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• India with its vast population and unique geophysical characteristics is one of the world‟s most „disaster-prone‟ countries. • Natural hazards such as cyclones, earthquakes, drought, floods or landslides occur in different parts of India in varying intensity. • This means that we are all „vulnerable‟ in different degrees to disasters caused by these hazards.
A VITAL PART OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
• On he East Coast, cyclones occur frequently. • In the interior of the Plateau or in the Himalayas – earthquakes, and in the Ganga Brahmaputra plain, floods are more common.
INDIA IS DISASTER-PRONE… • OVER 55% OF THE LAND AREA IS VULNERABLE TO EARTHQUAKES 12% TO FLOODS • 8% TO CYCLONES • 70 % OF THE LAND UNDER CULTIVATION IS PRONE TO DROUGHT .
Natural and Manmade disasters • The selfless bounty of nature is a gift to mankind. water and food. • For centuries though. Mother Nature has been combining its gifts with its often-inexplicable moods of destruction and fury. and of course a home to stay. . It is an eternal source of sustenance: it gives us air.
• Common hazards faced by us in India are earthquakes. with large losses to life. landslides. etc. cyclones.Cont… • These times of turmoil over land and water. . livelihood and property. forest fires. or hazards often lead to disasters. a large number of fire accidents. • Disasters are some times referred to as „calamities‟. floods. drought.
Delhi. in the oceans.) These movements in the Earth‟s crust cause earthquakes. releasing energy. cause huge waves called tsunamis that have some times raced across the ocean at 8000 km/h. For thousands of years these plates have been constantly moving and shifting. and is hence highly earthquake-prone. The fact that it is also densely populated and has crowded residential areas makes it more vulnerable to disaster. (65 million years ago such shifting caused the Himalayas. Earthquakes that occur under water. when two plates collide with each other. Earthquakes are more likely to occur along faults. .EARTHQUAKES The Earth we live on is made up of large plates of land that float over an ocean of semi molten rock. our capital city lies near a fault.
• • • . or in comparison to the normal rainfall levels for the area. soil erosion (by wind and water). Deforestation. Environmental degradation is a major factor that increases the effects of drought. or a deficiency of surface or sub-surface water leading to acute shortage of water. • It is a dry situation characterized by deficit rainfall. Drought is a perennial feature in some states of India. loss of bio-diversity and excessive use of ground or surface water result in drought. lack of water for household use or agriculture.Drought • A natural phenomenon. which happens when an area receives lesser rainfall then expected. It causes large-scale starvation. loss of assets and livestock and death.
loss of assets and livestock and death. Cont… . Deforestation. It causes large-scale starvation. • 3. When the monsoon rainfall deficiency exceeds 19%.• Environmental degradation is a major factor that increases the effects of drought. Environmental degradation: in simple terms is the reduction or deterioration of environmental resources that harms us in many ways. Drought is a perennial feature in some states of India. Important Terms • 1. This includes the living organisms and the genetic differences between them and the communities in which they occur. Bio-diversity: is the term for the variety of life and the natural processes of which living things are a part. it is categorised as deficient or scanty. The concept of biodiversity represents the ways that life is organized and interacts on our planet. it is categorised as normal. This balance or equilibrium is challenged by environmental degradation loss of bio-diversity and excessive use of ground or surface water result in drought. soil erosion (by wind and water). • 2. Normal rainfall: When the rainfall for the monsoon season of June to September for a place is within +/-19% of its long period average.
other areas in the west.FLOODS • Floods are caused when water rises above and beyond its normal place or course. east and south also experience floods. They are caused primarily due to the peculiarities of rainfall in the country. causing areas to be submerged with water for prolonged or short periods of time. . • • While the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers cause the largest floods in India. and are the most frequent and often most devastating disaster in India.
blow away a cement roof.CYCLONES • A cyclone is a storm that occurs due to a difference in temperature and pressure of air. • A cyclone can carry the power to destroy concrete buildings. uproot trees. and wash away homes in villages. . and tidal waves that cause floods in coastal areas. • It is accompanied by strong gales and lashing rain. over the warm waters of the Oceans.
