What is polyamide

A polyamide is a polymer containing monomers of amides joined by peptide bonds. They can occur both naturally, examples being proteins, such as wool and silk, and can be made artificially through step-growth polymerization, examples being nylons, aramids, and sodium poly (aspartate).Here we get two word amide & peptide bond.

3-D Structure

aramid etc. examples being proteins.Types of Polyamide Mainly there are two types of poly-amide.  Synthetic polyamide such as nylon. Here we’ll keep our discussion limited within synthetic polyamide if said more specifically then it’s on nylon . such as wool & silk.  Natural polyamide.

 Elongation-26-32% (regular filament)  Elastic recovery-about 100% upto 8% extension (no impact in textile use)  Initial modulas-40-60g/den  Average toughness-1. silk. remain 90% of dry.Physical & Chemical properties related to dyeing Tenacity-4-9gm/den (in dry cond). or cotton. in wet condition. rayon.08  .  Its tensile strength is higher than that of wool.

Physical & Chemical properties related to dyeing Specific gravity:1. rot. fungi and animals molds.5%  Melting point: 250°C(Approximately)  No mildew or bacterial effects  High resistance to: insects.  .14  Moistur regain:4-4. mildew.

[29] . conc.phenol.Physical & Chemical properties related to dyeing      Extremely chemically stable Acids: Dilute acid have little effect Hot mineral acid decomposes nylon Alkalis: excellent resistant to alkali. It can be boiled in strong caustic soda without damage Organic solvent: Fibre not attacked by solvent during dry.cleaning.cresol are suitable solvent. formic acid.

Washing with a detergent and soda ash (Na2CO3) at 70 °C usually removes spin finishes and lubricants present on the filaments and any polyvinyl alcohol or other synthetic size on woven fabric.Preparation of nylon before dyeing  Nylon filaments are relatively free from impurities. .

[25] . the temperature is well above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of nylon. When treated in hot water. Heat setting avoids fabric deformation and shrinkage provided that the temperature is higher than that to which the material will be subsequently exposed. Fabrics may give considerable changes in dimensions as filament tensions introduced during manufacture relax.Heat setting:  Nylon is a thermoplastic polymer.

Selection of different dye types for nylon: .

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sulphonated acid dyes interacting with protonated amino end groups)  Cationic dyes (interactions with ionised carboxy end groups).  .This scheme indicates that these polyamide polymers will have substantivity for hydrophobic dyes (interactions with tetramethylene and hexamethylene hydrophobic regions)  Anionic dyes (for example.

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below pH 3.5.  Above pH 3.5.0. confirming that the overall positive charge is reducing to zero.and trisulphonated acid dyes. di.  Above pH 7. nylon behaves as if it possesses a net positive charge and exhibits a strong attraction for bulky anions such as simple mono-.  . nylon is increasingly negatively charged and has a strong attraction for cations.Thus. nylon shows a diminishing attraction for these anions.

windbreakers. underwear. tarpaulins. sleeping bags. hoses. and cycle wear. ski apparel.  . racket strings.  Home Furnishings: Bedspreads. ropes and nets. carpets. upholstery  Industrial and Other Uses: Tire cord. hosiery. lingerie. raincoats. dental floss. thread. foundation garments. monofilament fishing line.Some Major Nylon Fiber Uses: Apparel: Blouses. curtains. tents. dresses. swimwear. parachutes. conveyer and seat belts.

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These are applied on substrate in acidic medium in the dyebath range from sulphuric acid (dyebath pH<2. These are usually sodium salts of sulphonic acids & less frequently of carboxylic acid.0) to ammonium acetate (dyebath pH>6. It’s an anionic dye.5). both natural & synthetic. They have special affinity to polyamide. . They do give dyed substrate with bright shade having high light fastness.Properties       Acid dye is a water soluble dye.

