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The Revolution: FIRST

PHASE
• The KATIPUNAN became popular in the suburbs of Manila
and in the provinces of Central Luzon. But as the
affiliates/members increased, the Spanish Authorities
began to suspect its underground character.
• The Friars denounced the nightly meeting held by the
Katipuneros and on August 19, 1896, PATIÑO exposed the
society to Fr. Mariano Gil. And with the discovery of the
Katipunan, Bonifacio had no other alternative than to take
to the field; and on August 23 at PUGADLAWIN, he and his
men declared their intention to fight to the bitter end.
• At Tejeros, it was agreed to change the society w/ a
government responsive to the demands of the times, and in
the election that followed Bonifacio was chosen to be the
Director of the Interior. However, DANIEL TIRONA,
questioned his election; and Bonifacio hurt by the insult, he
declared that the election was null and void.
• In April, he (A. Bonifacio) was ordered to be arrested, tried
and executed. And the Filipinos That time were already
losing battle after battle.
• Moreover, Aguinaldo retreated to Biyak-na-bato (where the
Rizal and the Revolution
• Bonifacio who had known Rizal from the Liga
days but whom Rizal did not know personally,
wanted Rizal’s opinion on the necessity of
rising arms against the Spaniards. He, then,
commissioned Valenzuela to go to Dapitan in
June 1896 to confer with Rizal.
•On the S. S. Venus, Narcisa (Rizal’s sister) and
his niece Angelica Rizal Lopez was with
Valenzuela; they arrived the port of Dapitan on
June 21; and Valenzuela immidiately
proceeded to Rizal’s home.
•Velenzuela told Rizal his purpose of visit. He
then related the founding of Katipunan and its
aims, among which was to overthrow Spanish
authority and said that the revolution might
• Even so, he suggested as to why not
attract the influential and wealthy
Filipinos to the cause to ensure the
success of the revolution. He also
suggested ANTONIO LUNA to be
appointed as their MILITARY LEADER
• Valenzuela came back to Manila and
reported the results of his mission,
Bonifacio admitted that it would be fatal
for them to start a revolution without
enough weaponry with which to fight
the enemy.
Preparation for Struggle

The Katipunan began their preparation for emergency,
for the revolution might explode anytime, and they
don’t want to be taken by surprise. Bonifacio, then,
ordered to manufacture BOLOS and distributed it to
the members. But he knew it was not enough as a
weapon, for the enemies have Remington and
Mausers.
• A little hope shone on the Katipuneros when
Valenzuela told Bonifacio that the Japanese warship
KONGO, with Admiral Kanimura on board, landed in
Manila Bay.
• Through Jose Moritaro Tagawa, a Japanese employee
of a Japanese Bazaar, Bonifacio had an interview with
the Admiral. However, the Japanese refuse to commit
his country to the rebellion plans of the society.
• So, with the failure to ask help from
Spanish Suspicion Aroused
Japan, He thought of the Katipuneros in
the
•As various branches of the government.
the affiliates of the Katipunan increased,
TITO
whileMIGUEL and ROMANtoRAMOS,
it was advantageous who
Bonifacio, it
were employed
was, in in MAESTRANZA
a way, a disadvantage. (arsenal),
The new
ordered
member them to steal rifles
were impatient andmet
that they pistols.
nightly, which
Through it themade the Spanish
weapons authorities
increased,
suspicious.the
however, Rumors of thewas
quantity nocturnal meetingto
not enough
reached Manila which made the Spaniards,
start on a revolution. So they made more
particularly the friars jittery. There were
bolos,
rumorsbutthathid it to prevent
weapons the authorities
(rifles, ammunition)
from
camediscovering
from Hongkong their
andintentions.
Yokohama and
were being landed here.
•The friars exploited the rumors to the
Governor-General. But Blanco was reluctant
to act upon the suggestion of the friars, for
he was not sympathetic to them.
• In June 20 1896, a Recollect friar in Cavite
accused the alleged existence of a group of men
who met at banquets to toast the victory of the
Cuban rebels against the Spaniards. There were
also other rumors that there were some 17,000
rebels in the town of San Juan del Monte, Makati,
Pasig and the other places. There were more
rumors that spread around Manila, so the curate
of Sta. Cruz, reported the alleged secret meetings
of suspicious persons to Spanish authorities.
