Project Management Tools & Techniques - PERT

DIBYESH GIRI MCA-06 [Pune University] Kathmandu, Nepal Smart Tech Ideas http://www.smarttechideas.com

Project Management Tools & Techniques - PERT
PERT and CPM are two techniques that are useful in managing the project. These two techniques are basically useful in managerial function like •Planning •Scheduling •Control PERT – Program Evaluation and Review Technique. PERT has developed in 1950’s in USA. It has developed mainly to evaluate the nuclear missile projects. These missiles were to be launched from ocean surface by mobile submarine – Poluris Missile. PERT has mainly used for planning and scheduling of any projects. But now a days it is using for research and Development projects. It also help in find out any uncertainties in the project plan.

Project Management Tools & Techniques - CPM
CPM – Critical Path Method CPM is mainly used for to find out the cost and time estimate of any project. CPM is used in certain projects like construction, it is not so useful for certain jobs. Critical Path is the longest path through the network. So that the network should contain the required steps and that must be completed on time to avoid delay in completing the project.

Project Management Tools & Techniques
The broad steps for drawing PERT and CPM 2. Decompose the project in activities. Define that activities or job. 3. Estimate time for each activity. 4. Order of activities - Predecessor - Successor 5. Drawing the project graph or diagram.

Event Initial Node

Activity

Event Terminal Node

Project Management Tools & Techniques
Job-Id Job Description
Prepare Plan Prepare Material Talk with Publisher Finalize Material Finalize Cover Print the Book

Immediate Predecessor

Time

A B C D E F

NIL A A B C D and E

10 5 4 6 9 5

Project Management Tools & Techniques

3 1 A 2 4 C 4 9 E 10 5 B 6 D 5 5 F

6

PERT - Program Evaluation and Review Technique

Project Management Tools & Techniques
2 1 4 3 2 2 3 5 4 8

5 5 4 2

6

6 7

1

3

Find out the Critical Path

Project Management Tools & Techniques
• • • • • Path A – Nodes are 1,2,5,8 – 9 days Path B – Nodes are 1,3,5,8 – 13 days Path C – Nodes are 1,3,6,7,8 – 16 days Path D – Nodes are 1,3,4,6,7,8 – 15 days Path E – Nodes are 1,3,4,7,8 – 10 days

Path C is the Critical Path

Project Management Tools & Techniques
2 1 4 3 2 2 3 5 4 8

5 5 4 2

6

6 7

1

3

Critical path is the longest path through the network

Project Management Tools & Techniques
March 9,07 (20) Build Scanner March 9,07 (60) Jan 1,07 Start Jan 3,07(45) Design Build Parser March 9,07 (180) Build Code Generator Write Manual March 9,07 (90) Nov 17,07 (90) Integration & Test

Finish March 22,08

PERT chart for a simple compiler project. Pink line indicates critical path.

Project Management Tools & Techniques
Any delay in critical path will cause a delay in the entire project. The manager will clearly want to monitor the activities on the critical path much more closely than other activities.

Project Management Tools & Techniques
Advantages of PERT for S/W Project 2. It forces the manager to plan the project. 3. It shows the interrelationships among the tasks in the project. 4. It clearly identifies the critical path of the project. 5. Manager should monitor the critical activity very closely. 6. It shows all parallel activities & so he may allocate resources in optimistic manner. 7. It enable the manager to monitor and control the S/W project. With above example manager can efficiently handle the activities like • Hiring people • Purchasing equipment • Securing office space

Project Management Tools & Techniques
6 5 F 4 C 2 D 3 4 G

4 1 2 A 2 2 B

3 E

3 7 2 H 8

System development PERT chart
1) Find out Critical Path 2) Find out Earliest Event Time 3) Find out Latest Event Time

Project Management Tools & Techniques
Earliest Event Time Event Number 3 2 9 Latest Event Time

Earliest Start Time (Earliest Event Time) = Maximum of (Largest Preceding Event Time + activity duration)

2) Latest Start Time (Latest Event Time) = Smallest Succeeding Event Time – activity duration)

3) Earliest Finish Time = Earliest Start Time + activity duration 4) Latest Finish Time = Latest Start Time + activity duration Latest Finish Time means latest occurrence time of the event at which the activity terminates.

