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First Lecture 09 July 2007 mdzuri@usm.my drmdzuri76.wordpress.

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Learning disabilities what are they?


1. Learning Disabilities refers to a variety of disorders that affect the acquisition, retention, understanding, organization or use of verbal and/or non-verbal information.

2. Learning disabilities are present in at least 10 percent of the population.


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What is a learning disability?

Interestingly, there is no clear and widely accepted definition of "learning disabilities." Because of the multidisciplinary nature of the field, there is ongoing debate on the issue of definition.

Learning Disabilities

Federal law defines specific learning disabilities as psychological processing disorders that result in deficits in at least one of the academic skills (U.S. Office of Education, 1977). A child with this label does not have mental retardation, behavior disorders or other major disabilities. The child with LD has difficulty with processing skills such as memory, visual perception, auditory perception, or thinking; and as a result has trouble achieving in at least one subject such as reading, math, or writing (Lerner, 2003). Some of the typical characteristics associated with learning disabilities include problems in reading, mathematics, writing, and oral language; deficits in interpreting what is seen or heard; difficulty with study skills, self-control, self-esteem, memory, and attention (Mercer, 1997).
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These disparate definitions do agree on certain factors:


The learning disabled have difficulties with academic achievement and progress. The learning disabled show an uneven pattern of development (language development, physical development, academic development and/or perceptual development). Learning problems are not due to environmental disadvantage. Learning problems are not due to mental retardation or emotional disturbance.

Kategori Masalah Pembelajaran?


Dignosa perubatan di bawah kategori ini merangkumi:

1. Lewat Perkembangan (Global Development Delay) (bagi kanakkanak berumur < 3 tahun)
2. Down' Syndrome dan Autisma

3. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)


4. Terencat Akal (Mental Retardation) (bagi kanak-kanak berumur > 3 tahun) 5. Masalah pembelajaran spesifik seperti dyslexia, dyspraxia, Hyperlexia,apraxia dll

How prevalent are learning disabilities?


Experts estimate that 6 to 10 percent of the school-aged population in the United States is learning disabled. Nearly 40 percent of the children enrolled in the nation's special education classes suffer from a learning disability. The Foundation for Children With Learning Disabilities estimates that there are 6 million adults with learning disabilities as well.

What causes learning disabilities?

Little is currently known about the causes of learning disabilities. However, some general observations can be made:

Some causes

Some children develop and mature at a slower rate than others in the same age group. As a result, they may not be able to do the expected school work. This kind of learning disability is called "maturational lag."

Some children with normal vision and hearing may misinterpret everyday sights and sounds because of some unexplained disorder of the nervous system.
Injuries before birth or in early childhood probably account for some later learning problems. Children born prematurely and children who had medical problems soon after birth sometimes have learning disabilities. Learning disabilities tend to run in families, so some learning disabilities may be inherited. Learning disabilities are more common in boys than girls, possibly because boys tend to mature more slowly. Some learning disabilities appear to be linked to the irregular spelling, pronunciation, and structure of the English language. The incidence of learning disabilities is lower in Spanish or Italian speaking countries.
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What are the "early warning signs" of learning disabilities?


Children with learning disabilities exhibit a wide range of symptoms.

problems with reading, mathematics, comprehension, writing, spoken language, or reasoning abilities.

Learning disabilities typically affect five general areas:


Spoken language: delays, disorders, and deviations in listening and speaking. Written language: difficulties with reading, writing and spelling. Arithmetic: difficulty in performing arithmetic operations or in understanding basic concepts. Reasoning: difficulty in organizing and integrating thoughts. Memory: difficulty in remembering information and instructions.

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Among the symptoms commonly related to learning disabilities are:

poor performance on group tests difficulty discriminating size, shape, color difficulty with temporal (time) concepts distorted concept of body image reversals in writing and reading general awkwardness poor visual-motor coordination hyperactivity
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Among the symptoms commonly related to learning disabilities are: difficulty copying accurately from a model slowness in completing work poor organizational skills easily confused by instructions difficulty with abstract reasoning and/or problem solving disorganized thinking often obsesses on one topic or idea poor short-term or long-term memory
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Among the symptoms commonly related to learning disabilities are:


impulsive behavior; lack of reflective thought prior to action low tolerance for frustration excessive movement during sleep poor peer relationships overly excitable during group play poor social judgment inappropriate, unselective, and often excessive display of affection lags in developmental milestones (e.g. motor, language)
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Among the symptoms commonly related to learning disabilities are:


behavior often inappropriate for situation failure to see consequences for his actions overly gullible; easily led by peers excessive variation in mood and responsiveness poor adjustment to environmental changes overly distractible; difficulty concentrating difficulty making decisions lack of hand preference or mixed dominance difficulty with tasks requiring sequencing

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When considering these symptoms, it is important to remain mindful of the following: No one will have all these symptoms. Among LD populations, some symptoms are more common than others. All people have at least two or three of these problems to some degree. The number of symptoms seen in a particular child does not give an indication as whether the disability is mild or severe. It is important to consider if the behaviors are chronic and appear in clusters.