• But due to the exaggeration of the rumors to
force the Governor-General to act precipitately,
the latter refused to take any move. Instead he
rebuked the friars and told FR. MARIANO GIL
“Undeceive yourself, freemasonry and
filibustering are like a pit in which you put your
finger & at once you touch the bottom. Both evils
exist only in the minds of the friars, and few other
The Discovery of the
Katipunan
• FFr. Mariano Gil was disgusted over the GOV. GEN attitude so he spoke w/
the military governor of Manila, General ECHALUCE, revealing what he
knew about Katipunan. So General Echaluce took action at once by taking
precautions by making Manila safe from disturbance of any kind.
• At almost the same time, APOLONIO de la CRUZ and TEODORO PATIÑO,
the 2 Katipuneros who worked at DIARIO DE MANILA, had a
misunderstanding. Patiño, weakling as he was, made a revenge on Apolinio
by revealing the secrets of the society to his Sister, HONORIA.
• Honoria as an inmate of the orphanage in Mandaluyong, cried. The MADRE
PORTERA, SOR TERESA, when informed of the cause of the girl’s alleged
grief, suggested that Patiño to tell all he knew to Fr. Gil.
• On August 19, Patiño told everything he knew, and so the friar immediately
went to Diario de Manila to search for evidences. Then they saw a
lithographic stone used to print the Katipunan receipts.
• At night POLICARPIO TURLA’S locker was forced opened (whose signature
appeared in the receipts) and other pertinent documents were found. And
all of there were turned over the police.
• The discovery of the Katipunan was immediately followed by mass arrests
of Filipino suspects. Prominent men, numbering to 500 were arrested, even
innocent Filipinos were thrown to jail in Fort Santiago.
WEALTHY FILIPINOS
IMPLICATED
• The wealthy Filipinos refused to join the Katipunan, so
Bonifacio thought that in order to force them to
sympathize with the members, a trick should be
played on them in a way as to make it appear that
they were deeply involved in Katipunan. So Jacinto
drep up a list of wealthy Filipinos, while some of the
Katipuneros were ordered to study their signature and
forged it. Having this done, fake documents of the
wealthy victims were made.
• Luis R. Yangco ,Francisco L. Roxas, and others were
alleged to be contributors of Katipunan. The result of
the trick was unexpected. Instead of joining the
society they denounced and denied any knowledge of
its existence. But their excuses were of no avail, for
the authorities simply refused to believe them.
Francisco L . Roxas was executed, while Yangco, and
the others were saved by bribing highly placed
Spanish officials.
THE “CRY” OF PUGADLAWIN
• Bonifacio summoned all the leaders of the society to a general
assembly on the 24th of August. It is because Bonifacio was
informed of the discovery of Katipunan which spread throughout
Manila and the suburb. That same night of Aug. 19, Bonifacio
along with his brother Procopio, Emilio Jacinto, Teodoro Plata and
Aguedo del Rosario, slipped through the cordon of Spanish
sentries and reached Balintawak before midnight. Valenzuela
followed them the next day.
• On the 21st, Bonifacio change the Katipunan code because the
Spanish authorities had already deciphered it and in the same day
500 Katipuneros left Balintawak for Kangkong, where Apolonio
Samson gave them food and shelter.
• On August 22nd they proceeded to PUGADLAWIN.
• The following day, in the yard of Juan A. Ramos, son of MELCHORA
AQUINO who was later called “MOTHER OF THE KATIPUNAN”,
Bonifacio asked his men if they were ready to fight to the bitter
end. Despite the objection of the brother-in-law, Teodoro Plata, all
assembled agreed to fight to the last.
• “That being the case, bring out your CEDULAS and tear them to
symbolize our determination to take up arms!” said Bonifacio. The
men all tore up their cedulas shouting “long live the Philippines!”.