For example terrorists may blow up a train or building with explosives. jaundice etc.MANMADE DISASTERS • Results major accidents or inadvertent as well deliberate actions of individuals. groups or governments. or by polluting water with such germs in a particular area. Manmade disasters could be nuclear (The nuclear attack on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan in 1945). Biological disasters can be caused by preserving and releasing germs of deadly diseases such as small pox. Nuclear weapons when used cause a lot of destruction through the generation of heat. The use of Anthrax by terrorists to eliminate people in the USA in 2002 could be called a biological weapon. • • • • . fire and radiation.
The release of Methyl Iso-Cyanate or MIC. we could ensure that it is strong and durable. by adhering conscientiously to safety measures in industries. land. air or water accidents caused by collisions. and are issued by the Government). accidents that cause suffering could be prevented. Manmade disasters are preventable.. by adhering to rules that govern the way a building must be constructed (these are called Building Bye Laws. etc. Further.Cont… • Manmade disasters could also be caused by the misuse or spread of dangerous chemicals. a lethal gas in Bhopal in 1984 in an industrial accident caused the death of many persons almost instantly. and collapse of bridges and buildings. • Almost two decades later. mutually agreeing not to develop nuclear weapons for mass destruction. • • • . For instance. breakdown. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaties are agreements made internationally by countries. More common manmade disasters are major fires. people are still suffering from the after effects of this disaster.
mitigation.DISASTER MANAGEMENT • The range of activities designed to mitigate the effects of disasters and emergency situations and to provide a framework for helping people at-risk to avoid or recover from the impact of the disaster. and after the disaster. and involve preparedness. • Managing disasters includes steps to be taken prior to. during. . response and recovery.
. The dynamics of disaster agents.NATURE AND DIMENSION OF THE DISASTER • • • • Hazards as a central concern. A global typology of hazards. and A reconfigured development focus.
.1. Hazards as a Central Concern • The number. as are the factors – be they natural phenomena. livelihood and the socioeconomic and political structuring of states. or chemical and technological changes – that cause then. • These even threaten life. types and impact of disaster are on the increase.
• Floods have had an adverse impact upon people‟s livelihood and have led to poverty. economic and biophysical systems arising from diverse yet interacting stresses‟. They Dynamics of Interrelated Disasters • Hazard may be the results of „synchronous failures of global social. unrest and eventually violence .2.
e. . their immediate impacts are normally within a relatively confined space. a population centre. the impact of chemical spills. burning of forests for agricultural land. • The second disaster-genre spills across regional borders. the Kashmir earthquake.3.g. • While acknowledging that even ostensibly local events may have far more extensive and far-reaching social. economic and political effects.g. e. Floods often generate this sort of impact. though over the last two decades. A Typology of Hazards • The first concern those events in which the direct impact is local.
. preparedness and even responses should be closely integrated conceptually and practically has been a major preoccupation for more than three decades now.4. • Development programmes and projects are not scrutinized in terms of the potential hazards that they might create. A Reconfigured Development Focus • The belief that development and disaster prevention. and conversely disaster response and preparedness – let alone transition and recovery – programmes are rarely assessed in terms of their potential development linkages.
• Plan should serve as an educational activity. • Plan must evoke appropriate action. • Plan must focus on general principles. • Plan must foresee what is likely to happen. • It should reduce the unknown in a problematic situation. . • Plan for overcoming resistance.PRINCIPLES OF THE DISASTER MANAGEMENT • It should be a continuous process. • Plan must be based on valid knowledge. • Plan must be tested.
Bihar. . • The result has been the formation of a downward spiral consisting of: 1. West Bengal.FLOOD CONTROL • India is highly vulnerable to floods and every year Ganga and Brahmputra basins experience floods affecting states of Uttar Pradesh. Assam and Orissa on regular basis. 2. The forces of flooding being amplified by development activity insensitive to the dynamics of flooding. An increasing exposure to damage and destruction wrought by the natural forces of flooding on human development.