.Types of dye Strong acid dye/dispersed dye/Levelling dye II. Neutral acid dye/Super milling dye/Aggregated dye I. Weak acid dye/Partially aggregated dye/Milling dye III.

and adsorption and binding of the dye anions at these positive sites. This is done by the hydrogen ions supplied by the acid used in the dyebath.Dyeing mechanism:   By Ion Exchange Process/Coulombic Interaction: Dyeing of acid dyes on nylon involves the creation of positive sites at the end amino groups of the fibre macromoleculcs.+ Dye=   = HOOC — Nylon — NH3+XHOOC — Nylon — NH3+Dye. The electrostatic bond formed between the dye anion and fibre positive site being fairly strong. HOOC — Nylon — NH2 + H + + X HOOC — Nylon — NH3+X.+ X- .

Non-polarinteractions are also capable of playing an important role. Dye-dye and dye-fibre hydrophobic interactions might be expected in such regions. have a profound influence on its dyeing behaviourFor large hydrophobic dye molecules. however. the amino group content of nylon is usually 45mmol/kg whereas wool posses 820mmol/kg  The limited number of amino groups in nylon and its more hydrophobic nature.  Moreover.   . Hydrophobic Interaction Dyeing is not solely a consequence of simple ionic interaction. These additional dye-fibre forces may involve dipole interactions. hydrogen bonding. and dispersion forces operating between groups in the dye molecule and appropriate groups in the nylon. Nylon have regions along the polymer chains that are quite hydrophobic. being void of ionic and polar groups.02. other types of dye-fibre interactions become important besides coulombic attraction.

[26]-223 . So. And the creation of the positive site at the end of amino group is done by the donation of proton by acid. we can say for dyeing some proton doner is mandatory.Important factors of Acid dyeing/Formation of Recipe       ACID? It is stated earlier that the reaction site in nylon is amino group for acid dye. The dye uptake (or exhastion of the dyebath) depends on the concentration of the acid in the dyebath. The dye uptake (or exhastion of the dyebath) depends on the nature of the acid (whether strong or weak).

Here as ammonium sulphate.        Acid or Acid liberating agent or Both? In practice acid is used where highly acidic medium is recommended. these type of dye require mild acidic to neutral medium at the start of dyeing & then slowly decrease of pH. But formic acid is recommended as there is a possibility of hydrolysis of nylon in case of sulphuric acid. In case of milling or super milling dye/high molecular wt dye usually acid & acid liberating agent is used together. And the acid used is dilute sulphuric acid or formic acid. sodium sulphate are used as acid liberating agent & actic acid is usually used as acid. The reason behind this is. Here acid liberating agent ensure mild acidic to neutral medium & slow dosing of acid ensure slower decrease of pH. in case of leveling acid dye/low molecular wt dye. . ammoniaum acetate.

.0 depending on types of dye used.0-7.pH? This is stated earlier in types of dye as range from 3.

[25]-274 . The temperature at which the initial rate of dyeing begins to significantly increase is called the dyeing transition temperature (Td). Best dyeing results are obtained if the dyeing is started at about 40 oC & temperature gradually raised to the boil. now containing dye molecules. This temperature. there is little dye absorption. Once the temperature exceeds Tg the movement of polymer chain segments is then possible. allows a significant increase in the rate of diffusion of dye into the polymer matrix. is often 20-30oC higher than Tg under the given dyeing conditions. The increasing size and mobility of these voids. because they are converted to molecular dispersion (fine dispersion) from colloidal dispersion at high temperature. On the temperature exceeds the value of TD. however. however. the greater ease of chain mobility creates voids whose average volume has increased to the point that allows dye molecules to enter them. Therefore. As a result rate of dye absorption as diffusion of dye molecules into the polymer matrix becomes easier.Temperature?        The glass transition temperature (Tg) of water-saturated nylon probably not much greater than about 40oC. Practically no dyeing take places below 40 oC. in spite of the increased mobility at temperatures above Tg resulting from easier polymer chain rotation. Specially high temperature is recommended for high molecular wt dye / hydrophobic dye / aggregate dye. At temperatures somewhat higher than Tg the voids between chains in the amorphous polymer are too small to accommodate large molecules. These are the theoretical aspects.