This event marked the so-called “CRY OF BALINTAWAK” which
FIRST SKIRMISHES
• In the midst of this dramatic scene, some Katipuneros
who had just arrived from Manila to Kalookan shouted:
“DONG ANDRES! The civil guards are almost behind us
and will investigate the mountains.” At once, Bonifacio
ordered his men to get ready for the Spaniards’ attack.
Since they only had inferior arms, the rebels decided to,
instead, retreat. The rebels marched toward Pasong
Tamo, and the following day, 24th of August, they arrived
at the yard of Melchora Aquino or TANDANG SORA. All
the rebels in the surrounding towns were notified/warned
about the general attack on Manila on the night of
August 29, 1986.
• At ten in the morning of August 25, some women came
rushing in and warned Bonifacio that the civil guards and
some infantrymen were coming. A burst of fire came
from the approaching Spaniards, the rebels, then,
prepared for the enemy.
• During the skirmish, the rebels decided to retreat due to
their lack of arms. The Spanish decided to retreat as well
• On August 26, Spanish reinforcement went to Pasong Tamo
to drive away the rebels, but they could not be found. The
Spaniards frustrated, shot 2 innocent farmers, instead, who
were going on their way home. The Spanish soldiers
bragged about the great fight they had in Pasong Tamo,
saying that they had driven away the rebels. This was the
origin of the so-called “CRY OF BALINTAWAK” which neither
happened on August 26 nor in Balintawak.
• The rebels travelled day and night and finally arrived at
MARIQUINA later in the day, they abondoned it and
proceeded to HAGDANG BATO on August 27.
• The following day, Bonifacio issued a manifesto, inciting the
people to take up the Filipinos cause and fight the
Spaniards on August 29.
• The intended attack on Manila did not materialized,
probably because of their insuficcient supply of weapons.
Instead, Dong Andres and Jacinto led their men in an attack
on the powder magazine at San Juan del Monte on August
30.
• The Spaniards were also outnumbered and weak, fought
THE REVOLUTION SPREADS
• In the South of Manila, the rebels grew in strength.
The rebels attacked places, such as Pasig, the church
in Pandakan, Pateros, Tagig, Kalookan, Kawit, San
Francisco de Malabon, Noveleta, San Pedro Makati,
rose as one man and pursued the Spanish enemy.
They also shifted the rebel attack to San Mateo,
Mariquina and Montalban w/ the defeat of the Filipinos
in the Battle of Langka River near San Mateo,
Bonifacio ordered his men to retreat to Balara/
• In the battle that followed, Bonifacio nearly lost his life
when the Spanish bullet ripped the collar of his shirt
while he was protecting his friend Jacinto.
• In the North, the rebels of San Isidro, armed with bolo
and pointed sticks attacked the Spanish garrison on
September 2, 3 & 4 led by Mariano Llanera and
accompanied by MUSIKONG BUMBONG (band w/
bamboo instrument)
the rebels attacked but were repulsed by the heroic
THE REIGN OF TERROR
• To frighten to population into submission, the Spanish
authorities resorted to a reign of terror. Only in this
way they thought could they stop the revolutionary
movement from becoming a national scope. Thus the
Spanish volunteers and corps of Vigilantes invaded
Filipino homes in order to secure evidence against
those who were directly or indirectly involved in the
uprising.
• In Trozo, Captain Carlos March of the Spanish
volunteers found evidence against KATIPUNEROS.
• August 30, Governor-General Ramon Blanco issued a
decree that BATANGAS, BULACAN, PAMPANGA,
TARLAC and NUEVA ECIJA in a state of war and placing
them under MARTIAL LAW. The decree also provided
that “any person accused of treachery and those
against the present form of government” would be
handed over to the military court of trial.
• Blanco also emphasized that “those who surrender w/
• Countless pain and torture was made unto the Filipinos just
to make them squeal. The pain which the Filipinos could not
stand, inflicted them to shout the names of some
Katipuneros. There were forms of torture where the
suspect was hanged by the hands and then have him
suddenly dropped to the ground. Another form was to
electrify the supect by wires connected to the feet or
hands. The poor suspect was electrocuted time and again
to shout names of innocent persons. More often the
suspects were simply shot without any trial.
