• Konsep dan Terminologi Di dlm pengiriman data • Transmisi data analog dan digital • Gangguan transmisi (Impairment) • Analisis Fourier • Kuat sinyal (Signal Strength) dan Decibels

Sources of signal impairment
Signal carried on transmission medium affected by:

- Attenuation(kebalikan dari penguatan) - Limited Bandwidth(keterbatasan jalan) - Delay Distortion(tertunda) - Noise(ganguan)

Sources of signal impairment

Sumber dari perusakan sinyal

•Signal Attenuation: Decrease in signal amplitude as it propagates along transmission medium
- Consequence: Limit length of cable to be used - Solution : Amplifiers (Repeaters) used to restore signal to original level. - Property : Signal attenuation increases as a function of frequency.

Possible remedies : - Non Linear amplifiers or Equalizers

Attenuation (lanjutan)
•Signal Amplification ( Gain ): Increase in signal amplitude

Contoh (Attenuation)

Contoh (Lanjutan)

Signaling Rate vs. Data Bit Rate

Limited Bandwidth
• Bandwidth of a communication / transmission medium:
– band of sinusoidal frequency components (f1to f2) that will – be transmitted by the channel unattenuated

• Question: What is the effect of channel bandwidth on transmitted signal ?

Fourier analysis
• A periodic signal is made of an infinite series of sinusoidal frequency components - Fundamental frequency component : same frequency as initial periodic signal, cycles per sec (Hz) - Harmonics : other frequency components, multiples of fundamental frequency.

Fourier analysis
v(t )  a   an cos n( 0)t   bn sin n( 0)t
n 1 n 1  

• V(t) = tegangan sinyal (periodis) sebagai fungsi waktu • W0 = komponen frekuensi fondamental (rad/sec) • T= 2π/W0 atau W0 = 2 πf0

Aplikasi analisis Fourier
(Untuk transmisi data)
Possible binary sequences (periodic) : (1) 1 0 1 0 1 0 …… period = 2 bit cell intervals (2) 1 1 0 1 1 0 ….. period = 3 bit cell intervals (3) 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 …. period = 4 bit cell intervals Note: (1) has shortest period, highest fundamental frequency component: worst-case sequence

Aplikasi analisis Fourier
(Untuk transmisi data) Basic Binary Signal Types: • Unipolar Signal (Return to zero, RZ) Amplitudes : +V, 0; Mean Signal Level = V /2 • Bipolar Signal (Non Return–To–Zero , NRZ) Amplitudes : +V, -V; Mean Signal Level = 0

Aplikasi analisis Fourier
(Untuk transmisi data)

Aplikasi analisis Fourier
(Untuk transmisi data)

Aplikasi analisis Fourier
(Untuk transmisi data) General Observations: • A periodic binary sequence is made of an infinite series of sinusoidal signals made of
-A fundamental frequency component, f0 -A third harmonic component , 3f0 -A fifth harmonic component , 5f0

Note: Odd harmonics only

Aplikasi analisis Fourier
(Untuk transmisi data)/Lanjutan
• The amplitude of the harmonics diminishes with increasing frequency • T (Signal Period) = 2*Tb (Bit Period)
Tb = T/2; 1/ Tb = 2/T = 2 * 1/T R (bit rate) = 2 * f0 (fundamental frequency)

• When binary data signal transmitted on a channel, only those frequency components that are within channel bandwidth will be received • A channel with a bandwidth :
From 0 to fundamental frequency (half the bit rate) can often give satisfactory performance

Aplikasi analisis Fourier (Untuk transmisi data)
Analysis Effect of Limited Bandwidth:

Aplikasi analisis Fourier
(Untuk transmisi data)
Effect of Limited Bandwidth

Aplikasi analisis Fourier
(Untuk transmisi data)
Effect of Limited Bandwidth:

Contoh :
• A binary signal of R (bit rate) = 500 bps is transmitted on a communication channel • What is the minimum bandwidth required, assuming
(a) Fundamental frequency only (b) Fundamental and third harmonic (c) Fundamental,third and fifth harmonics

• Solution :
For R = 500bps, f0 = R/2 = 250 Hz (a) 0 – 250 Hz (b) 0 – 750 Hz (c ) 0 – 1250 Hz

Laju transfer informasi maksimum
Untuk kanal transmisi (noiseless) (the Nyquist Formula) C = 2W log2M where W : bandwidth of the channel (Hz) M: number of levels per signaling element log2M : number of bits/signaling element

Laju transfer informasi maksimum (Contoh)
Data is sent over a PSTN with : M = 8 levels /signaling element W = 3,000 Hz Q: What is the Nyquist maximum data transfer rate ? A:
C = 2W log2M = 2*3000*log28 = 2*3000*3 = 18,000 bps

Bandwidth Efficiency of a Transmission Channel
B = R/W = 1/(W* Tb) bps Hz-1
Observations: • The higher the bit rate relative to the available bandwidth, the higher the bandwidth efficiency • Typical values for B: 0.25 - 3.0bps Hz-1, (B=3.0 requires a high signal rate) •Another expression for bandwidth efficiency:
R = RS. m = RS log2 M B = R/W = (R S log2 M) /W

M is number of levels per signaling element log2 M is number of bits per signaling element

Delay Distortion
• Rate of propagation of a signal over a channel is function of frequency of signal • Consequence: Delay Distortion – different frequency components arrive with different delays • Delay distortion increases with bit rate • Inter symbol interference : frequency components of a bit start to interfere with a later bit • Use of an eye diagram : oscilloscope displays all possible signals superimposed

Delay Distortion (Lanjutan)

• Line Noise level : Random perturbations(gangguan) on the line, even when no signal present. Consequence: Interference between (attenuated) transmitted signal and line (background) noise • Signal-to noise ratio: (SNR) SNR = 10log10(S/N) dB
S : average power in received signal (watts) N : noise power (watts)

Noise (Lanjutan)
Theoretical data rate of a transmission channel (Shannon – Hartley law)

C = W log2(1 + S/N) bps
Where W = Bandwidth (Hz). S = Average signal power (watts) N = Random noise power (watts)

Noise (Lanjutan)
Theoretical data rate of a transmission channel (Shannon – Hartley law)
Given a PSTN with: W = 3000 Hz, and SNR = 20 dB determine maximum theoretical data rate A: SNR = 10log10(S/N) 20 = 10log10 (S/N) , untuk S/N = 102 = 100. C = W log2(1 + S/N) = 3000 log2(1+100) = 19,963 bps.

Noise (Lanjutan)
• Cross Talk: Noise caused by unwanted electrical coupling between adjacent lines • Near – End Cross Talk (NEXT) or Self – Cross Talk: Strong signal output from transmitter circuit interferes with weak signal at receiver circuit Solution: Adaptive NEXT cancellers • Impulse Noise: Caused by external electrical activity – impulses (lightning, impulses from old switching systems) Observation : Both cross talk and impulse noise are caused by electrical activity external to transmission line