As the dyeing proceed.      Levelling/Retarding agent? Due to high initial color strike of acid dye on a substrate there occurs poor unlevelness or unevenness of dyeing. To solve this problem some leveling / retarding agent have to be used. it is difficult to correct subsequently. Anionic leveling agent attacks the cationic site / positive site of nylon that is ammonium ion & blocked/masked this position. Incase of cationic/non-ionic leveling agent. this comples dissociates to relese dyes to attack the cationic site of nylon    . As dyeing proceeds. There are two main types of leveling agent anionic & cationic/non-ionic. this agent forms complex with dye(Dye-Aux+). If once caused this unevenness.thus inhibits initial high colour strike. the temp. Thus they retard the high initial colour strike of dye on the nylon. increased & pH fall & cationic site release these leveling agent & dye anions got the chance to be bonded with fibre.

0 g/l Ammonium sulfate =2.0 g/l Acetic acid =Y g/l Acid dyes =X% Temperature =100°C Time =30-50 min. Sodium acetate =1.0 g/l Antifoaming agent =0. M:L=1:8 to 1:10       .0 g/l Or.       Application procedure[23]-225 Typical recipe Wetting agent =0.1-0.0-4.5-1.5 g/l Levelling agent=1.0-2.0 g/l Anticreasing agent =1.0-2.0-2.

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5 at the boil. This is less successful with high substantivity acid dyes.5 pH level (with acetic acid).0-8.       Aftretreatment : Rinse twice with hot and cold water successively. Rinse again to clean unexpected chemicals any more.[25]-227     . Chemical stripping requires the use of reducing agents such as sodium sulphoxylate-formaldehyde (NaSO2. The bath can then be acidified and the dcsorbcd dye re-exhausted onto the nylon. At this pH. Correction of shade/shade matching To correct unlevel dyeings on nylon. there are few ammonium ion groups and some of the dye desorbs.20 min at 4 .CH2OH) but complete stripping may be difficult. For improvement of polyamide dyeing with acid dyes can improve by treating with a suitable fixing agent at 60 -70oC for 15 . the goods are treated at pH 8.

   Natural tanning agents This process is known as the ‘full back-tan’ and involves treating the dyed nylon with tannic acid (2% owf). The effect can be partially lost on steam setting. located at the surface of the dyed nylon. Although the full back-tan often results in quite dramatic improvement in wash-fastness of acid dyes on nylon. and therefore time consuming. at pH 4. Tartar emetic is toxic. Back-tanning reduces the light-fastness of the dyes on nylon. followed by a treatment in a separate bath containing potassium antimonyl tartrate (tartar emetic) (2% owf) at pH 4.        .0 (CH3COOH) for 20 minutes at 80°C. which restricts diffusion of anionic dye molecules out of the substrate during washing. The process is expensive. the process suffers from the following disadvantages: The process is in two stages. Tannic acid discolours on exposure to light. It is considered that the full back-tan results in the formation of a large sparingly watersoluble anionic complex.0 for 20 minutes at 80 °C.

Xylidine . Neonyl Supracid. Novamina Erganil. Lurazol Supramine.Manufacturer ACNA BASF Bayer Swiss-color Francolor Country Trade (brand name) Naphthol. Supranol Benzyl. Kiton.

Metal-Complex Dyes On Polyamide .

What is Metal-Complex Dye? Actually it comes from the concept of „Mordanting‟ – where specific Metals are used as a bridge between the substrate and chromophore.  . so the combined structure is termed as „Metal-Complex‟.  Metals form complex ions by co-ordinate & covalent bonds with the chromophore & fiber structure.