• Hundreds were also arrested and jailed. FORT SANTIAGO
was so packed with Filipino suspects and many of them
died of suffocation. This is what the Spaniards called “JUST
PUNISHMENTS”.
• On September 14, four Katipuneros were executed at the
Luneta.
• On September 12, thirteen men from Cavite were executed
& they have been known as “LOS TRECE MARTINES DE
CAVITE”. The following month the Spaniards executed
unknown numbers of Filipinos in Mindanao.
• On January 4, 1897, twelve Bicolanos were executed thus
making them the “TWELVE BICOLANO MARTYRS”. In Kalibo,
Kapis 19 patriots were shot to death. But the most
infamous injustice of all was perpetrated upon JOSE RIZAL
THE KATIPUNAN IN CAVITE
• Even before the outbreak of the revolution, Katipunan
in Cavite was already divided into factions. The
MAGDALO and the MAGDIWANG; the Katipuneros of
Cavite were already active having raised the standard
of revolt on August 31, 1896 when they attacked the
TRIBUNAL (municipal building) of San Francisco
Malabon.
• MAGDIWANG was led by MARIANO ALVAREZ, they
attacked the Sparniards in NOVELETA (where there
headquarters was also) shouting “PANAHON NA!
MABUHAY ANG KALAYAAN!”
• MAGDALO was led by BALDOMERO AGUILNALDO w/
headquarters at CAVITE EL VIEJO (now Kawit) who took
the offensive against the enemy garrison w/c was
captured w/out much difficulty.
• Emilio Aguinaldo on the other hand, went to BAKOOD
• In this encounter, the Spaniards lost hundreds of men
and 60 guns w/ ammunition. Aguinaldo, was then
renounced as the hero of the hour. And from that time
on, the Caviteños called him GENERAL MIONG not
CAPITAN MIONG.
• The rebel triumphd encouraged the people, that’s why
every young or old Filipino male, carried a bolo or a
knife, ready to fight Spaniards where ever he was met.
Aguinaldo was inspired of the people and by the unity
in all the ranks that he issued 2 manifestos on October
31 calling upon the people to continue to fight until
liberty was won.
• Defeated by many sectors, the Spaniards decided to
carry the fight to the provinces of Cavite. Blanco was
continually pestered by the friars and Spanish
populace, took action in Cavite early in November. He
attacked BINAKAYAN and NOVELETA, but was repelled
by heavy losses.
• The Filipinos under Aguinaldo suffered heavy losses
also. One of the casualties was Aguinaldo’s bosom
friend, CANDIDO TIRONA.
• By being defeated, Aguinaldo created the positions
SECRETARY OF STATES (Jacinto Lumbreras) and
BONIFACIO IN CAVITE
• The friars were agitated because of the
•Though MAGDALO and MAGDIWANG factions
Spaniards’ continues defeats and were
was in rivalry, it led to a series of reverses
blaming it to Blanco.
early in January 1897. Unity was
• indispensible,
Blanco, was relieved
for whatas wasGovernor-General
on their mind that
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Spaniards. To
on December
patch up matters,13, Magdiwang
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he1897 and partially
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to this Bonifacio,
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•Procopi denouncing
and Ciriaco went w/ the Spanishin
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inchof the Spaniards1896.
December
captured the territory they had lost, and
• He was met in ZAPOTE, by Emilio
Aguinaldo, Edilberto Evangelista, and
few others who wanted to meet him
personally. On an assembly of
revolutionist (Magdalo) in Imus on
December 31, they were to determine
on whether Katipunan should be
superseded by another form of
government. On the other hand,
Magdiwang men, believed that
Katipunan should remain the
government of the revolutionist
because it already was not resolved
and the meeting ended without having
accomplished anything.
THE TEJEROS CONVENTION

• As months passed by & as the rebels found
themselves on the receiving end of the armed power
w/ the Spaniards, their leaders thought it timely &
wise to call another meeting of both factions in order
to solve their internal problem. And do they met
again at Tejeros on March 22, 1897.
