Padmanabhapuram Palace (Tamil: பத்மநாபபுரம் அரண்மனை, Malayalam: പത്മനാഭപുരം ക ാട്ടാരം) Padmanabhapuram Palace : complex is located in at Padmanabhapuram Fort, close to the town of Thuckalay in Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, in India. It is about 20 km from Nagercoil, and about 50 kilometres from Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. The palace complex is inside an old granite fortress around four kilometres long. The palace is located at the foot of the Veli Hills, which form a part of the Western Ghats. The river Valli flows nearby. The palace is administered by the Government of Kerala archaeology department.

King Marthaanda Varma dedicated the kingdom to his family deity Sree Padmanabha . It is believed that the Thai Kottaram was built in CE 1550. an incarnation of Lord Vishnu and ruled the kingdom as Padmanabha dasa or servant of Lord Padmanabha. The maker of modern Travancore Anizham Thirunal Marthandavarma ( CE 1706 -1758 ) who ruled Travancore from CE1729 to 1758 rebuilt the palace in 1n around 1750. precisely in 1795 CE the capital of Travancore was shifted from here to Thiruvananthapuram. . Hence the name Padmanabhapuram or City of Lord Padmanabha.The palace was constructed around 1601 CE by Iravi Varma Kulasekhara Perumal who ruled Travancore between 1592 CE and 1609 CE. In the late 18th century.

but the first building or the mother of the buildings over there) believed to have been constructed before AD 1550 Nataksala : literal meaning. Mother's Palace(It didn't mean the mother's palace. the Southern Palace . or of Performing Arts A four-storeyed building at the centre of the Palace complex Thekee Kottaram: literal meaning. King's Council Chamber Thai Kottaram: literal meaning.The Padmanabhapuram Palace complex consists of several structures: Mantrasala : literal meaning. the Hall of Performance.

sloping roofs from all four sided taper down. there is a relatively small room. including burnt coconut shells. egg white and so on. with coloured mica. The floor is dark and is made of a mixture of varied substances. It has windows. True to the traditional Kerala style. In the inner courtyard. there is an inner courtyard. .Mantrasala (Council chamber) King’s Council chamber is the most beautiful part of the entire palace complex. On the south-west corner of the mother’s palace. Thai Kottaram (Mother's palace) Mother’s palace. called the chamber of solitude or 'ekantha mandapam'. with a fine and perfect finish. is the oldest construction in the entire palace complex and is believed to be constructed around mid-16th century. The chamber of solitude has very beautiful and intricate wood carvings of every description all around. Four pillars on four corners support the roof. designed in traditional Kerala style. and the interior of the council chamber remains cool and dark. The floor is also beautifully done. called 'nalukettu'. Delicate and beautiful lattice work can be seen all over the council chamber. with very detailed and beautiful floral designs. which keep the heat and the dust away. The remarkable aspect is that this particular floor finish and texture could not be duplicated in any other construction. Of particular interest is a pillar of single jackfruit wood.

where the women of the royal household used to sit and watch the performance. The ground floor houses the royal treasury. Its walls are covered with exquisite 18th century murals. Most of the rooms here and in other parts of the palace complex have built-in recesses in walls for storing weapons like swords and daggers. especially music and dance. There is a wooden enclosure. central building (UPPIRIKKA MALIGA) Four-storeyed The four-storied building is located at the centre of the palace complex.Nataksala (Hall of performance) This is a relatively new building. Here the King used to spend time during fasting days. and was a gift from the Dutch merchants. constructed at the behest of Maharaja Swathi Thirunal. This top floor was supposed to be Sree Padmanabha Swamy's room. He was a great connoisseur of arts. who reigned in Travancore from 1829 to 1846. with peepholes. The top floor (called upparikka malika) served as the worship chamber of the royal household. He was . The first floor houses the King's bedrooms. The second floor houses the King's resting and study rooms. This building was constructed during the reign of King Marthandavarma. He himself composed music and has left a rich legacy to classical carnatic music. The ornamental bedstead is made of 64 types of herbal and medicinal woods. and also few scenes from the social life of the Travancore of that time. The Nataksala or the hall of performance has solid granite pillars and gleaming black floor. depicting scenes from the puranas.

