MECHANICS OF

MATERIALS
Third Edition
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf

Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University
CHAPTER
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
3
Torsion
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 2
Contents
Introduction
Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts
Net Torque Due to Internal Stresses
Axial Shear Components
Shaft Deformations
Shearing Strain
Stresses in Elastic Range
Normal Stresses
Torsional Failure Modes
Sample Problem 3.1
Angle of Twist in Elastic Range
Statically Indeterminate Shafts
Sample Problem 3.4
Design of Transmission Shafts
Stress Concentrations
Plastic Deformations
Elastoplastic Materials
Residual Stresses
Example 3.08/3.09
Torsion of Noncircular Members
Thin-Walled Hollow Shafts
Example 3.10
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 3
Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts
• Interested in stresses and strains of
circular shafts subjected to twisting
couples or torques
• Generator creates an equal and
opposite torque T’
• Shaft transmits the torque to the
generator
• Turbine exerts torque T on the shaft
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 4
Net Torque Due to Internal Stresses
( )
} }
= = dA dF T t µ µ
• Net of the internal shearing stresses is an
internal torque, equal and opposite to the
applied torque,
• Although the net torque due to the shearing
stresses is known, the distribution of the stresses
is not
• Unlike the normal stress due to axial loads, the
distribution of shearing stresses due to torsional
loads can not be assumed uniform.
• Distribution of shearing stresses is statically
indeterminate – must consider shaft
deformations
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 5
Axial Shear Components
• Torque applied to shaft produces shearing
stresses on the faces perpendicular to the
axis.
• The existence of the axial shear components is
demonstrated by considering a shaft made up
of axial slats.

The slats slide with respect to each other when
equal and opposite torques are applied to the
ends of the shaft.
• Conditions of equilibrium require the
existence of equal stresses on the faces of the
two planes containing the axis of the shaft
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 6
• From observation, the angle of twist of the
shaft is proportional to the applied torque and
to the shaft length.
L
T
·
·
|
|
Shaft Deformations
• When subjected to torsion, every cross-section
of a circular shaft remains plane and
undistorted.
• Cross-sections of noncircular (non-
axisymmetric) shafts are distorted when
subjected to torsion.
• Cross-sections for hollow and solid circular
shafts remain plain and undistorted because a
circular shaft is axisymmetric.
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 7
Shearing Strain
• Consider an interior section of the shaft. As a
torsional load is applied, an element on the
interior cylinder deforms into a rhombus.
• Shear strain is proportional to twist and radius
max max
and ¸
µ
¸
|
¸
c L
c
= =
L
L
µ|
¸ µ| ¸ = = or
• It follows that
• Since the ends of the element remain planar,
the shear strain is equal to angle of twist.
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 8
Stresses in Elastic Range
J
c
dA
c
dA T
max
2
max
t
µ
t
µt
}
=
}
= =
• Recall that the sum of the moments from
the internal stress distribution is equal to
the torque on the shaft at the section,
4
2
1
c J t =
( )
4
1
4
2
2
1
c c J ÷ = t
and
max
J
T
J
Tc µ
t t = =
• The results are known as the elastic torsion
formulas,
• Multiplying the previous equation by the
shear modulus,
max
¸
µ
¸ G
c
G =
max
t
µ
t
c
=
From Hooke’s Law,
¸ t G =
, so
The shearing stress varies linearly with the
radial position in the section.
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 9
Normal Stresses
• Elements with faces parallel and perpendicular
to the shaft axis are subjected to shear stresses
only. Normal stresses, shearing stresses or a
combination of both may be found for other
orientations.
( )
max
0
0 max
45
0 max 0 max
2
2
2 45 cos 2
o
t
t
o
t t
= = =
= =
A
A
A
F
A A F
• Consider an element at 45
o
to the shaft axis,
• Element a is in pure shear.
• Note that all stresses for elements a and c have
the same magnitude
• Element c is subjected to a tensile stress on
two faces and compressive stress on the other
two.
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 10
Torsional Failure Modes
• Ductile materials generally fail in
shear. Brittle materials are weaker in
tension than shear.

