Project Direction & Control

Prof. Rupesh Pais

Direction
Coordination Control

Initiation / Startup period

Production Period

Project Closing

Project Implementation phase

Management Efforts Schedule
 Initiation period
 Lot of Direction & Co-ordination, Little of .. control

 Production period
 Lot of Direction & Co-ordination Little of or control

 Closing period
 Co-ordination lead role

Project Direction
 Use or authority to channelise the project on

desired lines  Authorizing plans and schedules for implementation  Schedules – Working documents - work orders  Requirement of approval for changes or deviations

Project Initiation / Start up
 Direction to be provided by Project manager
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Scope of work Specification of results of completed work Basis of work Division of work – imported vs indigenous, departmental vs contract Schedule of work Budget for work System and procedure for work Co-ordination of work Authority & Accountability of work Control of work

 Participative Approval  Project Manual .

Project kick of meeting  Objectives  Co-ordination of project requirements and that of participating agencies.  Establishment of directives & controls  Team Building  Communication  Direction – Decides Project Destiny  Appointment of Consultant .

 On-going directions – Work schedules approval.Direction During Production Stage  Initiation – Establishing baselines for project performance – Administrative variety. Details budget. construction drawing  Lower level directions – Personal contact . specifications. work order. purchase order.

handling minimization.functional Utility.  Life cycle costing  Effort – Value engineering .Design Review Meeting  Checking project design . energy optimization. economy etc. safety.

Input (Limestone)  Cement Factory  Output (Cement) | --.Value Engineering Review  Cost as basis  Ensures inclusion of value in design  Value addition – function of processing system.Value added -----| .

. Five functions in work-study  Operation  Transportation  Permanent storage  Temporary storage  Inspection / control.

 Visibility of cost function relationship – essential aspect (Each work package) . Stages of Value engineering Review  Systematic value Engineering: Reduction in 10 - 20% of project cost.

Effort Value Engineering Review Benefit Basic Package Review Tender or Work Package Review Post Contract Engineering Review .

primary. Cost of each function – Percentage of total project cost. secondary & unnecessary Essence of Value Engineering – Identification & Elimination of unnecessary cost. comparison with industry average Determination of cost – work gap and establishing opportunity of value improvement. Inspection etc. . Function Analysis – Operation. Classification of functions .  Cost of each function – Estimation of cost of each     work package.

functioning improvement.Creativity Techniques  Organized Search for Ideas  Questioning Techniques  Critical Examination technique  Generation of ideas & checking for technoeconomic feasibility  Attribute Listing  Grafting of superior attribute to item or removal of interior attribute. .

sense of participation  Synectics  Generation of ideas in-group meeting  Use of analysis like direct.Creativity Techniques ……contd  Brainstorming  Simplicity. . personal fantasy and symbolic analogy.

Value Engineering Directives  Compulsory by contractual binding  Value Engineering – Production of better thing .

Purchase orders and Work orders  Directions to Internal Departments  Project charters. performance)  Commercial (Schedule. insurance etc.)  Managerial (Systems & procedures etc. personal meetings .  Direction to vendors & contractors  Purchase order & work orders. drawing inspection notice etc. circulars.  Types  Technical (Specifications.)  Administrative (routing of correspondence.) . inter-office memoranda. drawings. sequence. project manuals. group meetings.

Ongoing Directions  Decision without detailed study – Seat of the pant decisions.  Visualization of decision environment – Choice area .

Alternatives evaluation & selecting course of action Communication of decision to implementing individual or agency Checking working of decision .Rountine Directions  Routing directions 1. 5. 4. 3. Understanding decision environment Establishing decision alternatives. 2.

Progress Review meetings  Participant – Project team Engineering vendors. contractors  Scope:  Status implementation of decisions  Progress achieved  Problems  Decision regarding problems  Agreed action programme and progress target upto next review date .

Communication in Project Management Coordination Communication Direction Control .

 Communication Distortion .

Communication  Two way communication  Understand  Physical and mental aspects  Conscious and determined effort  .

 Use of communication devices.Organising for Communication  Communication effective organization  Barrier to communication – physical distance. .

Communication Oriented Action Plan  Organisation of work. people and workplace with     communication orientation Selection ad installation of appropriate communication devices. . Establishing healthy attitude towards communication by appropriate directions. Predetermined document distribution matrix. Project review and co-ordination meetings at predetermined frequency.

 Using desktop computer for communication.Communication Oriented Action Plan …. .contd  Implementing routine communication system.  Establishing a control room.  Installing structured reporting systems & procedures.  Running an in house magazine.

Feedback Communication  For every bit of action there must be a communication and for every bit of communication there must be feedback communication.  .

.Reporting System  Period feedback reports  Preparation of drawings & documents  Procurement of equipment & materials  Equipment to be manufactured at workshop  Equipment to be fabricated at site  Erection and commissioning work.

Pie-charts. magnetic boards  Use of microcomputers for data storage. .  Displays – 5 curves. processing & graphics. Layouts. data processing and data display. Bar charts. Histograms.Control Room  Conference room with facilities for data record.

