REFRESH.refresh • Organization structure determines who works together –It is the way managers design their firms to achieve their organization’s mission and goals • Organizational communication flows through its structure. . . which affects: –behavior –human relations –performance . .

2 .Informal Organization Structure President Horizontal communication networks Vice President Production Vice President Finance Vice President Marketing Manager A Manager B Manager C Manager D Manager E Manager F Manager G Manager H Exhibit 6.

within departments and small groups .Communication Networks • Communication networks – sets of employees who have stable contact through which information is generated and transmitted • Two major types of communication networks: • 1. within organizations • 2.

Vertical and Horizontal Communication • Vertical Communication The flow of information both up and down the chain of command Formal communication Recognized as official Status and power are not equal among participants in vertical communication Horizontal Communication The flow of information between colleagues and peers Informal communication Does not follow the chain of command Not recognized as official • • • • • • • .

Organizational Communication • Organizational communication – the compounded interpersonal communication process across an organization • Communication flows in an organization are: –Vertical –Horizontal • Grapevine (multidirectional) .

Interpersonal Communication • Interpersonal communication deals with relationships between people. maintained. . usually in face-to-face private settings. and changed. • Interpersonal communication is the primary way relationships are created.

Grapevine Communication • Grapevine – the informal vehicle through which messages flow throughout the organization • “When the grapevine allows employees to know about a management decision almost before it is made. management must be doing something right.” .

Privacy •Predictability v. Autonomy •Openness v.Interpersonal Communication Contradictions in Relationships •Connection v. Novelty .

Disconfirming •Recognition •Acknowledgement •Endorsement .Interpersonal Communication Communication Climate: Overall feeling or psychological tone that exists when people are interacting. Confirming v.

Criticism Getting Criticism Giving Criticism .

Guidelines for Giving Effective Criticism • Give more praise than criticism • Criticize immediately • Criticism should be performance oriented • Give specific and accurate criticism • Open on a positive note and close by repeating what action is needed .

Message Transmission Channels Oral Communication Written Communication Nonverbal Communication .

Nonverbal Communication Facial Expressions Vocal Qualities Gestures Posture .

Oral Communication Media Face-to-Face Telephone Meetings Presentations .

Written Communication • With increased use of e-mail. managers substitute face-to-face communication with e-mail • Communication Objective Guidelines – Memos – Letters – Reports – Bulletin board notices – Posters – Computers/e-mail – Fax .

Emotions (1 of 2) • Emotional labor – requires • Universal emotions: the expression of desired – happiness emotions during – surprise interpersonal relations – fear – sadness – anger – disgust .

Emotions (2 of 2) • Understanding Feelings –Feelings are subjective – they tell you people’s attitudes and needs –Feelings are usually disguised as factual statements –Feelings are neither right nor wrong but behavior is • Gender Differences • Global Differences .

Dealing with Emotional Employees •Calming the emotional person •Use reflecting responses .