What is a Flood? • A flood occurs when water flows or rises above and beyond its normal place or course. . • The danger this causes to people and buildings is called the flood hazard.
• Avulsion and channel shift.Causes of Large Floods • Prolonged. • Reduction in the water carrying capacity and • Failure of natural and man made dams. • Back flooding and seawater flooding. . heavy and wide spread monsoons. • River bed aggradations due to siltation and damming of rivers.
• Natural detention basin. • Embankments. • Drainage improvement and • Diversion of flood waters. • Channel improvement.Measures for Flood Mitigation 1. . sea wall. Structural • Dams and reservoirs. flood walls.
2. Non – Structural
• Flood Plain Management; • Flood proofing including disaster preparedness and response planning; • Flood forecasting and warning; • Disaster Relief and • Flood fighting including Public Health Measures.
• Floods, which are a natural hazard, need not become a disaster, if we are prepared to deal with them. • Each one of us must be involved in the process of preparedness, creation of awareness and the working of skilled emergency response teams.
• This would reduce loss of life and minimise human suffering.
BEFORE FLOODING OCCURS
• First aid kit with extra medication for snakebite and diarrhea. • Strong ropes for tying things. • A radio, torch and spare batteries • Stocks of fresh water, dry food (chana, mudi, gur, biscuits, etc.), salt and sugar, kerosene, candles and matchboxes. • Water-proof bags to store clothing and valuables • Umbrellas and bamboo sticks (to protect you from snakes). • If in rural areas, identify areas that are higher than the surroundings, or get your community to build an earthen mound to locate cattle, etc in the event of a flood.
lack of water for household use or agriculture.DROUGHT MANAGEMENT • Drought is a natural phenomenon. . which happens when an area receives lesser rainfall than expected. or a deficiency of surface or subsurface water leading to acute shortage of water. or in comparison to the normal rainfall levels for the area. • It is a dry situation characterized by deficit rainfall.
parched land. • In simple terms. fodder and employment due to scanty rainfall in an area. starvation and bad living conditions to our mind. drought is a condition of acute scarcity of water. . food. no rainfall.What is Drought? • The word drought instantly brings images of dry. • Crop failure is a serious consequence of drought. crop-failures.
fodder. food and employment. • Drought affects Farmers • Drought affects Poor Families • Drought affects Women • It affects people living in desert land • It affects employment • Drought affects Children .How does drought affect us? • Shortage of water.
CYCLONES • A cyclone is a region of low atmospheric pressure. • Cyclones occur due to a combination of warm sea temperature. high relative humidity and atmospheric instability. which occurs in the hot oceans of temperate and tropical latitudes. .
• High relative humidity of the atmosphere to a height of above 7000 m facilitates condensation of water vapors into water droplets and clouds. . • Atmospheric instability encourages formation of massive vertical cumulus cloud convection with condensation of rising air over ocean. which provides abundant water vapors in the air by evaporation. releases heat energy thereby inducing a drop in pressure.Causes of Tropical Cyclones • A warm sea temperature in excess of 26 degrees centigrade to a depth 60 m.
. KurnoolCudappah Canal and the Telugu-Ganga Project are some of the examples of inter-basin water transfers executed in south India in the 19th and 20th centuries. • By agreement among the Riparian States 12 thousand metric cubic metres (TMC) of water will be delivered to Tamil Nadu to increase the water supply to Chennai. Parambikulam-Aliyar Project. • Telugu-Ganga Project brings the Krishna waters from the Srisailam reservoir through an open canal to Somasila reservoir in the Pennar valley.INTER-LINKING OF RIVERS • The Periyar Project.
inter sub-basin transfers in the Indus basin and the Rajasthan Canal are some of the projects executed in the 19th and 20th centuries.Cont… • Similarly in Himachal Pradesh. • Executed both in the southern and northern parts of our country these projects have been highly beneficial and have not caused any noticeable environmental damage. .