exhibiting antique household articles and curios. which has lost its freshness due to neglect and years of disuse. The Palace though surrounded entirely by the State of Tamil Nadu is still part of Kerala and the land and Palace belongs to the Government of Kerala. all gifts by Chinese merchants. which can accommodate around 1000 guests. The clock tower in the palace complex has a 300 year old clock. on auspicious occasions. Other interesting features: The Padamnabhapuram Palace complex has several other interesting features. which would make it about 400 year old.Thekee kottaram (Southern palace) The southern palace is as old as the ‘Thai kottaram’ (Mother's palace). A big hall now bare. Collections of items give an insight into the social and cultural ethos of that period. located several kilometers away in the event of any emergency. his immediate family members. The Palace complex also has a section of curios and several interesting objects: An entire room filled with old Chinese jars. through which the king. Name of this palace is Charottu kottaram. . and their entourage could escape to another palace. now blocked. it serves as a heritage museum. Now. A flight of steps leads to a bathing pond. A secret passage. which still keeps time. and where ceremonial feasts were held.

A wooden cot made of up to 64 wooden pieces of a variety of medicinal tree trunks Polished stone cot.A gallery of paintings depicting incidents from the history of Travancore. one comprehends its organization the moment the esoteric rules governing its design have been revealed. religious values. without put on the elephant back and safaris disposition. successive generations of builders in the palace complex adhered to the rules laid down at the start. meant for cool effect Toilet and well Ambari Mukhappu . Building sciences involved in the achievement of Padmanabhapuram involved a combination of astronomy.Built for King to view chariot races. social moves. mathematics. building technology and magic. Thus . astrology. .The structure built palaceshapeseem to be the seatany rationale in the layout for Although the in the may of Ambari.

The aesthetic importance of the palace light well be described as a subtle combination of sophisticated understatement in the design and tactile . Materials: timber.Such traditional building codes account for the overall cohesion in the design. were buildings at the palace is the sensitive handling of light and atmosphere of repose created throughout. Types of wood . granite and shell of lime. excellent clay used for tiles and bricks. Carpentry was the most developed building art. kinds of functions to be served and the types of wood determined by the user’s place in the social hierarchy were all specified in the traditional codes. their relative positions to one another . laterite stone. Another outstanding features of this palace is that these principles One of thesignificant quality of thefaithfully followed over centuries. There were strict rules for the utilization of various materials and structural solutions.

dharu or wood.1shila or stone.ishtika or brick. The selection of the appropriate material for the right application was another aspect of this process. 3. 4. mrilloshtam or ceramics. 6. 1. within which came the multitude of varieties found in various places. Factors such as availability.MATERIALS Vasthushasthra describes on the availability. strength and durability decided the ideal materials suited for the respective region or Iocality. processing and utility of 7 types of materials. workability. 2. The quality and uniqueness of traditional construction was brought about by the expertise attained in the application of these materials by trial and error. 5. Hence classification of materials was made into 7 general types.mrithsna or mud. sudha or mortar and .

