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WiFi is the wireless way to handle networking. Wi-fi is a wireless technology that uses radio frequency to transmit data through the air It is also known as 802.11 networking. The big advantage of WiFi is its simplicity.

Walkie-Talkie Network

If you want to understand wireless networking at its simplest level, think about a pair of walkie-talkie.
These are small radios that can transmit and receive radio signals. The only problem would be that the data rate would be very slow. Another problem: the walkie-talkies could not be used to connect to the internet.

WiFi’s Radio Technology

The radios used in WiFi are not so different from the radios used in walkie-talkies. They have the ability to transmit and receive.

They have the ability to convert 1s and 0s into radio waves and then back into 1s and 0s.
There are major differences, of course.

WiFi’s Radio Technology (Cont’d)

WiFi radios that work with the 802.11b and 802.11g standards transmit at 2.4 GHz, while those that comply with the 802.11a standard transmit at 5 GHz. The higher frequency allows higher data rates.

The radios used for WiFi have the ability to change frequencies,i.e frequency hop between channels.

Wireless Networking Standards

WiFi refers to the protocols that allow wireless networking. These protocols are codified in standards. Standards are mutually agreed upon rules adopted by the industry on how the wireless networks operate. There are several standards that enable wireless local area networks (WLANs).

. It operates at 5 GHz and can handle up to 54 Mbps. 802.4 GHz and go up to 11 Mbps. It operates at 2. 802.802.11b was first to reach the marketplace.11b.11g is a mix of both worlds.11a.11a.11b transmits at 2. 802.11a was next.802. and 802.4Ghz but it has the 54 megabits per second speed of 802.11g    802.

802.   . 802.11b signal occupies approximately 30 MHz. Thus.11b  Any 802.11b signal overlaps with several adjacent channel frequencies. Any given area can therefore support at most 3 access points (operating on different channels) at once.

11b (Cont’d) Neighboring AP’s use different channels to reduce interference.802. “Reuse cluster” size is equal to 3. Access Point 1 2 3 .

802.11b (Cont’d) 2 Mbps 5.5 Mbps 11 Mbps .

each with different legal maximum power.35 GHz Low band 5.802.725-5.  Band High band 5.e. middle.825 GHz. and high.25 GHz Channel 9-12 5-8 1-4 .11a utilizes 300 MHz bandwidth in Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) band. 802. i.25-5.11a specification operates at radio frequencies between 5.825 GHz Middle band 5.11a  802.15-5.15 and 5. The FCC has divided total 300 MHz in this band into three distinct 100 MHz bands: low.

This 200 MHz supports 8 nonoverlapping channels.802.  .11a (Cont’d)  The low and middle bands have a total of 200 MHz of frequency.

802.11a (Cont’d) Neighboring AP’s use different channels to reduce interference. “Reuse cluster” size is equal to 8. Access Point 1 2 3 4 6 7 5 8 .

802.11a 12 Mbps 5.11b 2 Mbps 11 Mbps 54 Mbps .5 Mbps 24 Mbps 36 Mbps 48 Mbps 802.11a (Cont’d) 802.

11g operates in 2.  .11g operates over 3 non-overlapping channels.802.4 GHz band but it delivers data rates from 6 Mbps to 54 Mbps.11g  802. 802.

Which is better? .11g  Once again.11g’s "backward compatibility" with 802.  So both 11a and 11g offer the same data rates.802.11b. 802.

This is because 11a operates at a much higher frequency band.11a has range 150-300 ft in practical scenarios.Comparing 11a and 11g (Cont’d)  802.4 GHz band.    11a range is smaller than 11b and 11g. Higher number of channels in 11a allows more flexibility in avoiding interference.11a operates in underused 5 GHz band. .11g operates in heavily used 2. 802. 11g has range comparable to 11b (approximately 1000 ft). 802.

thereby increasing cost. 802.   802.Comparing 11a and 11g (Cont’d)  Because of its smaller range. 11a requires more Access Points to a region.11g is more expensive than 11b but cheaper than 11a. It is the most expensive of the three options. .11b is the cheapest and most popular WLAN option.

11 packet: Data CRC Preamble PLCP Header     Preamble PLCP (Physical Layer Convergence Procedure) Data CRC is the cyclic redundancy check .11 Packet look like?  Typical 802.What does a typical 802.

only one user is allowed to communicate with a receiver at a time (cannot use another frequency channel support a second or third additional user).  .How are Multiple Transmitters Supported?  In 802. The way the one user is selected depends on the carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) random access method.11 systems.

Let’s represent our wireless medium as a dinner table.CSMA  To help illustrate the operation of CSMA.  . we will use an analogy of a dinner table conversation. and let several people engaged in polite conversation at the table represent the wireless nodes.

all other devices using the wireless medium hear the transmission.CSMA (Cont’d)  The term multiple access covers what we already discussed above: When one wireless device transmits. .

then node transmits.2 Way Handshake  Node with packet to send monitors channel. then • node continues to monitor until channel idle for DIFS. If channel busy. If channel idle for specified time interval called DIFS. • At this point. terminal backs-off for random time (collision avoidance) and   .