Godavari (Inchampalli) – Krishna (Nagarjunasagar) link. Krishna (Srisailam). Godavari (Polavaram) – Krishna (Vijayawada) link. Bedti-Varda link. Damanganga-Pinjal link. Krishna (Nagarjunasagar) – Pennar (Somasila) link.Cont… • Present Proposals Mahanadi (Manibhadra – Godavari (Dowlaiswaram) link. Ken-Belwa link.Vaigai-Gundar link. Pennar (Somasila) –Cauvery (Grand Anicut) link. Cauvery (Kattalsi). Parbati-Kalisindh-Chambal link. Netravati-Hemavati link and Pamba-Achankovil-Vaippar link. Krishna (Almatti) – Pennar link.Pennar link. . Par-Tapti-Narmada link. Godavari (Inchampalli Low Dam) – Krishna link.
which will be over and above the ultimate irrigation potential of 140 Mha envisaged from the conventional irrigation projects. • the inter-linking of rivers will provide additional irrigation benefits to 35 million hectares (Mha) -25 Mha from surface water and an additional 10 Mha from increased ground water recharge. . • Construction of storage dams as proposed will considerably reduce the severity of floods and the resultant damages.Benefits of Inter-Linking of Rivers • greatly reduce the regional imbalance in the availability of water in different river basins. • Surplus water which flows waste to the sea would be fruitfully utilized.
. water supply to Mumbai and Delhi and many other villages and habitations enroute the link canals are proposed to be raised. A major part of the future requirements of big cities will have to be met from long-distance inter-basin transfer of water.Cont… • Water supply in Chennai is being increased from Sri sailam on the Krishna river which is 500 km away. • In the link proposals under study.
• Due to their ability to organize action in adverse ground circumstances. • In practice. . food and civil supplies. public works and engineering. transportation. especially in the immediate aftermath of disaster. the Armed Forces are the core of the government‟s response capacity and tend to be the first responders of the Government of India in a major disaster. • The Armed Forces have historically played a major role in emergency support functions such as communications. speed of operational response and the resources and capabilities at their disposal. power. health and medical facilities.ROLE OF ARMED FORCES • The Indian Armed Forces are supposed to be called upon to intervene and take on specific tasks only when the situation is beyond the capability of civil administration. search and rescue operations.
Bilateral agencies 3.ROLE OF OTHER AGENCIES IN DISASTERS 1. Technical cooperation agencies 2. Multilateral development banks .
and prefeasibility studies is important. research. . project identification. Technical cooperation agencies • The OAS support institution-building. planning. • Their financial impact and their political or technical leverage are limited. and project formulation as requested. • But their contribution to natural hazard assessment and mitigation in regional and sectoral planning.1.
Cont… • • • • • • Support for national planning institutions Support for pilot projects Support for establishing an information base Linkage with relief and reconstruction efforts Hazards assessment in sector planning Inclusion of financial and economic aspects of hazards in project preparation methods • Case studies of project design principles or components aimed at natural hazard mitigation .
. They can exert considerable leverage over projects they fund. and the members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee provide funds for projects as well as for technical cooperation. Bilateral agencies • AID. • Most bilateral funds are concessional.2. CIDA. and financial returns are less important to these agencies than to the development banks.
Within these parameters they can significantly influence hazard mitigation issues. . Multilateral Development Banks • The World Bank and the regional development banks. program lending. institutional strengthening.3. and structural adjustment. fund development projects but are also increasingly involved in sector policies. • The dominant factors that shape their lending programs are the financial and economic soundness of an investment and the creditworthiness of the borrowing institutions.
letter. • Thirty-seven percent were preceded by a threatening note. or telephone call to the establishment or individual target. .BOMB THREAT PLANNING • There were 474 incidents involving the placement of hoax devices. • Financial institutions received some type of threat before the incident 72 percent of the time and commercial / retail establishments 58 percent of the time. academic facilities 30 percent. and residential property owners were warned 18 percent of the time. • Offices were warned 29 percent of the time.
Purpose of a Bomb Threat • To create an atmosphere of anxiety and panic • Advance planning to handle such a threat. . • Personal injury and property damage • To destruction of the facility and the surrounding area. the call may result in panic.