The size of ishtika was 8a. x 4a. and were used to make pillars.1. Sthrishila or female stones are less hard and tender and are ideal for construction.x 3a or sometimes 8a. when exposed. raktha or red. Specifications on the process of making brick are described in iron oxides. Laterite or vettukallu was the most popular 2. The bricks were then soaked in water to a period of 6 months to one year before using.Sa. and seasoned before it was cast in wooden molds and dried. India. Purushashila or male stones are hard stones used for carving sculptures. ISHTIKA for building in Kerala. These civilization onwards. Dried bricks were stacked with gap in between filled with paddy husk. Any construction is initiated by the laying of the 'stone' in the most auspicious corner. All construction ends by the placement of uurdhwashila or upper stone over the roof and fixing the finial on the top. The outer gaps were sealed using clay after the pile grew to a comfortable size to fire.x 4a. SHILA (stone): Vasthushasthra considers shila as the best building material. It took 10 to 11 days for the whole thing to burn to form ishtika. Napumsaka or hermaphrodite stones are flat stones having mixed qualities. female and hermaphrodite types according to hardness and as swetha or white. Padmasamhitha stipulates that an evenly burned ishtika should not . These are soft but sturdy stones found below stone used (brick): Ishtika or burnt brick to the presence of iron oxides Indus valley the top soil and are red in color duewas prevalent in India from the in them. footings and brackets. Stones are classified as male. x 1. peetha or yellow and krishna or black in terms of color. The soil was soaked with water and nelli fruit juices. Six types of sail were identified to be ideal for making burnt bricks. Even today it is made following these specifications in many parts of durable in due course of time. undergo chemical change and become hard and Shilparatna.

3. which is true even today. The joinery details were developed to such refinement that the joints could be assembled firmly and disassembled easily. were avoided. Trees were considered to be inhabited by natural forces in addition to birds. lime. MRITHSNA (mud): fruits etc. mud as a building material. The structural properties of wood were well studied and were made use of more than any other material. Houses in northern Travancore sap. paddy husk or grated hay as reinforcement and mixed with vegetable juices. this does not deny the fact that it formed the most common building material in the villages. and those dried up. Originally for floor and wall finishes. to ensure cohesiveness. All the joints were made by means of wooden nails and pegs. containing 4. Mud was mixed with coarse sand. and wattle and daub walls made by plastering mud over thin panels of woven bamboo or reed fixed to a palisade. were very well understood. There were mainly 3 types of mud walls used commonly in Kerala: masonry walls with adobe or sun dried bricks. wind turbulence. rafters. workability and durability. in construction. nails etc. . fine mud mixed with cow dung was applied neatly by the sweeping of the palm of the hand. DARU (wood): Wood as a building material stood first in terms of availability. beams. cobble walls. insects and animals and hence given due respect. The structural forces working on different elements of the building such as pillars. bearing flowers and Even though the term mrithsna depicts represents a high order of wooden craft in architecture. Wood suited for construction underwent strict selection that trees affected by lightning. and the appropriate timber was chosen to make each element. Still. it is not elaborately discussed in the traditional texts. molasses etc.

or water in which slimy fish. were mixedfor making hugefor a few weekskitchen wares. MRILLOSHTAM (terracotta tiles): The making of terra-cotta tiles for laying the floor and thatching the roof is elaborately described in Vasthuvidhya. egg white. over which lime mortar was plastered and finished with a sweep of paste made of powdered mixtures of charcoal. Fine. Complexly mixed chanthu called vajralepam were prepared in 5 methods as described in Brihathsamhitha. and found only in the houses of the elite upper class. This could have been a development contemporaneous with the writing of the text in the 15th century. called varal were put for a few days.used as mortar for rubble and brick masonry . coarse mud. Rammed earth floor was laid out first. Using these tiles for floors was rare. This mixture was palpitated with syrup of molasses. coarse /specifications for firing methods. This was then dried and rubbed to glaze by polished stones. palm toddy. The mixture was then applied and polished to glaze when dried. clear of decayed or organic matter was used to make these tiles. molasses. or water thickened with kadukkai or gall nut seed to form a paste. The mud underwent a series of treatments with different vegetable juices before it was cast in molds and baked in kilns. a part of . Traditional wall murals of Kerala. slaked lime. cow dung and herbal juices such as juice of balloon wine or uzhinjavalli. Fine paste was applied to form a polished finish over plastered surfaces called as chaanthu. These plasters finishes constituted proportions of finely ground and soaked charcoal. Vasthuvidhya describes 11 different patterns of shapes and dimensions 6.5. vegetable Ceramics were used and seasoned jars and other before being juices etc. Various admixtures such as their dyes and fine sand. shells. SUDHA (mortar): standardized for the floor tiles. fine paste of ground seed of kunnikuru.