• When subjected to torsion, a ductile
specimen breaks along a plane of
maximum shear, i.e., a plane
perpendicular to the shaft axis.
• When subjected to torsion, a brittle
specimen breaks along planes
perpendicular to the direction in
which tension is a maximum, i.e.,
along surfaces at 45
o
to the shaft
axis.
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 11
Shaft BC is hollow with inner and outer
diameters of 90 mm and 120 mm,
respectively. Shafts AB and CD are solid
of diameter d. For the loading shown,
determine (a) the minimum and maximum
shearing stress in shaft BC, (b) the
required diameter d of shafts AB and CD
if the allowable shearing stress in these
shafts is 65 MPa.
Sample Problem 3.1
SOLUTION:
• Cut sections through shafts AB
and BC and perform static
equilibrium analysis to find
torque loadings
• Given allowable shearing stress
and applied torque, invert the
elastic torsion formula to find the
required diameter
• Apply elastic torsion formulas to
find minimum and maximum
stress on shaft BC
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 12
SOLUTION:
• Cut sections through shafts AB and BC
and perform static equilibrium analysis
to find torque loadings
( )
CD AB
AB x
T T
T M
= · =
÷ · = =
¿
m kN 6
m kN 6 0 ( ) ( )
m kN 20
m kN 14 m kN 6 0
· =
÷ · + · = =
¿
BC
BC x
T
T M
Sample Problem 3.1
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 13
• Apply elastic torsion formulas to
find minimum and maximum
stress on shaft BC
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
4 6
4 4 4
1
4
2
m 10 92 . 13
045 . 0 060 . 0
2 2
÷
× =
÷ = ÷ =
t t
c c J
( )( )
MPa 2 . 86
m 10 92 . 13
m 060 . 0 m kN 20
4 6
2
2 max
=
×
·
= = =
÷
J
c T
BC
t t
MPa 7 . 64
mm 60
mm 45
MPa 2 . 86
min
min
2
1
max
min
=
= =
t
t
t
t
c
c
MPa 7 . 64
MPa 2 . 86
min
max
=
=
t
t
• Given allowable shearing stress and
applied torque, invert the elastic torsion
formula to find the required diameter
m 10 9 . 38
m kN 6
65
3
3
2
4
2
max
÷
× =
·
= = =
c
c
MPa
c
Tc
J
Tc
t t
t
mm 8 . 77 2 = = c d
Sample Problem 3.1
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 14
Angle of Twist in Elastic Range
• Recall that the angle of twist and maximum
shearing strain are related,
L
c|
¸ =
max
• In the elastic range, the shearing strain and shear
are related by Hooke’s Law,
JG
Tc
G
= =
max
max
t
¸
• Equating the expressions for shearing strain and
solving for the angle of twist,
JG
TL
= |
• If the torsional loading or shaft cross-section
changes along the length, the angle of rotation is
found as the sum of segment rotations
¿
=
i i i
i i
G J
L T
|
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 15
• Given the shaft dimensions and the applied
torque, we would like to find the torque reactions
at A and B.
Statically Indeterminate Shafts
• From a free-body analysis of the shaft,


which is not sufficient to find the end torques.
The problem is statically indeterminate.
ft lb 90 · = +
B A
T T
ft lb 90
1 2
2 1
· = +
A A
T
J L
J L
T
• Substitute into the original equilibrium equation,
A B
B A
T
J L
J L
T
G J
L T
G J
L T
1 2
2 1
2
2
1
1
2 1
0 = = ÷ = + = | | |
• Divide the shaft into two components which
must have compatible deformations,
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 16
Sample Problem 3.4
Two solid steel shafts are connected
by gears. Knowing that for each shaft
G = 11.2 x 10
6
psi and that the
allowable shearing stress is 8 ksi,
determine (a) the largest torque T
0