Handling a Bomb Threat • Telephone Threats • Written Threats • Mail and Package Bombs .
report the call to the person designated by management to receive such information. and speech impediments. Immediately after the caller hangs up. accents.1. voice quality (calm or excited). ask for this information. such as the police or fire department or FBI. record the message. • If the caller does not indicate the location of the bomb or the time of possible detonation. Law enforcement personnel will want to talk first-hand with the person who received the call. . Telephone Threats • Keep the caller on the line and attempt to get as much information as possible. • Listen closely to the voice (male or female). • Report the threat immediately to the appropriate agencies. • Inform the caller that the building is occupied and the detonation of a bomb could result in death or serious injury to many innocent people. Ask for the message to be repeated to confirm it. • Pay particular attention to background noises which may give a clue as to the location of the caller. If possible.
handwriting or typewriting. and postal marks. the procedures listed below should be followed: • Save all materials. • Every possible effort must be made to retain evidence. further unnecessary handling should be avoided. which are essential to tracing the threat and identifying the writer. such as fingerprints. Once the message is recognized as a bomb threat. including any envelope or container. It should never be ignored. . Written Threats • While written messages are usually associated with generalized threats and extortion attempts. paper.2. When a written threat is received. a written warning of a specific device may occasionally be received.
and special delivery Restrictive markings. air mail.3. such as confidential and personal Hand written or poorly typed messages Visual distractions Excessive securing material. such as masking tape and string . Mail and Package Bombs • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Excessive postage Incorrect titles Titles but no names Misspellings of common words Oily stains or discoloration No return address Excessive weight A rigid envelope Lopsided or an uneven envelope A strange odor Protruding wires or tinfoil Foreign mail.
. A buffer zone (green belt) should separate the industrial and the residential zone.LAND USE PLANNING • Land use planning densely populated residential areas should be separated far away from industrial areas.
wherever the Master Plan is not in existence or not formulated. 1960. OR • u/s 143(f) of Model Regional and Town Planning and Development Law. OR • u/s 181(f) of Model Urban & Regional Planning and Development Law • All these from UDPFI Guidelines (Revised) as may be applicable in the respective states under the existing provisions of Town & Country Planning Legislation as and when Master Plan / Development Plan of different cities / town / areas are formulated. However.RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LANDUSE ZONING REGULATIONS • u/s 73(f) of Model Town & Country Planning Act. these zoning regulations are to be implemented through the provisions of Development Control Regulations/ Building Bye-Laws. .
Classification of urban land uses • Level I For Perspective Plans • Level II For Development Plans • Level III For Layouts of Projects/Schemes .
residential or commercial. Perspective Plan • It is a policy document. . need not show many details of a specific land use and may only show the main use which could be. say.1.
there is a need to show more details of a specific land use. It has to indicate for the land designated as. DEVELOPMENT PLAN • It is a comprehensive plan indicating use of each parcel of land. say. the further details as to which land is for retail commercial. . commercial.2. or for wholesale trade or forgo-downs.
. say.3. cloth or electronics or vegetables. indicating which block of retail commercial is for. Layouts of Projects/Schemes • In the case of layouts of projects of a shopping centre further details shall be necessary.
OBJECTIVES OF LAND USE ZONING • To provide regulations for development of a particular area to serve the desired purpose efficiently and to preserve its character. welfare and safety. • Provisions for the use of premises /property and limitations upon shape. • For guiding the use of land and protection of public health. . • Protects residential areas from harmful invasions of other uses like industrial use and commercial use. size and type of buildings that are constructed or occupy the land.
.State Perspective Plan/Regional Plan • While formulating Perspective Plan / Regional Plan. the proposals should indicate. Development Plan (Master Plan/Zonal Development Plan) for any notified area. Natural hazard prone areas with the type and extent of likely hazards.