Metal Complex Dyes on Nylon What is the reason behind? .

4 – 5 (ISO fastness test) if metal complex dyed .Scopes & Purposes of using Metallization in Nylon Dyeing      Some specific metals like .Chromium.6 – 7 (SDC test) . Tin etc. Cobalt. The metal atom is supposed to form a complex with the dyestuff molecule already bonded with the substrate. Nickel. When Acid Dyes are used in Nylon Processing incorporated with Metal ion as complexion with dyestuffs Nylon gets some improve of fastness propertiesWash fastness scale of Nylon: if normal Acid dyed . Thus they improve the light & wash fastness of dyes. Copper.5 – 6 (SDC test) if metal complex dyed . also Iron is used in modern developed process.5 – 6 (ISO fastness test) Light fastness Scale of Nylon: if normal Acid dyed .

Pre-metallised: where dyes are premetallised with suitable metals & directly used for dyeing. Two classes 1:1 metal complex dyes 1:2 metal complex dyes 2.Metal-Complex Dyes for Nylon Metals can be used in Nylon in two ways – 1. Acid-Mordant: where dyeing with Acid dyes & mordanting with metals are separately done. .

Salts of Chromium. . sodium or potassium dichromate is mostly used. For nylon.Acid-Mordant dyes on Nylon    Mordant dyes combine with metallic oxides and hydroxides by forming both covalent and co-ordinate bonds to give metal dye complex also called „LAKES‟. Iron. Chromium is vastly used as mordant & among the salts of chromium. Tin etc is suitable as Mordant. Cobalt. Copper. Acid dyes having sulphontes groups in structures of specially o:o‟ dihydroxy azo classes are suitable to use as acid mordanting.

. c) Meta-Chrome process. b) After-Chrome Process.Methods of application a) Chrome-Mordant process.

Dyeing process now restricted mainly to „blacks‟.   Not applicable in commercially. Good leveling properties. left in the nylon. No risk of spoilage. . promotes tendering on exposure to light.Advantages:     Disadvantages:    Good fastness properties. If dye particles are present in the chroming bath dyes precipitate on the material surface. After chroming always bring some change in color. Residual di-chromate. as shade correction & color matching is tough. Low dyestuff cost. which results poor rubbing fastness. So complete exhaustion is required.

As a logical extension of chrome dyes into the fiber. . the „pre-metallised‟ dye then can be applied in the fiber in a very simple process. This would eliminate the chroming process by the dyer. even though the „Metachrome‟ process is a single bath process many chrome dyes cannot be dyed in this process. it follows that if chromium is incorporated with the dyestuff molecule by the manufacture.Pre-metallised Dye on Nylon  The process of separate dyeing & chroming are very lengthy & cumbersome.    First pre-metallised dyes was achieved in 1915 when CIBA & IG produced Neolan & Palatine Fast dyes respectively.

 Solubilizing action of Sulphonic acid depends on the properties of sulphonate ion which contain oxygen atoms which are strong acid donors. .Chemistry involved in Pre-metallised Dyes 1:1 metal complex dye  only one dyestuff is attached with the central metal atom.  The formation of co-ordination bonds with both the fiber and with dyestuff depends on the Sulphonic acid groups.  But this electron donors creates problems like “Skittering” & reduce Exhaustion.

1:2 metal-complex dyes

They have 2 dyestuff molecules associated with one metal atom. These have very good exhaustion properties.

Dye Fixation Mechanism

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covalent bonds (through hydroxy groups of the fiber). co-ordinate bonds (through free amino groups of the fiber). electrovalent bonds (through protonated amino groups of the fiber).

Effect of Premetallized dyes on Polyamide fiber:  They build up well on the polyamide fiber into Heavy shades.  There affinity depends on the physical & hydrogen bonding.  There wash & light fastness properties are extremely good.