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What should a parent do if it is suspected that a child has a learning disability?


The parent should contact the child's school and arrange for testing and evaluation. Federal law requires that public school districts provide special education and related services to children who need them. If these tests indicate that the child requires special educational services, the school evaluation team (planning and placement team) will meet to develop an individual educational plan (IEP) geared to the child's needs. The IEP describes in detail an educational plan designed to remediate and compensate for the child's difficulties. Simultaneously, the parent should take the child to the family pediatrician for a complete physical examination. The child should be examined for correctable problems (e.g. poor vision or hearing loss) that may cause difficulty in school.

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How does a learning disability affect the parents of the child?

Research indicates that parental reaction to the diagnosis of learning disability is more pronounced than in any other area of exceptionality. the parent of an LD child goes through a series of emotions before truly accepting the child and his problem.

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DENIAL: "There is really nothing wrong!" "That's the way I was as a child--not to worry!" "He'll grow out of it!" BLAME: "You baby him!" "You expect too much of him." "It's not from my side of the family." FEAR: "Maybe they're not telling me the real problem!" "Is it worse than they say?" "Will he ever marry? go to college? graduate?" ENVY: "Why can't he be like his sister or his cousins?" MOURNING: "He could have been such a success, if not for the learning disability!"
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BARGAINING: "Wait 'till next year!" "Maybe the problem will improve if we move! (or he goes to camp, etc.)." ANGER: "The teachers don't know anything." "I hate this neighborhood, this school...this teacher." GUILT: "My mother was right; I should have used cloth diapers when he was a baby." "I shouldn't have worked during his first year." "I am being punished for something and my child is suffering as a result." ISOLATION: "Nobody else knows or cares about my child." "You and I against the world. No one else understands." FLIGHT: "Let's try this new therapy--Donahue says it works!" "We are going to go from clinic to clinic until somebody tells me what I want to hear.!"

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Pointers for parents of children with learning disabilities.


Take the time to listen to your children as much as you can (really try to get their "Message"). Love them by touching them, hugging them, tickling them, wrestling with them (they need lots of physical contact). Look for and encourage their strengths, interests, and abilities. Help them to use these as compensations for any limitations or disabilities. Reward them with praise, good words, smiles, and pat on the back as often as you can. Accept them for what they are and for their human potential for growth and development. Be realistic in your expectations and demands. Involve them in establishing rules and regulations, schedules, and family activities. ell them when they misbehave and explain how you feel about their behavior; then have them propose other more acceptable ways of behaving. Help them to correct their errors and mistakes by showing or demonstrating what they should do. Don't nag!

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Give them reasonable chores and a regular family work responsibility whenever possible. Give them an allowance as early as possible and then help them plan to spend within it. Provide toys, games, motor activities and opportunities that will stimulate them in their development. Read enjoyable stories to them and with them. Encourage them to ask questions, discuss stories, tell the story, and to reread stories. Further their ability to concentrate by reducing distracting aspects of their environment as much as possible (provide them with a place to work, study and play). Don't get hung up on traditional school grades! It is important that they progress at their own rates and be rewarded for doing so. 22

Take them to libraries and encourage them to select and check out books of interest. Have them share their books with you. Provide stimulating books and reading material around the house. Help them to develop self-esteem and to compete with self rather than with others. Insist that they cooperate socially by playing, helping, and serving others in the family and the community. Serve as a model to them by reading and discussing material of personal interest. Share with them some of the things you are reading and doing. Don't hesitate to consult with teachers or other specialists whenever you feel it to be necessary in order to better understand what might be done to help your child learn.

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Second Lecture 16 July 2007

Theories
popular theory is that learning disabilities are genetically transmitted. the brains of learning-disabled people might be different from the non-learning disabled. Ignorance-Drugs-Vitamins

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Theory of cognitive development (Jean Piaget 18961980)


Sensorimotor stage (years 02) Preoperational stage (years 27) Concrete operational stage (years 711) Formal operational stage (years 11adulthood)

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Sensorimotor stage (0-2 yrs)

According to Piaget, this child is in the sensorimotor stage and primarily explores the world with senses rather than through mental operations.

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Sensorimotor stage The first sub-stage


known as the reflex schema stage, occurs from birth to six weeks and is associated primarily with the development of reflexes.
sucking of objects in the mouth, following moving or interesting objects with the eyes, and closing of the hand when an object makes contact with the palm (palmar grasp).

first six weeks of life, these reflexes begin to become voluntary actions

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The second sub-stage


primary circular reaction phase, occurs from six weeks to four months and is associated primarily with the development of habits repeating of an action (passing their hand before their face).