• The session started at two o’clock w/ the Magdiwang
presiding officer, Jacinto Lumbreras and Teodoro
Gonzales, Magdiwang secretary Severino de las Alas,
suggested that the problem should be solve by
whether establishing a new government to take place
of the Katipunan. But the session became an
argument.
• After an hour the session/assembly was pressumed
by Bonifacio as the Chairman. To resolve the issue, he
carefuly agreed that why shouldn’t there be a voting
and the majority’s decision be respected, obeyed and
must be followed. The convetion adopted this principle
unanimously.
• The thorny question was resolved, the Republic of the
Philippines was proclaimed. Elected were:
Emilio Aguinaldo President
Mariano Trias Vice-President
Artemio Ricarte Captain-General
Emiliano Riego de Dios Director of War
Andres Bonifacio Director of Interior
• While Bonifacio was being proclaimed, Daniel Tirona
disagreed of him, being elected and said “the position
of Director of the Interior is an exalted one and it is
not proper that a person without a lawyer’s diploma
should occupy it. We have in our province a lawyer,
Jose del Rosario!”; Bonifacio was hurt and insulted, he
demanded that Daniel Tirona retract what he said, but
instead of apologizing, he just left. Bonifacio almost
shot him with his pistol but Ricarte held his arm. The
people began to leave the hall. And Bonifacio, still
was angry, cried aloud “ I, as the chairman of this
assembly and as the President of the Supreme Council
of the Katipunan, as all of you do not deny, declare
this assembly dissolved and anull all that has been
approved and resolved.” W/ this statement, he left the
The Second Meeting at
• Aguinaldo who wasTejeros
at Pasong Santol, a barrio of
Dasmariñas was notified the following day of his
election to the Presidency. At first he refused to leave
his men who were preparing for battle. But his elder
brother, Cripulo Aguinaldo, asserted him to take his
place and would not allow the enemy to overrun the
place without dying in defense. Aguinaldo, then
agreed to his brother’s request and proceeded to
Santa Cruz de Malabon (now Tanzaz) to take his oath
with the exception of Bonifacio.
• Meanwhile, Bonifacio and his men, numbering to 45,
met at Tejeros on March 23. All of them felt bad of the
results of the previous day’s proceeding. Convinced
that the election held was invalid, they drew up a
document, now called ACTA de TEJEROS in which they
gave their reasons for not accepting the results.
• From Tejeros, Bonifacio and his men went to Naik to
be as far from the Magdalo, whom they thought, were
responsible for the anomalies.
• Aguinaldo wanted Bonifacio to be back, so he sent him
The Naik Military Agreement
• Due to Bonifacio’s anger, brought about by
Tirona, who insulted him, Bonifacio and his
men again, drew up another document in
w/c they resolved to establish a government
independent of and separate from the
established at Tejeros. An army to be
organized “by persuasion or force” and a
military commander of their own choice was
to take command of it.
• Among the 41 men who signed were:
Artemio Ricarte, Pio del Pilar, and Severino
de las Alas. The document posed a potential
danger to the cause of the revolutionists
and almost certain defeat in the face of a
united and well armed enemy.
The Trial and Execution of
Bonifacio
• From Naik and Bonifacio, his wife and 2 brothers, w/ handful of
loyal followers, transferred to the barrio of Limbon, Indang.
• When Aguinaldo new the Naik Military Agreementm, he realized
Bonifacio’s intention and ordered to arrest Bonifacio Brothers. A
group of soldiers went commanded by Colonel Agapito Bonzon
went to Limbon to effect the arrest. The skirmish was inevitable,
Bonifacio was stabbed in the larynx, his Ciriacao was killed and his
other brother Procopio was wounded. Bonifacio was brought to
Naik, the capital of the rebel government.
• April 28, Aguinaldo forwarded the case of Bonifacio to Council of
War in order to conduct the necessary trial.
• April 29, personnel of the Council of War was completed with Col.
PEDRO LIPINA as the Judge Advocate. JOSE ELISES was Fiscal,
PLACIDO MARTINEZ and TEODORO GONZALES were appointed
Defense Attorneys of Andres and Procopio.
• The trial lasted from April 29 to may 4.