• Special risky areas have to be determined specifically for the planning area under consideration through special studies to be carried out by geologists and geo-technical engineers. • Those hilly areas which are identified to have poor slope stability conditions and where landslides could be triggered by earthquake or where due to prior saturated conditions. mud flow could be initiated by earthquakes and where avalanches could be triggered by earthquake will be specially risk prone.Earthquake Prone Areas • Area liable to liquefaction has greater risk. .
are especially risky.Cyclone Prone Areas • Those areas likely to be subjected to heavy rain induced floods or to flooding by seawater under the conditions of storm surge. . • 2) Areas under those where special risk has to be identified by special contour survey of the planning area under consideration and study of the past flooding and storm surge history of the area.
failure of protection works. inundation in depressions. backflow in drains. etc. • Besides. other areas can be flooded under conditions of heavy intensity rains.Flood Prone Areas • These are in river plains (unprotected and protected by bunds) are indicated in the Flood Atlas of India prepared by the Central Water Commission and reproduced on larger scale in the state wise maps in the Vulnerability Atlas of India. inadequate drainage. These have to be identified through local contour survey and study of the flood history of the planning area .
Land Slide Prone Areas 1. Triggering Factors . Geological/Topographic Factors/Parameters 2.
Soil texture and depth. Geological/Topographic Factors/Parameters • Geomorphology. Rock weathering . Slope angle. slope aspect and slope morphology. • Land use.1. Drainage.
Anthropogenic . Earthquake.Triggering Factors • Rainfall.
BIOLOGICAL. . • Chemical warfare agents are being produced and stockpiled. • Virtually all NBC weapons states have deep strike capabilities through ballistic missile programs. AND CHEMICAL WARFARE THREAT (NBC THREAT) • Four third world states have nuclear weapons. • Biological warfare programs are being established. • These factors increase the likelihood of NBC weapons use in conflicts between third world states.NUCLEAR.
BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS • BW is the use of (i) Pathogens (ii) Toxins as weapons.1. .
.(i) Pathogens • Pathogens include bacteria and viruses which cause diseases such as anthrax. troops concentrations. • Pathogens as weapons would be used against strategic targets such as food supplies. and plague. and population centers to create panic and disrupt mobilization plans. cholera.
and by snakes. . sea creatures and plants. • Toxins are faster acting and more stable than live pathogens and could be used against tactical targets. spiders. • BW researchers can now produce some toxins through chemical processes or through genetic engineering.(ii) Toxins • Toxins are poisons produced by pathogens.
Q fever. ricin. tularemia. plague. cholera. . smallpox. and botulinum toxin.• Biological warfare agents include anthrax.
Hydrogen cyanide is a blood agent which kills quickly and dissipates quickly. . and death. nausea. • Nerve agents attack the nervous system. causing difficulty in breathing. suffocating the victim. convulsions.CHEMICAL WEAPONS • Blood agents interfere with the transfer of oxygen. dim vision. • Blister agents cause painful blisters on the skin and are especially damaging when inhaled. • Choking agents damage the lungs.
and topography.FOREST FIRES • The behaviour of forest fire depends upon three parameters: fuel. . weather.
to promote the growth of fodder for grazing livestock. . whether for hunting.FOREST FIRES IN INDIA • Humans have long used fire as a forest management tool. or to facilitate their collection of non-timber forest products (NTFP). to clear land for agriculture.
. ecologists. the same fires may be considered by foresters. and forest managers. to cause forest degradation.Forest Fires and Ecosystem Services (ES) • Forest fires that are deliberately set to gain specific ecosystem services (ES) are a tool to reduce degradation as perceived by the beneficiary of these services. while on the other hand.
Toward a Framework for Integrated Forest Fire Management • According to the Indian Forest Act of 1927 setting fires is a punishable offence and it is mandatory for all forest dwellers to assist in the prevention of fire. . • The National Forest Policy of 1988 has the same spirit although it lays greater emphasis on the use of modern fire prevention tools while continuing to stress the involvement of local communities in the prevention of fires.
Safety in the Indian coal mines is therefore a very important issue.ACCIDENTS IN COAL MINES • Coal is an important mineral in India. • The coal industry employs over 600. Besides being the main source of fuel in power plants.000 miners and other workers. • However. . there has been no signiﬁcant statistical analysis of the safety records of Indian coal mines. it is also used in household cooking throughout the country.