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The third sub-stage


The secondary circular reactions phase, occurs from four to nine months and is associated primarily with the development of coordination between vision and prehension. Three new abilities occur at this stage intentional grasping for a desired object, secondary circular reactions, and differentiations between ends and means

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The fourth sub-stage


the co-ordination of secondary circular reactions phase, occurs from nine to twelve month (the development of logic) This is an extremely important stage of development, holding what Piaget calls the "first proper intelligence.

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The fifth sub-stage


the tertiary circular reactions phase, occurs from twelve to eighteen months and is associated primarily with the discovery of new means to meet goals. Piaget describes the child at this juncture as the "young scientist,"

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The sixth sub-stage


known as the invention of new means through mental combinations phase is associated primarily with the beginnings of insight, or true creativity.

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Preoperational stage (2-7yrs)


1)Symbolic functioning 2)Centration 3)Intuitive thought 4)Egocentrism 5)Seriation 6)Classification 7)Inability to Conserve 8)Animism

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Symbolic functioning
characterised by the use of mental symbols, words, or pictures, which the child uses to represent something which is not physically present.

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Centration (berpusat)
characterized by a child focusing or attending to only one aspect of a stimulus or situation. For example, in pouring a quantity of liquid from a narrow beaker into a shallow dish, a preschool child might judge the quantity of liquid to have decreased, because it is "lower"that is, the child attends to the height of the water, but not to the compensating increase in the diameter of the container.
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Intuitive thought (pemikiran intuitif)


occurs when the child is able to believe in something without knowing why she or he believes it.

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Egocentrism
a version of centration, this denotes a tendency of a child to only think from her or his own point of view. Also, the inability of a child to take the point of view of others. Example, if a child is in trouble, he or she might cover her eyes thinking if I cannot see myself my mom cannot either.

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Seriation
the ability to arrange objects in an order according to size, shape, or any other characteristic. For example, if given different-shaded objects they may make a colour gradient.

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Classification
the ability to name and identify sets of objects according to appearance, size or other characteristic, including the idea that one set of objects can include another. A child is no longer subject to the illogical limitations of animism (the belief that all objects are animals and therefore have feelings).

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Inability to Conserve
lack perception of conservation of mass, volume, and number after the original form has changed. For example, a child in this phase will believe that a string of beads set up in a "OOOO" pattern will have a larger number of beads than a string which has a "OOOO" pattern, because the latter pattern has less space in between Os; or that a tall, thin 8-ounce cup has more liquid in it than a wide, short 8-ounce cup

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Animism
The child believes that inanimate objects have "lifelike" qualities and are capable of action. Example, a child plays with a doll and treats it like a real person. In a way this is like using their imagination.

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Concrete operational stage (7-11)


Decentering Reversibility Conservation Elimination of Egocentrism

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Decentering (tidak berpusat)


where the child takes into account multiple aspects of a problem to solve it. For example, the child will no longer perceive an exceptionally wide but short cup to contain less than a normally-wide, taller cup.

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Reversibility (terbalikan)
where the child understands that numbers or objects can be changed, then returned to their original state. For this reason, a child will be able to rapidly determine that if 4+4 equals 8, 84 will equal 4, the original quantity.

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Conservation
understanding that quantity, length or number of items is unrelated to the arrangement or appearance of the object or items. For instance, when a child is presented with two equally-sized, full cups they will be able to discern that if water is transferred to a pitcher it will conserve the quantity and be equal to the other filled cup.
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Elimination of Egocentrism
the ability to view things from another's perspective (even if they think incorrectly)

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Formal operational stage (12-18)


able to think abstractly and draw conclusions from the information available

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Pavlov

B.F Skinner

Behaviourism theory
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One of Pavlovs Dogs

Ransangan & tindakbalas

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skinner
Reinforcement (peneguhan)

Punishment (hukuman)

Extinction (penghapusan)

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Behavioral Theory
Break down tasks into small segments Model, demonstrate, and explain each step in a procedure or new task Include as much extra practice and review as needed for mastery to occur Incorporate structure and predictable routine into lessons Use monitoring and feedback as lesson progresses rather than waiting until conclusion

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Constructivist Theory (J. Bruner 1960) Principles:


1. Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn (readiness). 2. Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student (spiral organization).

3. Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps (going beyond the information given).

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the learners are actively involved the environment is democratic the activities are interactive and student-centered the teacher facilitates a process of learning in which students are encouraged to be responsible and autonomous students work primarily in groups and learning and knowledge are interactive and dynamic.

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great focus and emphasis on social and communication skills, as well as collaboration and exchange of ideas

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Constructivist Theory and Practice


learning should be meaningful and related to real life situations base the instruction on what the students already know as a foundation (mapping and brainstorming) focus on key ideas and the relationships of these ideas within the subject areas and across subject areas Active learning High level thinking skills

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Sekian Terima Kasih

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