• The Council of War that tried Bonifacio Brothers was composed of
Gen. Mariano Noriel (President) and Crisostomo Riel, Gen. Tomas
Mascardo, Piacido Martinez (Bonifacio’s Attorney), Mariano Riego
de Dios, Esteban Ynfante and Sulficio Antony (members).
• The Bonifacio Brothers were founded guilty of treason and
sedition in spite of the fact that the evidence was not
sufficient to prove their alleged guilt.
• May 8. Baldomero Aguinaldo, Auditor of War, wrote Pres.
Aguinaldo recommending approval of the Council of War’s
decision, namely, execution of brothers. On that same day
Aguinaldo commuted the death sentence to banishment.
• But Generals Marionao Noriel and Pio del Pilar, Clemente
Jose Zulueta, Dr. Anastacio Francisco and Gen. Mamerto
Natividad asked Aguinaldo to withdraw his order, for they
hated Bonifacio. Under his pressure, he did withdrew his
order, the original decision of the Council of War stood.
• May 10, General Noriel ordered Major Lazaro Makapagal to
bring out the two brothers from jail. Makapagal went to
Mount Tala with four soldiers to accompany him with a
sealed letter as well. Having reached the vicinity of the
mountain, he opened the sealed letter, upon the request of
Bonifacio. It contained the order to execute He and his
brother, Procopio. There was a warning that failure to
comply with the order would be punished severly. Without
The Revolution Continues
• As Makapagal went back to Marogondon where the new
rebel capital had been established, he found the Filipino
forces retreating and the Spaniards pounding the town
furiously. But since the Spaniards just came in from
Spain, they were not accustomed to the tropical climate
so they suffered much. Due to the endless battles
General Camilo de Polavieja, got tired and asked for his
relief as the Governor-General. His request was granted
and on April 15, 1897 he sailed for Spain;
• The former Governor-General of the Philippines Fernando
Primo de Rivera took over.
• On April 23, Primo de Rivera arrived in Manila and
immediately conferred w/ the military commanders
regarding the general situation in the Philippines. He
found out that the Filipinos were already united in
fighting against Spaniards. So he made a decree but the
• With almost all of Cavite in the hands of
the Spaniards, Primo de Rivera issued
another decree extending the benefit of
his pardon. His purpose was to win over
the Filipinos to his policy of attraction.
Few took advantage, while some still
continued their revolt against them.
• While Aguinaldo was in Talisay
Batangas, the enemy surrounded the
area in hope of capturing him. But he
was able to slip through the Spanish
cordon on June 10. He, then, proceeded
to Morong,w/ his Guadalupe and from
here he secretly passed thru San Juan
del Monte and Montalban and on to
Mount Puray. After a rest, they
proceeded to Biyak-na-bato, San Miguel
del Mayumo, in Bulacan where he
The Government of Central

Luzon
When the people from Central Luzon heard of Aguinaldo’s
arrival at Biyak-na-bato, they renewed their arm resistance
against the enemy. Aguinaldo joined forces with General
Mariano Llanera and harassed the Spanish soldiers
garrisoned in the Central Luzon provinces. W/ the coming of
the rainy season, Primo de Rivera’s campaign were
temporarily halted.
• At Puray, the rebels met in the camp of General Licerio
Geronimo. Those assembled established the Departmental
Government of Central Luzon, comprising Manila, Morong,
Bulakan, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Tarlac, and
Pangasinan.
The assembly elected the following:
Father Pedro Dandan President
Anastacio Francisco Vice-President
Paciano Rizal Secretary of the Treasury
Cipriano Pacheco Secretary of the
War
The Biyak-na-bato Republic
• Since Primo de Rivera was unable to persuade the
Filipinos to give up their arms, he created another
decree on July 2, 1897 w/c prohibited people from
leaving their villages and towns. Instead of following,
the Filipinos continued fighting.