Limitations:  If the initial adsorption is not uniform, level dyeing will be very hard to achieve.  They are the worst of all classes in case of covering yarn variation.

0g/l 1.5) X% 100°C 30-50 min 1:8 to 1:10 .0-2.Application of metal-complex dyes (premetallised dye) on nylon Typical recipe –  Wetting agent  Leveling agent  Anticreasing agent  Borax  Metal-complex dye  Temperature  Time  M:L = = = = = = = = 0.8.0-2. pH 8 .5-1.0g/l Y g/l (for maintaining.0g/l 1.

Dyeing Curve .

so preferred for darker shades only. Hard to control the leveling of dyeing. Metal sometimes accused of being health hazardous & toxic to environment.Metal complex dyes have got some limitations      They have very few ranges of shades. Hard to produce light shades. . They are the worse than the other classes in case of covering the yarn variation.

Dokki.exhaustion is 98% to 90% under temperature Ranging from 60 to 90oC This Result demonstrate that it is possible to obtain more environmentally safe dyeing by Iron-complexed Acid Mordant dyes with a high affinity for both nylon & wool & good fastness properties.excellent Light Fastness ranging 5-6 . Egypt (internet entry C. Shishtawy & M. . Cairo. This Showed very good fastness result especially in dye class “Acid Mordant Orange 2R”with Fe complex.excellent Wash Fastness ranging 4-5 .Modern Development [According to the study of R. The Chromium (III) is replaced by safer Iron (II) by the researchers using three commercial azo Acid mordant dyes & applied to Nylon Fabrics. M. Kamel of Textile Research division of National Research Center. It shows following Results: .E.T 2002)]      The previously used Chromium and others are toxicologically & ecologically hazardous. M.

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5-5.  . high temp burning there occurs the fading of colour.  Application require dispersing agent. open gas fire. no ionic group. insoluble & molecularly dispersed.0. thermosol.  There are available different dyeing method carrier. no sulphonated group & also due to high temp heating. HTHP.  Applied on substrate in mild acidic medium pH-4.  Possibility of dye sublimation due to low molecular size of dye. non-ionic.Properties of dye: They are organic chemical substance.  In the face of NO gas from electric heater.  Widely used in the colouration of synthetic fibre.

in the first stecarried out in four distinct step1. By structural relaxation: II. Diffusion of Dye . Dispersion of dye Done by dispersing agent & rise in temp. 1. So. By film formation b) In HTHP method: 2.Dyeing mechanism Generally dyeing of nylon disperse dye is of dye: We know disperse dye is non-ionic & water insoluble dye. Absorption of dye a) Carrier method: I.

4. . By H-bonding: between dye & fibre By dipole-dipole bonding: In the dyed materials. the dye can not come out or there occur the mechanical trapping.At low temp. when hole are reduced in size. Fixation of Dye: Fixation can be performed in three waysa. c. By mechanical trapping: In high temp. Thus dipole-dipole bond is cerated between two dipoles by van-der-walls force. b. through large hole of substrate dye enter inside the substrate. dipoles originate due to difference of electronegativity of adjacent atom.

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So. to increase the dye solubility & to make uniform dispersion of dye in the dye bath. Most of the time actic acid is the best choice. Temperature? As the dyeing of disperse dye mostly occurred by structural relaxation of the substrate.so we need to maintain the dye bath temp above Tg.5 . The Tg of nylon not less than 40oC . dispersing agent is mandatory.Optimum . Acetic acid? The application of disperse dye requires mild acidic medium (pH4.5. Time? For performing distinct four stages it need time. This is maintain by a mild acid.Best dyeing is obtained at above 80oC.Recipe formation     Dispersing agent? We know disperse dye is non-ionic & water insoluble dye.0).

