organizing.What is MANAGEMENT????? • Management is art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. . The basic functions performed by a manager in an organization are: Planning. controlling. and directing. staffing.

What is INFORMATION???? • Information is considered as valuable component of an organization. Information is data that is processed and is presented in a form which assists decision maker. .

Thus every system is said to be composed of subsystems. A system has one or multiple inputs. . these inputs are processed through a transformation process to convert these input( s) to output. The elements are interrelated and interdependent.What is a SYSTEM???? • A system is defined as a set of elements which are joined together to achieve a common objective.

INFORMATION SYSTEM • Information systems differ in their business needs and the information varies depending upon different levels in organization. information system can be broadly categorized into following : • Transaction processing system • Management Information System • Decision support system .

Booking.Transaction Processing Systems • It processes business transaction of the organization. etc are all transactions. Transaction can be any activity of the organization. . Any query made to it is a transaction. storage and retrieval. For example. • Transaction processing systems provide speed and accuracy. • This provides high speed and accurate processing of record keeping of basic operational processes and include calculation. and can be programmed to follow routines functions of the organization. canceling. take a railway reservation system.

• A decision support system must very flexible.Decision Support Systems • These systems assist higher management to make long term decisions. These type of systems handle unstructured or semi structured decisions. . A decision is considered unstructured if there are no clear procedures for making the decision and if not all the factors to be considered in the decision can be readily identified in advance. • The user should be able to produce customized reports by giving particular data and format specific to particular situations.

referred to as Information Management and Systems. the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making. technologies.g. storing and disseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management. . Expert Systems. and procedures collectively called information systems. e. to solving business problems. and Executive Information Systems.MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM • Management Information Systems (MIS). is the discipline covering the application of people. “'MIS' is a planned system of collecting. Decision Support Systems.” • Academically.

Management information systems (MIS). Office automation systems (OAS) support communication and productivity in the enterprise by automating work flow and eliminating bottlenecks. or management substructure. Decision support systems (DSS) are computer program applications used by middle management to compile information from a wide range of sources to support problem solving and decision making. . Executive information systems (EIS) is a reporting tool that provides quick access to summarized reports coming from all company levels and departments such as accounting. OAS may be implemented at any and all levels of management. produce fixed. aspects of the enterprise. per se. regularly scheduled reports based on data extracted and summarized from the firm’s underlying transaction processing systems to middle and operational level managers to identify and inform structured and semi-structured decision problems. human resources and operations. Marketing information systems are MIS designed specifically for managing the marketing aspects of the business.• • • • • • Most management information systems specialize in particular commercial and industrial sectors.

and the lower management is concerned with actual administration. the middle management concentrates on controlling. means the processed data that helps the management in planning. . compared and finally presented to the management in the form of MIS report. processing. Data means all the facts arising out of the operations of the concern. a system is made up of inputs. The top management handles planning. recorded. and administration of the operations of a concern. • System: data is processed into information with the help of a system. Thus MIS means a system for processing data in order to give proper information to the management for performing its functions.Management information system can be analyzed thus: • Management: management covers the planning. control. summarized. Data is processed i.e. in MIS. output and feedback or control. • Information: information. controlling and operations.

classifying. • Retrieval of Information : MIS retrieves information from its stores as and when required by various users. and summarizing.Objectives of MIS : • Data Capturing : MIS capture data from various internal and external sources of organization. is disseminated to the users in the organization. • Dissemination of Information : Information. Data capturing may be manual or through computer terminals. sorting. It is periodic or online through computer terminal. . it is saved as an organization record. • Processing of Data : The captured data is processed to convert into required information. for later use. which is a finished product of MIS. Processing of data is done by such activities as calculating. If any information is not immediately required. • Storage of Information : MIS stores the processed or unprocessed data for future use.

software will process data automatically. Only correct validation. 4. We can adjust input data and processing technique according to need of business and get information according to this. 2. It will be supportive to produce more positive information. Integration In MIS. It needs continually updates. Flexibility MIS is more flexible system than any other system of management. Central Database It is also the characteristics of MIS that it has a central database. Software Based System MIS is software base system which is used in management accounting. whole system is integrated with each movement of business.CHARACTERISTICS OF MIS • Main characteristics of management information system (MIS) are given below: 1. We can also divide MIS in sub systems for proper recording and process of data. anyone can access to information. . 3. Moreover.

. • Futuristic Perspective : An effective MIS should be capable of meeting the future requirements of its executives as well. be understand clearly the view of their fellow officers.Essential Requirement of an Effective MIS : • Qualified System and Management Staff : The prerequisite of an effective • MIS is that it should be managed by qualified officers. These officers should have a mutual understanding about the roles and responsibilities of each other. This capability can be achieved by regular monitoring and updating the MIS.

• (iii) Support of Top Management : For a management information system to be effective. it must receive the full support of top management. (b) The resources involved in computer based information system are larger and are growing larger and larger in view of importance gained by management information system. The Reasons for this are : (a) Subordinate managers are usually lethargic about activities which do not receive the support of their superiors. .

Some times.• (iv) Common Database : It is an integrated collection of data and information which is utilized by several information subsystems of an organization. A common database may be defined as a super file which consolidates and integrates data records formerly stored in a separate data file. users develop their own procedures or short cut methods to use the system which reduces its effectiveness. . • (v) Control and maintenance of MIS : Control of the MIS means the operation of the system as it was designed to operate.

ADVANTAGES OF MIS • Improves personal efficiency • Expedites problem solving(speed up the progress of problems solving in an organization) • Facilitates interpersonal communication • Promotes learning or training • Increases organizational control • Generates new evidence in support of a decision • Creates a competitive advantage over competition • Encourages exploration and discovery on the part of the decision maker • Reveals new approaches to thinking about the problem space • Helps automate the Managerial processes. .

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