• In July, Aguinaldo made a proclamation entitled “TO
THE BRAVE SONS OF THE PHILIPPINES”, w/c he listed
the revolutionary demands namely:
3. The expulsion of the friars and the return to the
Filipinos of the lands they appropriated for
themselves;
4. Representation in the Spanish Cortes:
5. Freedom of the press and tolerance of all religious
sects:
6. Equal treatment and pay for Peninsular and Insular
civil servants:
• This proclamation shows that Aguinaldo
was still willing to return to the Spanish
fold, provided that these demands were
met. This in spite of the fact that before
July he and hismen has already
established a republican government at
Biyak-na-bato known sas BIYAK NA
BATO REPUBLIC. The provisional
constitution was prepared by Feliz
Ferrer and Isabelo Artacho, who copied,
almost word for word, the Cuban
constitution of JIMAGUAYU. It was
signed on November 1, 1897. Its
Preamable states: (see page 183)
• The constitution provides for the
creation of a supreme council
composed of a President, Vice-
• Article VIII reflects the nationalism of
the revolutionists for it provides that
“TAGALOG SHALL BE THE OFFICIAL
LANGUAGE OF THE REPUBLIC”. The
constitution also provides the religious
liberty, freedom of education, freedom
of the press, as well as the freedom to
exercise any of the professions. In
accordance with Article I, the Supreme
Council was created on November 2,
with the following as officers:
Emilio Aguinaldo President
Mariano Trias Vice-President
Antonio Montenegro Secretary of Foreign Affairs
Isabelo Artacho Secretary of the Interior
Emiliano Riego de Dios Secretary of War
Baldomero Aguinaldo Secretary of Treasury
The Truce of Biyak-na-bato
• A mestizo, Pedro A. Paterno who spent most of
his life in Spain, approached Governor-General
Primo de Rivera and asked that if he could be a
mediator between the Filipinos and the
Spaniards. He wanted to stop the fatal conflict
because of his love of Spain and the Philippines.
• From August to December, Paterno negotiated w/
Aguinaldo and Primo de Rivera.
• November 18, the first document, TRUCE OF
BIYAK-NA-BATO was signed by Paterno as
representative of the revolutionsts and by Primo
de Rivera for the Spanish government.
• December 14, the 2nd document known as the
“PROGRAMME” was signed by Paterno and Primo
• To make sure that the Spanish
Authorities were sincere, the
revolutionists requested to Spanish
Generals to remain as their hostages
and another, Col. Miguel Primo de
Rivera, the governor’s nephew, to
accompany the hostiles to Hongkong.
• On December 23, Generals Celestino
Tejeiro and Ricardo Monet became
hostages of the rebels. On that same
day, Aguinaldo and his men including
Pedro and Maximo Paterno, boarded a
launch & sailed for Kalumpit. They took
the train for Dagupan, then the
Carromatas for port of Sual,
Pangasinan. The group sailed of
Hongkong the same day, December 27,
The Failure of the Truce
• January 1898, was a month of colorful festivites in
Manila. The Spaniards were happy because their lives
were spared so they spent lots of money to have
series of fiestas. There were boat and horse races,
fireworks, and grand ball at Ayuntamiento or City Hall.
And dramas at the Zorilla Theater.
• January 23, the Te Deum was sung at Manila
Cathedral and on the 24th (Madrid time) at the Palacio
Real in Madrid.
• Meanwhile, the Filipino generals left at Biyak-na-bato
did everything in their power to surrender the arms
given up by the rebels. Both Filipinos and the
Spaniards were still suspicious of each other,
therefore, the Filipinos continued to hold on to their
weapons. Thus the periodic clashed between them
• One of the leaders, General Francisco Makabulos of
Tarlac, established the Central Executive Committee
w/c was intended to be a temporary one “until a
general government of the Republic in these islands
shall again be established.”
• This rebel government had a constitution, popularly
called the constitution of Makabulos, w/c provided for
an executive committee composed of a President, a
Vice-President, a Secretary of the Interior, a Secretary
of War and a Secretary of the Treasury.
• The Filipino leaders were not disposed to follow the
letter of the Truce, but on the contrary felt that they
could use the money given to them by Primo de
Rivera to purchase arms and ammunitions. On the
other hand, the lower Spanish officials arrested and
imprisoned many Filipinos whom the suspected of
having been involved in the rebellion. Such acts
naturally led to the feeling among the Filipinos that
the truce was but a mask to cover up Spanish bad

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