. The accident records classify the location of accident as underground. we use a variable named „type‟ which can have three possible values: underground (ug). • Accordingly. open cast and surface. • While the ﬁrst two categories represent accidents occurring inside the two types of mines. for the present analysis. the third category represents mining-related accidents occurring above the surface in the vicinity of either type of mine. opencast (oc) and surface (su). respectively.• There are two broad categories of mines in India: Open Cast and Underground.
What are the important causes of accidents ? • „roof/side fall‟ is the most important one for accidents in underground mines. „other transport machinery‟. followed by „haulage‟. „other machinery‟ and „fall of objects‟ appear to be consistent sources of fatal accidents across all the companies. . except „roof / side fall‟. • In open cast mines. „other transport machinery‟. „other machinery‟ and „miscellaneous‟ are also signiﬁcant causes. • In surface. „dumper‟ is the most important cause of accidents. more or less all other causes are important.
TERRORISM • Terrorism is the use of force or violence against persons or property for purposes of intimidation. . coercion or ransom.
Individual and mass panic. Disruption of the economy.Terrorist Goals • • • • Loss of critical resources. . Disruption of vital services.
. for political purposes. or substantial segment of it.Types of Terrorism • Civil Disorders – A form of collective violence interfering with the peace. security. • Political Terrorism – Violent criminal behavior designed primarily to generate fear in the community. and normal functioning of the community.
” .• Non-Political Terrorism – Terrorism that is not aimed at political purposes but which exhibits “conscious design to create and maintain high degree of fear for coercive purposes. but the end is individual or collective gain rather than the achievement of a political objective.
• Quasi-Terrorism – The activities incidental to the commission of crimes of violence that are similar in form and method to genuine terrorism but which nevertheless lack its essential ingredient. but the quasi-terrorist uses the modalities and techniques of the genuine terrorist and produces similar consequences and reaction. . It is not the main purpose of the quasi-terrorists to induce terror in the immediate victim as in the case of genuine terrorism.
limited political terrorism refers to “acts of terrorism which are committed for ideological or political motives but which are not part of a concerted campaign to capture control of the State.• Limited Political Terrorism – Genuine political terrorism is characterized by a revolutionary approach. .
” It may also be referred to as Structural Terrorism defined broadly as terrorist acts carried out by governments in pursuit of political objectives.• Official or State Terrorism –"referring to nations whose rule is based upon fear and oppression that reach similar to terrorism or such proportions. . often as part of their foreign policy.
• Emergency management requires a close working partnership among levels of the government (national. prepare. they exist throughout time and have a life cycle of occurrence. . state. voluntary organizations) and the general public. the private sector (business and industry.EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT • Emergencies do not just appear one day. rather. respond and recover from its effects. and hence the management strategy should match the phases of an emergency in order to mitigate. district and taluk).
Emergency Management Cycle • • • • Response Recovery Mitigation Preparedness .
Response • Response occurs during and immediately following a disaster. They are designed to provide emergency assistance to victims of the event and reduce the likelihood of secondary damage .1.
or near normal. It continues until all systems return to normal.2. Short-term recovery returns vital life support systems to minimum operating standards. . either as it was in the past or for entirely new purposes that is less disaster prone. Long-term recovery from a disaster may go on for years until the entire disaster area is completely redeveloped. Recovery • Recovery .the final phase of the emergency management cycle.
which actually eliminate or reduce the vulnerability or chance of occurrence or the effects of a disaster.3. . Mitigation • Mitigation – activities.
4. . Preparedness • Preparedness .planning how to respond in case an emergency or disaster occurs and working to increase resources available to respond effectively.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE .
DISASTER MANAGEMENT BUREAU (DMB) ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE .
DISASTER MANAGEMENT SCHEMES 1. Financial Arrangements . Government Initiatives in Disaster Management 2.