that may be applied to the end of shaft
AB, (b) the corresponding angle
through which end A of shaft AB
rotates.
SOLUTION:
• Apply a static equilibrium analysis on
the two shafts to find a relationship
between T
CD
and T
0
• Find the corresponding angle of twist
for each shaft and the net angular
rotation of end A
• Find the maximum allowable torque
on each shaft – choose the smallest
• Apply a kinematic analysis to relate
the angular rotations of the gears
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 17
SOLUTION:
• Apply a static equilibrium analysis on
the two shafts to find a relationship
between T
CD
and T
0
( )
( )
0
0
8 . 2
in. 45 . 2 0
in. 875 . 0 0
T T
T F M
T F M
CD
CD C
B
=
÷ = =
÷ = =
¿
¿
• Apply a kinematic analysis to relate
the angular rotations of the gears
C B
C C
B
C
B
C C B B
r
r
r r
| |
| | |
| |
8 . 2
in. 875 . 0
in. 45 . 2
=
= =
=
Sample Problem 3.4
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 18
• Find the T
0
for the maximum
allowable torque on each shaft –
choose the smallest
( )
( )
( )
( )
in. lb 561
in. 5 . 0
in. 5 . 0 8 . 2
8000
in. lb 663
in. 375 . 0
in. 375 . 0
8000
0
4
2
0
max
0
4
2
0
max
· =
= =
· =
= =
T
T
psi
J
c T
T
T
psi
J
c T
CD
CD
AB
AB
t
t
t
t
in lb 561
0
· = T
• Find the corresponding angle of twist for each
shaft and the net angular rotation of end A
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
o o
/
o o
o
6 4
2
/
o
6 4
2
/
2.22 26 . 8
26 . 8 95 . 2 8 . 2 8 . 2
95 . 2 rad 514 . 0
psi 10 2 . 11 in. 5 . 0
. 24 in. lb 561 8 . 2
2.22 rad 387 . 0
psi 10 2 . 11 in. 375 . 0
. 24 in. lb 561
+ = + =
= = =
= =
×
·
= =
= =
×
·
= =
B A B A
C B
CD
CD
D C
AB
AB
B A
in
G J
L T
in
G J
L T
| | |
| |
|
|
t
t
o
48 . 10 =
A
|
Sample Problem 3.4
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 19
Design of Transmission Shafts
• Principal transmission shaft
performance specifications are:
- power
- speed
• Determine torque applied to shaft at
specified power and speed,
f
P P
T
fT T P
t e
t e
2
2
= =
= =
• Find shaft cross-section which will not
exceed the maximum allowable
shearing stress,
( )
( ) ( ) shafts hollow
2
shafts solid
2
max
4
1
4
2
2 2
max
3
max
t
t
t
t
t
T
c c
c c
J
T
c
c
J
J
Tc
= ÷ =
= =
=
• Designer must select shaft
material and cross-section to
meet performance specifications
without exceeding allowable
shearing stress.
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 20
Stress Concentrations
• The derivation of the torsion formula,