80°C for 10 .0 g/l  Dyes = X%  Acetic acid (50%) = 0.  Rinse twice with hot and cold water. and then  Neutralize with acetic acid.5 .t and cold  Treat the fabric with alkali solution at 70 .2.  .Application Of Dye Typical recipe  Dispersing agent = 0.0 .2.  M:L = 1 : 10  Afterteratment  Rinse twice with howater.0 g/l (to maintain pH=4-5)  Temperature = 80 .100°C (maximum 120°C as vender recommendation)  Time = 30 .15 minutes.1.0 .2.60 mins.5 .0 g/l  Levelling agent = 1.0 g/l  Sequestering agent = 1.

Dyeing Curve .

. wet and washfastness properties of these dyes on nylon is – with the exception of 2:1 metal-complex disperse and reactive disperse dyes very poor.and washfastness properties are not required. Fastness property Disperse dyes cover both physical and chemical variations in the fibre very well. and consequently their use is restricted to applications where high wet. However. The light-fastness of the dyeings is normally good.

mainly pale shades for fabrics (e.  Disadvantages of using disperse dye  Poor to moderate wet fastness. .  Economical and easy to apply.  Level dyeing. especially in heavy shades.  Limited shades. so it is good for light shades. Advantages of using disperse dye  Barre effect does not appear on nylon like in case of dyeing with acid dyes.g. lingerie fabrics and sheer hose) that do not require repeated or severe washing.  Disperse dyes on nylon are sensitive to fading by ozone and nitrogen dioxide.  Good migration during dyeing.

Structures were not widely published. . specifically for nylon dyeing. Procinyl Red GS. Procinyl Orange GS and Procinyl Blue RS. but the patent literature indicates that a mixture of reactive groups were used. Scott and Vickerstaff [14] described the basic chemistry of this system. Procinyl Scarlet GS. including chlorohydrin. chlorotriazine and chloro-ethyl-aminosulphone. These dyes were subsequently withdrawn from the market in the 1980s. I Five dyes were marketed: Procinyl Yellow GS. but aspects of their chemistry and application to nylon are well worth recording. A Russian paper [15] on dyeing wool with Procinyl Blue RS confirmed its structure.Reactive disperse dye      CI developed a range of reactive disperse dyes the Procinyls.

which reacts covalently with nucleophilic sites. . Under alkaline conditions the unreactive chlorohydrin form eliminates HCl to form the highly reactive bisepoxide.

on a pilot scale. production has recently commenced. In Japan. of reactive disperse dyes targeted at solving the important problem of producing dyed microfibre blends of polyamide and polyester with good wet-fastness properties. .

Modification In Dyeing Properties Of Nylon .

Modification of dyeing properties of polymer.   Modification of specific polymer properties. .Modifications done-  Modification Of polymerisation process of nylon polymer.

Advantage of Modification     Deep dyeing of Nylon. Application of Basic dyes on Nylon. Application of Direct dyes on Nylon. Application of Reactive dyes on Nylon. .

Deep Dyeing of Nylon .

 .This is done by the following modification Modification of the polymerisation process to give a polymer with a higher amine end group (AEG) content consequent increased substantivity towards anionic dyes that is Acid dyes.

(2) by adding p-toluene sulphonic acid derivatives to the system. .It can be achieved by(1) increasing the proportion of diamine in the reaction mixture[40]. OR by adding phosphinic or phosphonic acid derivatives to prevent oxidative loss of diamine [41]. which protects the free amino end groups during polymer and yarn manufacture.

3.6 and polycaprolactam (nylon 6). (4) by modifying the melt-spinning process such that the disposition of the polymer chains favours penetration of dye molecules – for example.5benzene tricarboxylic acid) (fig shown below). by co-extruding nylon 6. .(3) by producing a branched-chain polymer – for example. by copolymerisation with trimesic acid (1.

Application Of Basic Dyes On Nylon .

The affinity of Basic dyes to nylon can be increased by the following way by introducing strongly acidic groups (for example. – SO3H) into the fibre during the polymerisation process.5disulphobenzene-1-carboxylic acid (fig shown below).5-dicarboxybenzene-1sulphonic acid or at the end of a chain by using 3. . Such groups can be introduced either within a chain by copolymerisation with 3.