decorated the doors. reptiles. cows. metal crafts excelled in household cooking as well as ritualistic wares and utensils. Locking and mechanically crude but elaborately ornamental devices called mayilpootu. doors etc. iron. parrots. in decorative icons and in paintings depicting religions images and symbols. and lamps and miniatures made of panchalohakam or five metals comprising or copper. Metal mirrors of Aranmula in Travancore. These were an interesting feature that stood out visually from the rustic shade of the wooden facade. herbs.7. brass. silver and bronze explain the skill of the kollan or metal crafts person of Kerala. LOHAKAM (metal): If wood was the major material for building walls. chithrapootu and naazhipootu made of iron or brass. Usually peacocks. The major parts of the house usually detailed with metal work are shown in. metals were used as decorative embedding aiding protection from tear and wear. . tortoises. Moreover. dragon and other mythical Hindu characters were portrayed in iconographic metal works..

This plinth surface is evenly leveled to the ground floor by means of water levels to make the seating for the lower most limbs. prastharam. the scriptures describe the six physical organs forming its body above ground level. padam.CONSTRUCTION OF SIX IIMBS OF A DWELLING STRUCTURE: Considering the house as a male human being standing erect on a firm ground. Even though the plinth was not included as visible body organ of the building it was considered an important invisible organ. thus emerging out of her body. shikharam and sthupi. greevam. This plinth is built of laterite. The seed ought to be planted as deep as the height of a human being or above water table if not met with a hard rocky strata. According to mythology a building is the progeny resulting from the fertilization of the seed planted by the male force vasthupurusha in the female force bhoomi or mother earth. gravel and pebbles. For small buildings or alpakshethram these six limbs are adisthanam foundation. stone or brick masonry from a depth of 8a to the ground level after excavating the loose earth and ramming the earth below in many layers of sand. as specified by the ancient architect Mayamuni in the section bhoomilambham. excluding the plinth. adisthanam. .

Thus the total structure comprised frames which later got partitioned by wooden panels. threshed or knitted bamboo mats or plated palm leaves. Over the wall plate. The height of padam which is the difference of padamanam and the height of adisthanam was called kalpokkam. which had pillars. The inscribed relation contained in the term padamanam even though indicates the height of padam added to adisthanam.ADISTHANAM OR FOUNDATION: Adisthanam forms the foundation of the building. points to a possible practice of the earlier form when adisthanam did not exist at aIl. which is also known by names such as masoorakam. The walls were a1ways pillared on the outer edges of the inner and outer verandahs in these houses. . There were basically 3 types of designs for adisthanam in residentiai buildings named as manchakam. In courtyard houses the shalas were composed of walls except the inner face of the north and south shalas facing the courtyard. Padam or lower walls and pillars This limb built above the adisthanam was compiled of walls or bhithi and pillars or sthambham . The method of building yagashala or sacrificial altars even today resemble the building of residential shalas: by erecting pillars over the raised adisthanam and tying them together at the top by wall plates. prathimanchakam and galamanchakam. the pitched roof with prefabricated timber frames was erected. vasthuadharam and dharathalam.

. Shilamayam. phalakamayam and mrinmayam . a later text asks for a minimum equal ta that of the width of wall plate. jalakamayam. Jalakamayam corresponds ta perforated or jalied screen wall in stone and phalakamayam to timber walls comprising frames and panels. Padamanam and hall width used to be equal. thus Brihathsamhitha and Manushyalayachandrika asked for more or less the same results. ishtikamayam and mrinmayam correspond to walls built of stone.BHITHI OR WALL: When Brihathsamhitha stipuIates wall thickness as 1/16th of span of the hall. The top width of a pillar is same as width of the wall plate. Manushyalayachandrika. ishtikamayam. brick and mud respectively. making it possible ta have values ranging from 1/12th to I/6th of the height kaluyaram which is 2/3rd of the height padamanam. Shilparathna stipulates 5 types of walls with respect to the materials used for their construction such as shilamayam.