Project Management Tools & Techniques
1
4 2 1 0 0 2 A 2 2 4 4 B 4 C 2 3 2 9 D 3 E 5 7 7 F 4 6 7 8 G

3 7 11 11 2 H 13 13

2

8

Project Management Tools & Techniques
Activity times in PERT network. Critical Path – the path from beginning to end over which the total time required will be greater than for any other path. The dotted line indicates dummy activity where no time or resources are consumed. The dummy activities can therefore be used to link parallel activities.

Find out 2. Critical Path 3. Earliest Start Time 4. Earliest Finish Time 5. Latest Start Time 6. Latest Finish Time 2 1 3 2 3

Project Management Tools & Techniques

4 7 0 3 3 5

5 6 6

2

Project Management Tools & Techniques
Earliest Start Time 2 2 3 3 3 Latest Start Time 3 6 6 0 3

Event Activity 0 0 3

4

6 6 7 5 13 13 2 6 6 19 19 5

1

Project Management Tools & Techniques
Activity Activity Duration Earliest
Start Time (Earliest start time of beginning of Activity) You can start Finish Time

Latest
Start Time You should Start Finish Time (Latest Start time of the end of Activity)

1 1-2 2-3 2-4 3-4 3-5 3-6 4-5 4-6 5-6

2 3 3 2 0 3 2 7 5 6

3 0 3 3 6 6 6 6 6 13

4=(2+3) 3 6 5 6 9 8 13 11 19

5=(6-2) 0 3 4 6 10 17 6 14 13

6 3 6 6 6 13 19 13 19 19

Project Management Tools & Techniques – MS Project
MS-Project makes it easier than ever to manage schedule, project status & report project information. MS-Project has fundamental management features that you need to stay informed, so project stay on track in budget.

Project Management Tools & Techniques – MS Project
Features: • Manage project smarter & efficiently. • With dynamic scheduling, instantly impact of schedule or resource change on your overall project schedule. • Quickly project management process with new step by step, interactive project guidance. • Stay informed. Gain better understanding to your projects with improved group information displays within network diagram & usage views. • Display Gantt Chart & views even print column and row totals. • Easily convert existing task lists in Microsoft excel & outlook into project plan.

Project Management Tools & Techniques – MS Project
Features 2. Clear baseline for selected task or an entire project. 3. Templates – Create and access MSP templates easily. 4. Auto save. Microsoft Project is a multifaceted and full-featured program. However its complexity is simplified by its familiarity, the looks, and feel is same as other Microsoft products, we will have no trouble when navigating project.

Project Management Tools & Techniques – MS Project
• Microsoft Project is a powerful, flexible project management tool that we can use to control simple or complex projects. • It helps us schedule and track all activities, so we stay on top of their progress and now. • With Microsoft project central, which we can install on our company’s intranet or internet exchanging project information with the people involved is easier than ever. • As we build a project plan, MS-Project calculates and creates a working schedule based on information we provide about the tasks to be done, the people who work on them, the equipment and supplies used to accomplish them, and the costs involved.

Project Management Tools & Techniques – MS Project
MS-Project is somewhat hybrid of Microsoft Outlook and Excel. It helps in putting together a plan of action, fill-in and organize all details that must be completed in order to achieve the goal. Apart from being easily and flexible tool, it expands into web compatible software, thus enabling easy communication. It helps to study in control with minimum effort in minimum time.

Project Management Tools & Techniques – MS Project
When managing a project using MS-Project we can use its following features • Custom fields to identify specific information in fields. • Views and tables to display the exact information we want to review. • Filters and groups to focus on the information that needs our attention. • Network diagram enhancements to customize the display of the Network diagram (PERT Chart). So we can view Specific information without using ad-on tools.

Project Management Tools & Techniques – MS Project
Some of the major tasks that MS-Project can take care of • Views • Links • Constraints • Resources • Assignments • Cost • Hyperlinks • Workgroups

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