principles & Applications by Malvino & Leach •Modern Digital Electronics by Jain •Digital Computer Electronics by Malvino Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd. .

Electronics Cummins Diesel Sales & Service (I) Ltd. .

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