assumed a circular shaft with uniform
cross-section loaded through rigid end
plates.
J
Tc
=
max
t
J
Tc
K =
max
t
• Experimental or numerically determined
concentration factors are applied as
• The use of flange couplings, gears and
pulleys attached to shafts by keys in
keyways, and cross-section discontinuities
can cause stress concentrations
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 21
Plastic Deformations
• With the assumption of a linearly elastic material,
J
Tc
=
max
t
( )
}
=
}
=
c c
d d T
0
2
0
2 2 µ t µ t µ tµ µt
• The integral of the moments from the internal stress
distribution is equal to the torque on the shaft at the
section,
• Shearing strain varies linearly regardless of material
properties. Application of shearing-stress-strain
curve allows determination of stress distribution.
• If the yield strength is exceeded or the material has
a nonlinear shearing-stress-strain curve, this
expression does not hold.
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 22
• As , the torque approaches a limiting value, 0 ÷
Y
µ
torque plastic T T
Y P
= =
3
4
Elastoplastic Materials
• As the torque is increased, a plastic region
( ) develops around an elastic core ( )
Y
t t =
Y
Y
t
µ
µ
t =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
3
3
4
1
3
4
3
3
4
1
3
3
2
1 1
c
T
c
c T
Y
Y
Y
Y
µ µ
t t
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
3
3
4
1
3
4
1
|
|
Y
Y
T T
|
¸
µ
Y
L
Y
=
• At the maximum elastic torque,
Y Y Y
c
c
J
T t t t
3
2
1
= =
c
L
Y
Y
¸
| =
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 23
Residual Stresses
• Plastic region develops in a shaft when subjected to a
large enough torque
• On a T-| curve, the shaft unloads along a straight line
to an angle greater than zero
• When the torque is removed, the reduction of stress
and strain at each point takes place along a straight line
to a generally non-zero residual stress
• Residual stresses found from principle of superposition
( ) 0 =
}
dA t µ
J
Tc
m
= ' t
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 24
Example 3.08/3.09
A solid circular shaft is subjected to a
torque at each end.
Assuming that the shaft is made of an
elastoplastic material with
and determine (a) the
radius of the elastic core, (b) the
angle of twist of the shaft. When the
torque is removed, determine (c) the
permanent twist, (d) the distribution
of residual stresses.
MPa 150 =
Y
t
GPa 77 = G
m kN 6 . 4 · = T
SOLUTION:
• Solve Eq. (3.32) for µ
Y
/c and evaluate
the elastic core radius
• Find the residual stress distribution by
a superposition of the stress due to
twisting and untwisting the shaft
• Evaluate Eq. (3.16) for the angle
which the shaft untwists when the
torque is removed. The permanent
twist is the difference between the
angles of twist and untwist
• Solve Eq. (3.36) for the angle of twist
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 25
SOLUTION:
• Solve Eq. (3.32) for µ
Y
/c and
evaluate the elastic core radius
3
1
3 4 1
3
3
4
1
3
4
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = ¬
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
Y
Y Y
Y
T
T
c
c
T T
µ µ
( )
( )( )
m kN 68 . 3
m 10 25
m 10 614 Pa 10 150
m 10 614
m 10 25
3
4 9 6
4 9
3
2
1
4
2
1
· =
×
× ×
=
= ¬ =
× =
× = =
÷
÷
÷
÷
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
T
c
J
T
J
c T
c J
t
t
t t
630 . 0
68 . 3
6 . 4
3 4
3
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
c
Y
µ
mm 8 . 15 =
Y
µ
• Solve Eq. (3.36) for the angle of twist
( )( )
( )( )
o 3
3
3
4 9 -
3
8.50 rad 10 3 . 148
630 . 0
rad 10 4 . 93
rad 10 4 . 93
Pa 10 77 m 10 614
m 2 . 1 N 10 68 . 3
= × =
×
=
× =
× ×
×
= =
= ¬ =
÷
÷
÷
|
|
|
µ
|
|
µ
|
|
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y Y
Y
JG
L T
c c
o
50 . 8 = |
Example 3.08/3.09
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 26
• Evaluate Eq. (3.16) for the angle
which the shaft untwists when
the torque is removed. The
permanent twist is the difference
between the angles of twist and
untwist
( )( )
( )( )
( )
o
3 3
3
9 4 9
3
1.81
rad 10 8 . 116 10 8 . 116
rad 10 8 . 116
Pa 10 77 m 10 14 . 6
m 2 . 1 m N 10 6 . 4
=
× ÷ × =
' ÷ =
× =
× ×
· ×
=
= '
÷ ÷
÷
| |
|
p
φ
JG
TL
o
81 . 1 =
p
|
• Find the residual stress distribution by
a superposition of the stress due to
twisting and untwisting the shaft
( )( )
MPa 3 . 187
m 10 614
m 10 25 m N 10 6 . 4
4 9 -
3 3
max
=
×
× · ×
= = '
÷
J
Tc
t
Example 3.08/3.09
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 27
Torsion of Noncircular Members
• At large values of a/b, the maximum
shear stress and angle of twist for other
open sections are the same as a
rectangular bar.
G ab c
TL
ab c
T
3
2
2
1
max
= = | t
• For uniform rectangular cross-sections,
• Previous torsion formulas are valid for
axisymmetric or circular shafts
• Planar cross-sections of noncircular
shafts do not remain planar and stress
and strain distribution do not vary
linearly
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 28
Thin-Walled Hollow Shafts
• Summing forces in the x-direction on AB,


shear stress varies inversely with thickness
( ) ( )
flow shear
0
= = = =
A ÷ A = =
¿
q t t t
x t x t F
B B A A
B B A A x
t t t
t t
( ) ( )
tA
T
qA dA q dM T
dA q pds q ds t p dF p dM
2
2 2
2
0
0
=
= = =
= = = =
} }
t
t
• Compute the shaft torque from the integral
of the moments due to shear stress
}
=
t
ds
G A
TL
2
4
|
• Angle of twist (from Chapt 11)
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 29
Example 3.10
Extruded aluminum tubing with a rectangular
cross-section has a torque loading of 24 kip-
in. Determine the shearing stress in each of
the four walls with (a) uniform wall thickness
of 0.160 in. and wall thicknesses of (b) 0.120
in. on AB and CD and 0.200 in. on CD and
BD.
SOLUTION:
• Determine the shear flow through the
tubing walls
• Find the corresponding shearing stress
with each wall thickness
© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
T
h
i
r
d