the central portion. the degree of ornamentation in pillars varied. The width of the pillar varies from 1/6th to l/12th portion of its height with regard to the material used. These pillars were circular. III 0 of height. all three combined in the same pillar. For brick or mud pillars it was either 116 or 117 parts of their height. In some cases stone bases were used to protect the wooden mast frorn termite attack and decay due to dampness in the floor. Depending on the economic and social status of inhabitants. Oma and bhodhika were joined to the mast by a dove-tailed joint in stone and wooden pillars. The bhodhika was pinned on to the bottom of the wall plate. and the topmost part which is the bracket called bhodhika. and in some cases. For pillars made of wood. A pillar comprised of 3 parts: the base or footing called oma.119. square or octagonal. A reduction of about 1/8 to 1/16 parts in the width of the pillar was used to effect a taper from base of the pillar to its top. for hard stone pillars such as granite. the mast. it 118. The span between two pillars ranged from 3 to10 times their diameter. . bottom width was either 1/]] or 1/] 2 of its height. The upper tail of the mast pierced all the way through bhodhika and entered the wall plate.STHAMBHAM OR PILLAR: The name sthambham has derived from the Sanskrit ward 'sthambh' meaning 'still'.

they do not elaborate on windows as much. The space in between was built up to the plinth level with bricks or laterite. The inner perimeter of door and window frames corresponded to the yoni values prescribed for the respective shala. These buildings were constructed almost entirely of timber from plinth level upwards consisting of wooden posts. The beams at plinth level were supported on granite pillars about 50cm x 50cm x 150cm embedded in the ground. Above the wooden plinth beam were wooden pillars at all wall junctions . Their heights equaled a deduction of 1/7th or 1/8th value from the kaluyararn. beams.I9 These granite supports were provided at all wall junctions and at 1.VATHIL OR DOORS ANDJALAKAM OR WINDOWS: The main doors and windows were located in the middle of the quadrant or in the central axis of the shala and that of the courtyard. rafters. 17 Even though detailed descriptions on making doors are present in the traditional texts.5 to 2m intervals along the length of the walls where required. collars and panels. NIRA OR TIMBER FRAMEDLPANELED WALL: The timber houses in Kerala especially in the southern region were composed of walls built of frames and panels called nira .

This layer over the wall was lined with edge stones detaiIed with a protective projection curving down to the outside designed for prevention of dampness. This top layer which prevented the toppling of kapotham formed the fourth part called prathi. were kept in place by another layer of stone or brick working as counter weight. These joints were concealed by reapers called bhahalathulam running below. The wooden beam or utharam was laid on top of chumar or bhithi level. forming a decorated cornice above the bhithi . It ran around the entire length of the exterior wall and was called kapotham. kapotham and finally prathi. vallabhi. tying the pillars and forming the chumarutharam. There were four parts constituting the prastharam such as chumarutharam. These stones being cantilevers. also called thatuthulaam which literally means floor beams. The projecting ends of sheelanthi outside the wall were covered with a wooden decorative edge board forming the second part of prastharam called vallabhi.PRASTHARAM OR CORNICE BEAM: Prastharam was the beam running around the building which is detailed for damp-proofing and holding the upper floor. Above the wooden floors were laid clay tiles in lime or surki mortar. on top of these were arrayed a series of cross beams called sheelanthi. arrayed in equal spacing across the sheelanthi forming a checkered pattern to be seen from below. . over which was fixed a wooden floor with planks neatly joined on edges. Across.