C.7-disulphonate. Thus I.5-5 molar per cent of disodium 9. bis-p-carbamethyl-fluorene-2.addition of acetylated caprolactam or butyrolactone to the polymerisation system. in Dutch Patent (07)67-1250 state that the affinity of nylon 66 for basic dyes is increased if there is included in the monomer (nylon salt) 0.I.9. a body with the structure.[30] .

Manufacturers are very cognisant of any dyeing deficiencies in their fibres and will go to a lot of trouble to put them right Mixtures of different nylon types in a carpet give attractive multi-colour effects because of their differential dyeing behaviour.[01][25] . Basic dyestuffs can be used for nylon. but ordinarily give only poor fastness to light and to washing.

Application Of Reactive Dyes On Nylon. .

they have been extremely successful on cotton and wool fibres.  As a class.Basic Concept About Reactive Dyes On Nylon  Reactive dyes contain fibre-reactive side-chains. capable of forming covalent bonds with nucleophilic sites in appropriate fibres during the dyeing process. . since they are capable of producing a very wide gamut of shades with excellent wet-fastness properties.

full shades on nylon with good wet-fastness properties. the causes of this unsatisfactory situation are worth further investigation. . However. only giving sufficient covalent bonding in pale to moderate depths.  In the light of renewed current demands for bright. on nylon fibres Reactive dyes are not so successful. in full depths the dye is present mainly as unfixed anionic dye and thus exhibits the indifferent wet fastness properties of acid dyes.

These dyes are very sensitive to physical & chemical variations in the fibre. They produce bright shades of good wet fastness on spun nylon. so they are not suitable for dyeing nylon filament. can be applied to polyamide fibre. Drimarene. Amaryl. The sulphonic acid group present in the rective dye is responsible for fixation of the dye on the polyamide fibre. . Remajol. Reactone.Cellulose reactive dyes such as Procion. Primazin etc.

soaped at 85oC for 15 minutes with 2 g/l Lissapol ND and 2 g/l soda ash. The temperature is raised slowly to 95oC and the material is dyed at this temp.Application Procedure       Formic acid 4% and predissolved dyestuff is added to the bath. . pH is maintained at 4 to 5. Then material is rinsed. Run for one hour.

Dyes which react by a nucleophilic substitution reaction Hetero-cyclic ring bearing halogeno subtituents generally performs nucleophilic substitution reaction during fixation.Dyes which react by a nucleophilic addition reaction[01] Fixation Mechanism Of Reactive Dye Generally Remazol dye based on 2sulphatoethylsulphone precursor of vinyl sulphone or related species follow this mechanism. .

6 according to[01] .The MCT dye will fix to nylon 6.

thus enhancing the nucleophilic character of the fibre. There are clearly potential advantages in using cationic reactive dyes since. the fibre is negatively charged and the majority of the amino groups are deprotonated.Cationic Reactive Dye  A Sandoz patent [16] has claimed vinylsulphonyl dyes containing a pendant cationic group as reactive dyes for nylon which give level dyeings of high wet-fastness.  . under alkaline conditions.

Application Of Direct Dye On Nylon .

 Some dyestuffs of this class are used successfully for dyeing nylon. and they may be applied to nylon by methods similar to those used for acid dyes.  The useful colours are. [29]-226   . The wash fastness of these dyestuffs on nylon is better than that of the same dyes on cotton or wool. in general. those which are similar in chemical structure to the acid dyes. Direct dyestuffs provide shades of good fastness to washing and to perspiration. others are of little use.

Application Of Cross-linking Agents .