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf
3 - 30
SOLUTION:
• Determine the shear flow through the
tubing walls
( )( )
( )
in.
kip
335 . 1
in. 986 . 8 2
in. - kip 24
2
in. 986 . 8 in. 34 . 2 in. 84 . 3
2
2
= = =
= =
A
T
q
A
• Find the corresponding shearing
stress with each wall thickness

with a uniform wall thickness,
in. 160 . 0
in. kip 335 . 1
= =
t
q
t
ksi 34 . 8 = t
with a variable wall thickness
in. 120 . 0
in. kip 335 . 1
= =
AC AB
t t
in. 200 . 0
in. kip 335 . 1
= =
CD BD
t t
ksi 13 . 11 = =
BC AB
t t
ksi 68 . 6 = =
CD BC
t t
Example 3.10

Third Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Contents
Introduction Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts Net Torque Due to Internal Stresses Axial Shear Components

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Statically Indeterminate Shafts Sample Problem 3.4 Design of Transmission Shafts

Stress Concentrations
Plastic Deformations Elastoplastic Materials Residual Stresses Example 3.08/3.09 Torsion of Noncircular Members Thin-Walled Hollow Shafts Example 3.10

Shaft Deformations
Shearing Strain Stresses in Elastic Range Normal Stresses Torsional Failure Modes Sample Problem 3.1 Angle of Twist in Elastic Range

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3-2

Third Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Interested in stresses and strains of circular shafts subjected to twisting couples or torques • Turbine exerts torque T on the shaft • Shaft transmits the torque to the generator • Generator creates an equal and opposite torque T’

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3-3

Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Net Torque Due to Internal Stresses Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Net of the internal shearing stresses is an internal torque. T    dF     dA • Although the net torque due to the shearing stresses is known. Inc. 3-4 . All rights reserved. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. the distribution of shearing stresses due to torsional loads can not be assumed uniform. the distribution of the stresses is not • Distribution of shearing stresses is statically indeterminate – must consider shaft deformations • Unlike the normal stress due to axial loads. equal and opposite to the applied torque.

3-5 . The slats slide with respect to each other when equal and opposite torques are applied to the ends of the shaft.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Axial Shear Components Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Torque applied to shaft produces shearing stresses on the faces perpendicular to the axis. All rights reserved. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. • Conditions of equilibrium require the existence of equal stresses on the faces of the two planes containing the axis of the shaft • The existence of the axial shear components is demonstrated by considering a shaft made up of axial slats. Inc.

the angle of twist of the shaft is proportional to the applied torque and to the shaft length. Inc. every cross-section of a circular shaft remains plane and undistorted. • Cross-sections for hollow and solid circular shafts remain plain and undistorted because a circular shaft is axisymmetric. All rights reserved. • Cross-sections of noncircular (nonaxisymmetric) shafts are distorted when subjected to torsion. 3-6 .Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Shaft Deformations Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • From observation.  T L • When subjected to torsion. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

an element on the interior cylinder deforms into a rhombus. All rights reserved. Inc. the shear strain is equal to angle of twist. As a torsional load is applied.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Shearing Strain Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Consider an interior section of the shaft. 3-7 . • It follows that L   or    L • Shear strain is proportional to twist and radius  max  c  and    max L c © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. • Since the ends of the element remain planar.

  T    dA  max   2 dA  max J c c 4 4 J  1  c2  c1 2   • The results are known as the elastic torsion formulas. All rights reserved. G   c G max From Hooke’s Law.  max  Tc T and   J J 3-8 © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. • Recall that the sum of the moments from the internal stress distribution is equal to the torque on the shaft at the section.   G .Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Stresses in Elastic Range Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Multiplying the previous equation by the shear modulus. . Inc. so  J  1  c4 2  c  max The shearing stress varies linearly with the radial position in the section.