ACK is the second way of the 2 way handshake. after following the collision avoidance method described above.2 Way Handshake (Cont’d)  First way of the 2 way handshake was for the transmitter to send its information packet to the destination node. If the packet reaches the destination without problems. This packet is typically called an ACK packet.   . the destination sends a short packet over the wireless medium acknowledging the correct reception.

instead of packet.”   .4 Way Handshake  “Listen before you talk” If medium is busy. This message is basically attempting to inform others that “I have something to send. node backs-off for a random amount of time after waiting DIFS. But now. sends a short message: Ready to Send (RTS). just as before.

4 Way Handshake (Cont’d) Access Point Laptop RTS CTS Data ACK .

in many cases you don't have to do anything to start using WiFi. Many new laptops already come with a WiFi card built in -. It is also easy to add a WiFi card to an older laptop or a desktop PC.Adding WiFi to Your Computer  One of the best things about WiFi is how simple it is.   .

• For a laptop. 802.11b or 802.11g network card.11a. this card will normally be a PCMCIA card • For a desktop machine.Adding WiFi to an Older Computer   802. a PCI card Install the card .

11 hotspot. .Adding WiFi to an Older Computer    Install the drivers for the card Find an 802. Access the hotspot.

One way to find a hotspot is to go online. For example. hotels. as we will see in a little bit. Starbucks.Locating Hotspots  There are many WiFi hotspots now available in public places like restaurants. libraries and airports. You can also create your own hotspot in your home.   .

Finding Hotspots O-Line .

The first is to have your notebook "talk" to the hotspot On the newest machines. an 802.   .Connecting to a Hotspot  There are actually two steps to making a connection.11 card will automatically connect with an 802.11 hotspot and a network connection will be established.

Connecting to a Hotspot (Cont’d)  On older machines you often have to go through a simple 3-step process to connect to a hotspot. .

Connecting to a Hotspot (Cont’d)  Access the software for the 802. Double-click on one of the hotspots to connect to it. Click the "Search button" in the software.   .11 card -normally there is an icon for the card down in the system tray at the bottom right of the screen. The card will search for all of the available hotspots in the area and show you a list.

  . Find what is the SSID of the hotspot All the search feature (in newer equipment) is doing is grabbing these two pieces of information from the radio signals generated by the hotspot and displaying them for you.Connecting to a Hotspot (Cont’d)  On older machines you often have to go through a simple 3-step process to connect to a hotspot.

a green screen indicates it is On). you will see some sort of signal icon on the bottom right hand corner of your screen or a lit indicator on the notebook itself.Connecting to a Hotspot (Cont’d)  On most notebook models. which will give you feedback for "On" and signal strength (a red screen means your radio is Off. OFF ON .

Connecting to a Hotspot (Cont’d)  You can also see the quality of the signal by clicking on the radio icon (may vary by system): .

Connecting to a Hotspot (Cont’d)  Sign up with a wireless Internet service provider and configure your notebook according to their instructions. If you don't subscribe to a service. you will end up at the log-on page of the wireless provider (or. After this. the wireless location). in some cases. chances are you will need to use your credit card to pay for access every time you want to connect.   .

Once you successfully log on. you should see the following icon in your tool bar. indicating the connection has been made:  .Connecting to a Hotspot (Cont’d)  Enter your user name and password if you are already a customer.

WiFi Security  WiFi hotspots can be open or secure. WEP stands for Wired Equivalent Privacy    . then the user needs to know a WEP key to connect. If it is secure. If a hotspot is open. then anyone with a WiFi card can access the hotspot.

 Specifically.11 sends through the air. it is the process of encoding bit stream in such a way that only the person (or computer) with the key (a digital sequence) can decode it. .WiFi Security (Cont’d)  WEP is an encryption system for the data that 802.

you can purchase a Wireless Access Point and plug it into the Ethernet network.Setting up a Hotspot at Home  If you already have several computers hooked together on an Ethernet network and want to add a wireless hotspot to the mix. Wireless Access Point .

Setup #1 .

WiFi Range  In a typical home. hotspot will provide coverage for about 100 feet (30. although walls and floors do cut down on the range.5 meters) in all directions. .

One Type of Amplifier Or a directional antenna can be used to give better range in a particular direction. .

.Another Way to Amplify WiFi Signals Wireless Access Point A WiFi repeater is installed to extend coverage.

you may want to change things. You normally get to set three things on your access point. Once you plug them in. However.Configuring a Hotspot  Most wireless access points come with default values built-in.    . they start working with these default values.

The default is to disable WEP.Things to Configure in a Hotspot  The SSID -. The channel – the radio link used by access point/router to communicate to wireless devices.Service Set IDentifier is a sequence of charactersthat uniquely names a WLAN. .   The WEP key -.

and network connectivity for consumer electronics such as televisions. DVD players.Applications  Common applications for Wi-Fi include Internet and VoIP phone access. gaming. and digital cameras .

Advantages of Wi-Fi .

Disadvantages Planning – Depending on the goal  Security – Greater exposure to risks  Access  Compromising Data  Denial of Service  Speed – Slower than cable  Range – Affected by various medium  .

Difference between Bluetooth and Wi-Fi .


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