The pitched roof resting on top of the greevam formed the shikharam). There were even number of rafters on all four sides. the rafters from either side of the slope met. a secondary plate called chuttutharam. Greevam also called as galam formed the lower part of the upper section. which sewed SHIKHARAM OR ROOF: . On top of the wall plate was fixed by means of wooden pegs. This total when divided equally into two gave the above mentioned upper and lower halves. Usually the height of adisthanam was repeated for greevam.GREEVAM OR UPPER WALL: In a house structure divided into two vertical sections. Horizontal tie members called valabentham were fixed onto these rafters below the ridge and a square sectioned rod called vala or collar pin was driven through holes in all these members. To this joint was hooked a hanging beam called monthayam. It was onto this chuttutharam that the rafters called as kazhukol sloped down from the ridge and were seated. At the ridge. shikharam and sthupi the upper sections. 21/28 part or full part of the shala width to the same full width. The continuation of bhithi or wall above the half line over prastharam was called greevam. It was the wall plate or varotharam that attached the entire roof onto greevam. the adisthanam. padam and prastharam formed the lower and greevam. This vala . As the rafters reached the end of monthayam they were arranged radially to be fixed together on to the koodam. 14/28. The total height of the house was arrived at by adding 12/28. an apex pinnacle.

The image of the entire three dimensional form of sthupi with koodam was reproduced two dimensionally to form part of the decorated gable. . Sthupis which were structural extensions of koodam.21 and Picture 3. This element of the roof which developed in the process of technical improvisation became a strong visual element in Kerala's domestic architecture.STHUPI OR PINNACLE: Sthupi were the finials crowning the apex of the roof. were made on roofs of houses also. This practice of fixing sthupi was replaced lately by the development of the gable ear opening (Refer Picture 3. to evoke resemblance to the temple roof. In temple structures there was one sthupi for roofs corresponding to square and circular shaped plans and 3 sthupis for rectangular and absidal forms.22).22 the whole of which was fixed to the end of extension from monthayam. This triangular shaped gable ear consisted of many layers of decorative boards pinned together by wooden nails with carved dragon heads.

This layout defined a sense of orientation: the building was always to the right side of a person passing through any of these gates. There existed different types of gates and gate houses . western gate to southern house of thekkini and northern gate to western shala or padinjattini. the padipura or gate house could be located in any of the 36 padams in this layer but the imagined effect was prescribed different in each case. Usually in the upper class houses there were two gates on each of the sides which were meant for the use for different classes of people and cattle. certain padams in the peripheral layer were chosen for locating these gates and gate houses. grihakshethrapadam in the south. PADIPURA OR GALE HOUSES: When planning a house according to the navavarga system. southern gate to eastern shala or kizhakkini. pushpadhanthapadam in the west and bhallatapadam in the north were the most auspicious among them which also indicate that locations of these gates had to deflected to the left from the central axis lines in the cosmic field defined by navavarga system. This description includes measurements and specific position for each of these structures.CONSTRUCTION OF ANCILLARY STRUCTURES AND of ensuring security and facilitating the customary practices. According to rule. dwelling As part HORTICULTURE: structures were adjoined with ancillary structures built according to specific description and details stipulated in the traditional texts. The eastern gates led to the northern shala or vadakkini. lndrapadam in the east.

Another method is to make a trench around the boundary. thorns etc. The animals could not be walked along karnasuthra determined for the house compound while leading them in and out of the shelters. The best method is to build a masonry wall. they were modified with an array of oil lamps fixed onto the joints. The country method of stacking stones on either sides and filling mud in between so that the outer surfaces are level and tapered to the top developed and evolved into the classical farm using masonry. For its THOZHUTHU OR CATTLE SHELTER: construction. Later on.KAYYALA OR COMPOUND WALL: According to Vasthushasthra the boundaries of human habitation should be made in 3 ways. The cattle shelter was located in the north or west side of the main house. vrishabhayoni or gajayolli was used for the inner perimeter. a protective device against rain was also copied onto the timber palisade or masonry walls of temples and houses. Thozhuthu is a good example for studying wooden wall and screen forms adopted in the earlier versions where the entire house was constructed of timber. common among upper c1ass houses. The masonry walls. The thatched roof over the kayyala. There were also other parameters applied in fixing dimensions and location of cattle shed or thozhuthu ensuring protection of cattle and other animals. . Such walls are called kayyala. were found to have wall thickness corresponding to the span width of the main house. these were usually seen in temple walls. The timber fences or palisades were made by fixing horizontal wooden reapers at intervals sewn through vertical masts erected at equal spacing and built ta have a roof on top. A third method is to make fences with twigs.