• Element c is subjected to a tensile stress on two faces and compressive stress on the other two. 3-9 . • Consider an element at 45o to the shaft axis. • Note that all stresses for elements a and c have the same magnitude © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Normal Stresses Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Elements with faces parallel and perpendicular to the shaft axis are subjected to shear stresses only. Normal stresses. All rights reserved. shearing stresses or a combination of both may be found for other orientations. F  2 max A0 cos 45   max A0 2 F  max A0 2    max A A0 2  45o  • Element a is in pure shear. Inc.

• When subjected to torsion. a brittle specimen breaks along planes perpendicular to the direction in which tension is a maximum..e. a ductile specimen breaks along a plane of maximum shear. along surfaces at 45o to the shaft axis.10 .. • When subjected to torsion. Inc.e. 3 . i. Brittle materials are weaker in tension than shear. a plane perpendicular to the shaft axis. i. All rights reserved. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Torsional Failure Modes Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Ductile materials generally fail in shear.

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 3. Inc.1 SOLUTION: Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Cut sections through shafts AB and BC and perform static equilibrium analysis to find torque loadings • Apply elastic torsion formulas to find minimum and maximum stress on shaft BC • Given allowable shearing stress and applied torque.11 . invert the elastic torsion formula to find the required diameter Shaft BC is hollow with inner and outer diameters of 90 mm and 120 mm. All rights reserved. (b) the required diameter d of shafts AB and CD if the allowable shearing stress in these shafts is 65 MPa. determine (a) the minimum and maximum shearing stress in shaft BC. 3 . Shafts AB and CD are solid of diameter d. respectively. For the loading shown.

12 . Inc.1 SOLUTION: • Cut sections through shafts AB and BC and perform static equilibrium analysis to find torque loadings Beer • Johnston • DeWolf  M x  0  6 kN  m   TAB TAB  6 kN  m  TCD  M x  0  6 kN  m   14 kN  m   TBC TBC  20 kN  m © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 3 . All rights reserved.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 3.

060 m   J 13.2 MPa  min c1   max c2  min 86.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 3.2 MPa  45 mm 60 mm  max  86.2 MPa  min  64. All rights reserved.9 10 3 m d  2c  77.92 10 m 4 Tc Tc  J  c4 2 65 MPa  6 kN  m  c3 2  max   2  TBC c2 20 kN  m 0.8 mm  86.045 4  2 2 6  max   13. Inc.13  min  64.7 MPa © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .1 • Apply elastic torsion formulas to find minimum and maximum stress on shaft BC Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Given allowable shearing stress and applied torque. invert the elastic torsion formula to find the required diameter J  c24  c14    0.060 4  0.7 MPa 3 .92 10 6 m 4 c  38.

the angle of rotation is found as the sum of segment rotations   Ti Li i J i Gi TL JG © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Angle of Twist in Elastic Range Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Recall that the angle of twist and maximum shearing strain are related.  max   max G  Tc JG • Equating the expressions for shearing strain and solving for the angle of twist. All rights reserved. the shearing strain and shear are related by Hooke’s Law. Inc.  • If the torsional loading or shaft cross-section changes along the length. 3 .  max  c L • In the elastic range.14 .

• Divide the shaft into two components which must have compatible deformations. Inc.15 .Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Statically Indeterminate Shafts Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Given the shaft dimensions and the applied torque. TA  TB  90 lb  ft which is not sufficient to find the end torques. we would like to find the torque reactions at A and B. All rights reserved. LJ TA  1 2 TA  90 lb  ft L2 J1 © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. The problem is statically indeterminate. 3 . • From a free-body analysis of the shaft.   1  2  TA L1 TB L2  0 J1G J 2G LJ TB  1 2 TA L2 J1 • Substitute into the original equilibrium equation.