 In depth analysis of problem in project  .  Provides opportunity for giving self-expression.Project News Letter  Objectives  Closing of Communication gap.  Promotion of team spirit.  Monthly – Fixed Date  Contributions from participating Staff.

Unscheduled Meetings and Social Get-togethers .

Who When . How.Project Coordination  Efforts to bring parts into proper relation for harmonious functioning  Need for simultaneous working – Supply and erection of equipment  Procedure  Physical matching and timing What .

Physical Co-ordination  Basic framework – Work breakdown structure  System level – Project Manager  Work package level – Package co-ordinator  Work item level – functional co-ordinator  Tayloring work of specialists .

Squad check exercise by small group to check documents or plans.Co-ordination meetings (routine or on demand)  .Physical Co-ordination  Ensuring day-to-day co-ordination  .Communication .Basis – look ahead schedule  . provision of right climate  .

agencies  Agency codes allows identification of interface.meeting points (Interfaces)   Type of Interfaces  System Interface – Work Breakdown structure  Organizational Interfaces  Customers.  Personal Interfaces  Lowest Level  Can not be clearly identified .Interface Management  Main thrust area of project  Parallel activities in project  Meet before infinity . govt.

schedule. . organization. contract . cost & performance goals.Project Control  Designer – Provision of control (planning and       direction) Driver .Controlling action Controlling a Project During Production period Establishment of Controls – WBS. Primary objective – Completion of project Secondary objectives – Time. systems & procedures Ongoing controlling activities using above controls.

 Steps in schedule and cost/ routine control  Setting targets  Measuring actual performance  Comparison between actual & standard  Corrective actions .

Scope / Progress Control  Task Lists  Estimation of total work quantum & efforts required for completion of tasks .  Functional control – Elimination of tasks not contributing to value .  Scope control – Prevention of inclusion of unauthorized work  Identification of progress stages – milestones .

No D1 D2 D3 D4 Description --------- Weightage W1 W2 W3 W4 Milestones M1 (P1%) M1 (P2%)     M1 (P3%) •WBS – Overall framework for progress aggregation •Assignment of weight to each WBS in proportion of cost contribution •Supported by task lists •Tasks & milestones – weightages in proportion to efforts.Total Project Agency A Agency B Agency C Design Procurement Construction Drg. .

Construction C% Wd x D + Wp x P + We x C  Progress of Agency B = -----------------------------------Wd + Wp+Wc WA x A + WB x B+ Wc x C  Total project progress = -------------------------------WA + WB + WC .w1p1 + w2p2 + w3p3 + w4p4  Design Progress = -------------------------------------w1+ w2 + w3  = D%  Procurement = P%.

 Transfer of commitments to project diary . Expediting and Follow up  Minutes of Meeting – Recording of actions & commitments.

Overall Progress Control  Knowledge of requirement of subsequent phases  Progress review at lower levels  Gap between progress achieved and committed  Progress review at higher levels  .Actual progress in any phase falls short of minimum required to support current feasible progress. .

Line of Balance  To Identify the weakest Link  Life cycle curves  State the progress at any particular time instant .

Progress Control 1] 2] 3] 4] Progress target setting Identification of problems Review for solutions Implementation of solutions .

 Design and specification to meet performance requirements .Performance Control  Requires continuous monitoring during production phase  Right specification selection of right vendors / contractors and right contractual stipulations regarding warranties and guarantees essential requirement.  Identification of performance parameters for eg. raw materials and power consumption per unit of production. Output.

6 times clinker production  Cement grinding unit 1. Cement plant.  200 tons clinker per day  Crushing and grinding unit 1.05 times  Capacity of coal mill material handling dust collection equipment .Performance Control  Use of line of balance concept  Eg.

--------_____ Upper Control Limit Line of balance Allowed range of variation .

configuration irrelevant or reduction in performance  Equipment specification change.By Engineering or any request for change in same during ordering or manufacture should be reviewed from all angles. written .Configuration Management and Change Control  Performance of project – Integrated performance of individual equipment / configuration as whole  Minor change .  Establishment of change control procedure – Notified. flexibility.

 Quality Assurance Plans  Inspection agency – checking for technical specifications. . qualification procedure.

/ Functional Deptts/ contractors  Activities exclusively for schedule control – schedule control activities .Schedule Control  Ensurance of adherence to agreed time schedule for project  Not an independent activity  Monitoring & control pf project and time – essential besides progress control to ensure adherence to project schedule (Level – I – corporate Management Level – II – Project Mgt.

hours expediting etc. .  Increased resources.Predictive Schedule Control  Starting point – Forecast of project completion activity  Schedule recovery recommendations – If project delivery dates can not be met. additional. new methods.

finalization of agency .Preventive Schedule Control  Keeping close watch on vulnerable areas  Delays in preproject activities – Zero date affected  Key areas  Building project team. . payment to vendors & contractors. commissioning . import licence.

Preventive Schedule Control  Project Manager level. Daily  Basis – level – II Schedules  Use of past experience on projects of similar nature   3. Progress Control – basis – Input.Schedule Status Reviews  1. Predictive Schedule Control  PM level and corporate Management level . output schedules  Daily at operating level  2.