and the ideallocation for the kitchen is also in ishanakon. mahendradhisha in the east. bathing. These ghats were built of granite or laterite slabs. Ishanakon. varunadhisha in the west and somapadam in the north are all reliable positions for seeking water sources. According to the rashi cycle. Since the most auspicious location is in meenamrashi or ishanakon. Since the main house could not cross into the pishachaveedhi. meenam. They were attached with a bathing house or The adukkala (kitchen) was usually located in the north-east quarter the kulipura.KINAR OR WELLSLKULAM OR PONDS: The scriptures insist on having separate water sources for drinking. In in Northern India. kitchens were attached to the main house. a contradiction exits in the position of the kitchen within the house. According to instructions in Brihathsamhitha and Manushyalayachandrika. positions such as shikhipadam or parjanyapadam which fall in the pishachaveedhi are best suited for erecting these detached kitchens. the kitchen was located in the south east corner which forms the agnikon or fire ADUKKALA OR KITCHEN: . the main well is always seen attached to the kitchen in Kerala. laundry and irrigation purposes in a domestic environment. But later. kumbham. from positions prescribed in other parts of India. the directions such as makaram. the kitchen was buiIt detached from the house. when fire resistant masonry walls replaced timber walls. Usually ponds of rectangular or square shapes with stepped banks called kulam were used for bathing purposes.23). similar to of the house. In Kerala. Elsewhere else in India. medam and idavam are ideal locations for digging ponds and wells. the kitchen was built as an ancillary structure (Refer Figure 3. surajkund older houses made of timber.

received maximum solar radiation. due to this particular position. thus were always warm. the food hall and the grain processing/storing house were allocated adjacently. The kitchen. They could also be located in vayukon as well as in the varunapadam. Apparently uralpura is the rice mill within the house where the paddy will be processed into rice by laborers. Granaries were made of hard wood panels joined together with a special detail to withstand contraction and expansion because of exposure to sunlight URALPURA OR THRESBING HOUSE: Ural is the wooden bin in which the paddy is threshed into rice.KALAPURA OR YARD HOUSE: These ancillary houses located to the east side of the house were used to store harvested paddy and for activities such as threshing and separating grains. completing the picture of the typical agriculture based domestic environment in . and granaries where dry grain was stored. They were located in the eastern end of kalapura in the agnipadam. ensuring protection of the stored grain inside. They were adjacent to open yards where the grain was dried. These granaries.

bahisara vriksha -coconut palm. Objects worshipped in these chambers were charabhimbham which were either inscriptions made on metal plates or stones called salagramam. sarvasara vriksha -puli. They are anthasara vriksha. bahisara vriksha with hard outer cover and soft inner core. arecanut. The inner courtyards are considered sacred and usually contains a pedestal in which is grown jasmine or thulasi. made up of light cork and fiber and sarvasara vriksha consisting of a hard inner core. There used to be shrines enclosed within wooden chambers called thevaramuri located in the padinjattini or kizhakkini shala in a house. A few examples of these 4 kinds of trees are given below: anthasara vriksha -jack. Sufficient space clearance was given so as to build the essential organs of a small temple around it This clearance space around the kavu was double the width of the sanctum sanctorum. teak. . anjili.KAVU OR SHRINES AND SNAKE GROVES: Shrines were usually located in the corners of the grihavasthu. PLANTED VEGETATION Trees are classified into 4 kinds according to their cross sectional features. which have a hard inner core and a soft cork caver. nisara vriksha. Shrines housing permanent idols or sthirabhimbham were built detached to the main house. The family goddesses were located in ishanalnirithikon and snake groves in agnilvayukon.

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