The first crosslinking agent to be studied was N. nylon I and nylon II) were dyed with a monochloro-striazine dye.   This compound was prepared and applied to nylon from an aqueous anionic dispersion. In a series of papers.N′. Ho and Lewis [18-21] considered the use of crosslinking agents. either as a means to increase the number of amino functional groups in nylon. .  The three substrates (untreated nylon.N″triacroylaminohexahydro-s-triazine (FAP) [18]. or as a means to covalently link dyes.

 Dyeings on substrate nylon I indicated that the majority of the original primary amine residues were no longer available for nucleophilic substitution reactions with the MCT dye.confirming successful introduction of additional amine groups. .  Substrate nylon II gave the best exhaustion and covalent fixation of the MCT dye.

Problems Of Nylon Dyeing .

 Environmental problems. Baree or stripiness.  Poor wet-fastness in full.  Inadequate photostability of the base fibre. .  The poor light-fastness of copper phthalocyanine-based turquoise blue shades. such as those related to the use of compounds of heavy metals. bright shades.

Bareé

visual difference in colour depth, and possibly of hue, along the length of dyed nylon filaments in a fabric caused by physical and chemical variations in the polymer. It gives a continuous pattern of colour stripes seen in the course direction in circular knits, as warp streaks in warp knits Many acid dyes tend to accentuate barré, some dyes being more sensitive to chemical variations in the polymer filaments and others to physical variations.

Reason of Chemical Variations

Due to non-uniform distribution of the polymer amino groups, which causes variations in the rate of dye up-take and particularly the equilibrium dye content of the filaments. Polyamide formation is reversible and the amino group content may change as additional polycondcnsation or hydrolysis occur when the nylon is at high temperatures during processes such as heat setting or texturing.

The number and distribution of amino groups may also vary because of their oxidation during processing.

Reason of Physical Variations
01.Due to variations in the
degree

of polymer orientation degree of polymer crystallinity.

02.Uneven treatment in processes as
   

texturising, fabric heat setting, filament tensions filament drawing

will uniformly cover most barre.Solution of the problem BARRÉ  Barre from physical variations in filaments can be minimised by using levelling acid dyes. disperse dyes.   . such as CI Disperse Blue 3. or by promoting dye migration by dyeing above 100°C. Because of their good migration properties on nylon. Pretreating the goods with an anionic blocking agent before the acid dyes are in the dyebath.

levelling agents. above the prevailing dyeing transition temperature. Pressure dyeing. is also beneficial.  Pretreatment of the nylon material in a blank dyebath at a temperature around 85-90 °C. . all minimise barre. dyeing with added benzyl alcohol. and dyeing with additions of.

 . Under these conditions. A new dyeing process for nylon. uses this principle. developed by Du Pont and called the 'Infinity' process. the movement of polymer chain segments allows the relaxation of tensions.

usually in the range 75-90 °C. The dye solution slowly runs into the bath over about 45 min using a metering pump. Running the goods in a blank bath containing the appropriate weak acid. [01][25][26]    . at a constant temperature above the prevailing dyeing transition temperature. The name of the process comes from the condition of infinite exhaustion that prevails throughout dyeing. The conditions are such that the dye strike is so rapid that the actual concentration of dye in the bath is essentially zero during the entire dyeing operation.

Concluding Comment  There is evidence that nylon dyeing processes are being reevaluated due to the demands of achieving better levelness and wet-fastness properties.   . nylon has lost out in the automotive upholstery market. To regain this market. It is also important because of the perceived environmental problems with pre-metallised dyes. mainly to polyester. It is also interesting to reflect that despite its better textile properties. in terms of recovery from deformation. new research is undoubtedly required to improve the light-fastness of dyeings and the photostability of the base polymer.   How to achieve high light-fastness dyeings from non-metallised dyes is an issue which researchers will have to address.

Imon Khan Roll Number 013 029 033 049 054 .Wakil Hasan Md.Rakibul Hassan Md.Rejaul Hasan Md.Sazzad Bin Wahid Md.Contributor Name Md.