Government Initiatives in Disaster Management • National Disaster Framework covering institutional mechanisms. • National Committee on Disaster Management. disaster mitigation. . early warning system.1. • National Crisis Management Committee and Crisis Management Group. disaster prevention strategy. preparedness and response and human resource development. • Calamity Relief Fund (CRF) for each state.
2. . drought. earthquake. flood and hailstorm. fire. flood and hailstorm • National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) Scheme to cover natural calamities like cyclone. drought. which are considered to be of severe nature requiring expenditure by the State Government in excess of the balances available in its own Calamity Relief Fund. earthquake. fire. • NCCF is available only for immediate relief and rehabilitation. Financial Arrangements (i) Financing of Relief Expenditures • The Calamity Relief Fund is used for meeting the expenditure for providing immediate relief to the victims of cyclone.
• Crop Insurance. Flood Control Programmes. Sampurn Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) .(ii) Financing of Disaster Management through Five Year Plans • Funds are provided under Plan schemes i. inputs for agriculture and flood control measures etc.e. such as for drinking water. • Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP). various schemes of Government of India. employment generation. Desert Development Programme (DDP).. National Afforestation & Ecodevelopment Programme (NA&ED). Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP). • • • • • Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP).
The terms standard operating procedure and emergency procedure will be used interchangeably.STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs) Definition of SOPs • Standard Operating Procedures (or Emergency Procedures) are documents where the activities of a specific person or organization to face a specific situation (in this case the impact of a hazard) are described in a clear. logical. sequential and methodical manner. .
• To provide action checklists for key staff members for different levels of disasters • To provide a base template for developing SOPs for different disasters/ industries • To make the understanding easier to design. revise. write. evaluate and update for disaster managers and disaster management organisations. execute. . • To clearly distinguish and standardize the roles and responsibilities for different stakeholders in disaster preparedness and response. understand. use.Objectives of SOPs • To describe the components of a standard operating procedure for disaster preparedness and response.
• As avalanches move down the slope they may entrain snow from the snow pack and grow in size. . Snow avalanches can be dangerous because of the power of the snow falling. They can happen at almost any snow covered mountain at any time. though rock slides and debris flows are also sometimes called avalanches. The snow may also mix with the air and form a powder cloud.AVALANCHES • Avalanches can be anything falling down the side of a mountain. An avalanche with a powder cloud is known as a powder snow avalanche. • An avalanche is a flow of snow down a mountainside.
TYPES OF AVALANCHES • • • • • • Powder Avalanche Wet Avalanche Slab Avalanche Cornice Pyroclastic Flow Rock Avalanche .
Powder Avalanche • A mass of loosely packed snow that begins with a piece of falling rock or ice.1. The largest and most destructive is a powder avalanche. A piece of falling ice or rock starts a mass of loose snow sliding down the mountain. .
2. Wet Avalanche
• A flow of snow, ice, rock, and other material that occurs as a result of thawing. The second type is a wet avalanche. These occur mostly late in the snow season when the snowpack is deep and the thaw is just beginning.
3. Slab Avalanche
• A mass of snow, ice and possibly other material caused when a large slab of snow breaks free from the layers beneath. A slab avalanche is most deadly. The weight of a skier is enough to break a slab away from the layers beneath.
• An overhanging mass of snow, ice, or rock usually on a ridge. Wind can also blow snow into a huge, dense drift or cornice on the crest of a ridge.
It comes out of an erupting volcano. and lava formed by volcanic action. . soot. Pyroclastic Flow • A flow of hot gases.5. This gray cloud is one of the most lethal forms of avalanches in the world. It's much like a snow avalanche though no snow is involved.
Rock avalanches are the strangest of nature's forces.6. . rocks. Giant boulders "float" on tons of solid rock. Rock Avalanche • A mass of boulders. and other material that slides down an incline riding on a layer of smaller rocks.
the areas were avalanches start. earth.How people can control avalanches? • People can control avalanches by planting trees in the starting zones of the avalanches. or concrete into the run out zone of the avalanche. avalanches can happen at any time. • People who live or work near an avalanche path sometimes build walls of rock. Other people put large snow fences in the starting zones. Both of these ways keep the snow in place. . Just remember.
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