3 . Inc.2 x 106 psi and that the for each shaft and the net angular allowable shearing stress is 8 ksi.4 SOLUTION: Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Apply a static equilibrium analysis on the two shafts to find a relationship between TCD and T0 • Apply a kinematic analysis to relate the angular rotations of the gears Two solid steel shafts are connected by gears. Knowing that for each shaft • Find the corresponding angle of twist G = 11.16 • Find the maximum allowable torque on each shaft – choose the smallest . All rights reserved. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b) the corresponding angle through which end A of shaft AB rotates.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 3. rotation of end A determine (a) the largest torque T0 that may be applied to the end of shaft AB.

4 SOLUTION: • Apply a static equilibrium analysis on the two shafts to find a relationship between TCD and T0 Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Apply a kinematic analysis to relate the angular rotations of the gears  M B  0  F 0.17 .45 in. Inc.   TCD TCD  2.45 in.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 3. C  C rB 0.875 in.   T0  M C  0  F 2.8 T0 © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.8C 3 .875 in. All rights reserved.  B  2. rB B  rCC B  rC 2.

4 11. TAB L  J AB G  0.95o  8.2  106 psi 2    0.18   T0  561 lb  in. Inc.8 561lb  in. T0  561 lb  in © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.4 Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Find the T0 for the maximum • Find the corresponding angle of twist for each allowable torque on each shaft – shaft and the net angular rotation of end A choose the smallest A / B  561lb  in.24in.8 2.26o  A   B   A / B  8.95o  max   B  2.  J CD G  0.8C  2.  TABc 8000 psi  0  0.375 in.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 3.  8000 psi   0.5 in. 4 11. TCD L 2. 24in.8 T0 0. .514 rad  2.387 rad  2. 4 J AB 2 TCDc 2.5 in. All rights reserved.26o  2.375 in.5 in. 4 J CD 2  0.2  106 psi 2    max  T 0.375 in.22 o  A  10.22 o C / D  T0  663 lb  in.48o 3 .

 max  Tc J J  3 T  c  c 2  max solid shafts  J  4 4 T  c2  c1  c2 2c2  max   hollow shafts  © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 3 . All rights reserved. P  T  2fT T P  P 2f  • Find shaft cross-section which will not exceed the maximum allowable shearing stress. Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Determine torque applied to shaft at specified power and speed.speed • Designer must select shaft material and cross-section to meet performance specifications without exceeding allowable shearing stress.power .Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Design of Transmission Shafts • Principal transmission shaft performance specifications are: . Inc.19 .

Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Stress Concentrations Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • The derivation of the torsion formula. gears and pulleys attached to shafts by keys in keyways. Inc.20 . • The use of flange couplings.  max  Tc J assumed a circular shaft with uniform cross-section loaded through rigid end plates. All rights reserved. 3 . and cross-section discontinuities can cause stress concentrations • Experimental or numerically determined concentration factors are applied as  max  K Tc J © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

3 . • The integral of the moments from the internal stress distribution is equal to the torque on the shaft at the section. All rights reserved.  max  Tc J • If the yield strength is exceeded or the material has a nonlinear shearing-stress-strain curve.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Plastic Deformations Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • With the assumption of a linearly elastic material. • Shearing strain varies linearly regardless of material properties. Application of shearing-stress-strain curve allows determination of stress distribution. Inc.21 . this expression does not hold. T    2 d   2   2 d 0 0 c c © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc.22 . TP  4 TY  plastic torque 3 © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. TY  J  Y  1 c3 Y 2 c L Y c Beer • Johnston • DeWolf Y  • As the torque is increased. the torque approaches a limiting value.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Elastoplastic Materials • At the maximum elastic torque. a plastic region  Y )    Y ) develops around an elastic core (   ( Y  T L Y Y  2 c3 1  1 Y 3 4   3 Y   c   3  4 T 1  1 3 Y 4   3 Y   c3   T 3  4 T 1  1 Y  3 Y 4 3    • As Y  0. 3 .

Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Residual Stresses Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Plastic region develops in a shaft when subjected to a large enough torque • When the torque is removed.23 . Inc.    dA  0 3 . the reduction of stress and strain at each point takes place along a straight line to a generally non-zero residual stress • On a T- curve. All rights reserved. the shaft unloads along a straight line to an angle greater than zero • Residual stresses found from principle of superposition Tc  m  J © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

08/3. All rights reserved. (3.09 SOLUTION: Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Solve Eq. The permanent twist is the difference between the angles of twist and untwist • Find the residual stress distribution by a superposition of the stress due to twisting and untwisting the shaft © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.32) for Y/c and evaluate the elastic core radius • Solve Eq. determine (c) the permanent twist. Inc. (b) the angle of twist of the shaft. Assuming that the shaft is made of an elastoplastic material with Y  150 MPa and G  77 GPa determine (a) the radius of the elastic core. 3 . (3. • Evaluate Eq. (d) the distribution of residual stresses. When the torque is removed. (3.6 kN  m at each end.24 .Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 3.36) for the angle of twist A solid circular shaft is subjected to a torque T  4.16) for the angle which the shaft untwists when the torque is removed.

8 mm © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 10 3 rad  8.68  1 3  0.09 SOLUTION: • Solve Eq.6    4 3  c  3.68 10 3 N 1.2 m  Y   JG 614 10 -9 m 4 77 10 Pa       614  10 9 m 4 Y  150 106 Pa 614 10 9 m4  TY  25 10 3 m  3.25 .32) for Y/c and evaluate the elastic core radius 3  4 T 1  1 Y   T3 Y  4 c3    Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Solve Eq.4 10 3 rad   148 . (3.630   8.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 3.68 kN  m TY c J  J  TY  Y c Y  93.630 Y  15.50 o Y 4. Inc. (3. All rights reserved.08/3. 3 .4 10 3 rad 93.50 o 0.36) for the angle of twist 1  3 Y J 1 c 4 2  1 2 25 10 m 3  T  4 3  c  TY       Y Y c   Y Y c TY L 3.

8  10 3  116 .Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 3. (3.6  10 3 N  m 25  10 3 m   max   J 614  10 -9 m 4  187 .81o TL JG    p  1.8  10 3 rad  1.6 103 N  m1. .2 m   6. All rights reserved.09 • Evaluate Eq.14 109 m4 77 109 Pa   116 .08/3.26 © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.81o 3 .3 MPa    4.8  10 3 rad φp      116 . The permanent twist is the difference between the angles of twist and untwist   Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Find the residual stress distribution by a superposition of the stress due to twisting and untwisting the shaft Tc 4.16) for the angle which the shaft untwists when the torque is removed.

 max  T c1ab2  TL c2 ab3G • At large values of a/b. the maximum shear stress and angle of twist for other open sections are the same as a rectangular bar.27 . All rights reserved. Inc.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Torsion of Noncircular Members Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Previous torsion formulas are valid for axisymmetric or circular shafts • Planar cross-sections of noncircular shafts do not remain planar and stress and strain distribution do not vary linearly • For uniform rectangular cross-sections. 3 . © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

3 .28 . Inc.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Thin-Walled Hollow Shafts Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Summing forces in the x-direction on AB. All rights reserved.  Fx  0   A t Ax    B t B x   At A  Bt B   t  q  shear flow shear stress varies inversely with thickness • Compute the shaft torque from the integral of the moments due to shear stress dM 0  p dF  p t ds   q pds   2q dA T   dM 0   2q dA  2qA  T 2tA • Angle of twist (from Chapt 11)   4 A2G t TL ds © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc. SOLUTION: • Determine the shear flow through the tubing walls • Find the corresponding shearing stress with each wall thickness © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.160 in. 3 . on AB and CD and 0.120 in. on CD and BD.200 in. and wall thicknesses of (b) 0.10 Beer • Johnston • DeWolf Extruded aluminum tubing with a rectangular cross-section has a torque loading of 24 kipin.29 . Determine the shearing stress in each of the four walls with (a) uniform wall thickness of 0. All rights reserved.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 3.

 t 0.34 in.160 in.84 in.   8.200 in. All rights reserved.986 in.335 2 A 2 8.13 ksi  BD   CD  1. 2 in. 3 .  AB   AC  1.335 kip in.986 in.    AB   BC  11.30 .120 in. 0.   8.Third Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Example 3.335 kip in. Inc.68 ksi © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.10 SOLUTION: • Determine the shear flow through the tubing walls Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Find the corresponding shearing stress with each wall thickness with a uniform wall thickness.  q 1.in. 0.  BC   CD  6.335 kip in. kip   1. 2 q T 24 kip .34 ksi with a variable wall thickness A  3. 2.