Subpart O - Machine Guarding

OTI 501 Paul Schlumper


We Will Cover:

Machine Guarding Principles Subpart O - Highlights Mock Plant Walk-Through


Why are machines not guarded?


No one would stick their arm, hand, finger, head, etc. in there. No one is supposed to be back there, in there, around it while it is running. The machine came that way; it never had a guard. I’ve been doing it this way for twenty years without any problems.

Why are machines not guarded? (cont. We’ll put it back on if OSHA comes. ‹#› .) The guard is in the way The OSHA inspector didn’t say anything about it.

Emphasis on Amputations : Where does it apply? General industry employers whose workplaces include: shears saws slicers slitters power presses ‹#› (the 4s and a P) .

prevent worker’s body or clothing from contacting hazardous moving parts  Secure .must not prevent worker from performing the job quickly and comfortably  Allow safe lubrication .must not have shear points. jagged edges or unfinished surfaces  Create no interference .ensure that no objects can fall into moving parts  Create no new hazards .firmly secured to machine and not easily removed  Protect from falling objects .if possible. be able to lubricate the machine without removing the safeguards ‹#› .Requirements for Safeguards  Prevent contact .

Where machine hazards occur: Point of operation Mechanical power transmission Other moving parts ‹#› .

Machine Hazards ‹#› .

Machine Guarding ‹#› .

In-Running Nip Points Rotating cylinders Belt and pulley Chain and sprocket Rack and pinion ‹#› .

Methods of machine safeguarding Physical guards Devices Location/Distance ‹#› .

)  gates  Location/distance  Feeding and ejection methods  automatic and/or semiautomatic feed and ejection  robots  Miscellaneous aids  awareness barriers  protective shields  hand-feeding tools ‹#› . etc.Methods of Machine Safeguarding  Guards  fixed  interlocked  adjustable  self-adjusting  Devices  presence sensing  pullback  restraint  safety controls (tripwire cable. two-hand contol.

Guards Fixed Interlocked Adjustable Self-adjusting ‹#› .

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‹#› . preferable to all other types of guards.Fixed Guard Provides a barrier .a permanent part of the machine.

Interlocked Guard When this type of guard is opened or removed. Interlocked guard on revolving drum ‹#› . the tripping mechanism and/or power automatically shuts off or disengages. and the machine cannot cycle or be started until the guard is back in place.

Adjustable Guard Provides a barrier which may be adjusted to facilitate a variety of production operations. Bandsaw blade adjustable guard ‹#› .

Circular table saw self-adjusting guard ‹#› .Self-Adjusting Guard Provides a barrier which moves according to the size of the stock entering the danger area.

Safeguarding devices Presence sensing Pullback Restraint Safety controls and trips Gates ‹#› .

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Pullback Device  Utilizes a series of cables attached to the operator’s hands. and/or arms  Primarily used on machines with stroking action  Allows access to the point of operation when the slide/ram is up  Withdraws hands when the slide/ram begins to descend ‹#› . wrists.

Pullback Device (cont’d)  Hands in die. feeding  Point of operation exposed  Pullback device attached and properly adjusted ‹#›  Die closed  Hands withdrawn from point of operation by pullback device .

Restraint Device  Uses cables or straps attached to the operator’s hands and a fixed point  Must be adjusted to let the operator’s hands travel within a predetermined safe area  Hand-feeding tools are often necessary if the operation involves placing material into the danger area ‹#› .

Safety Tripwire Cables  Device located around the perimeter of or near the danger area  Operator must be able to reach the cable to stop the machine ‹#› .

Two-Hand Control  Requires constant. concurrent pressure to activate the machine  The operator’s hands are required to be at a safe location (on control buttons) and at a safe distance from the danger area while the machine completes its closing cycle ‹#› .

Gate  Movable barrier device which protects the operator at the point of operation before the machine cycle can be started  If the gate does not fully close. machine will not function Gate Open ‹#› Gate Closed .

Safeguarding by Location/Distance  Locate the machine or its dangerous moving parts so that they are not accessible or do not present a hazard to a worker during normal operation  Maintain a safe distance from the danger area ‹#› .

Automatic Feed (shown on power press) Transparent Enclosure Guard Stock Feed Roll Danger Area Completed Work ‹#› .

Robots  Machines that load and unload stock. transfer objects. assemble parts. or perform other tasks  Best used in highproduction processes requiring repeated routines where they prevent other hazards to employees ‹#› .

Protective Shields These do not give complete protection from machine hazards. or coolants. but do provide some protection from flying particles. splashing cutting oils. ‹#› .

Holding Tools Used to place and remove stock in the danger area Not to be used instead of other machine safeguards. but as a supplement ‹#› .

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Mechanical power transmission .Abrasive wheel machinery 216 .Woodworking machinery 215 .Mills and calendars 217 .Forging machines 219 .‹#› Subpart O .Definitions 212 .General requirements 213 .Machinery and Machine Guarding 211 .Mechanical power presses 218 .

1910.212 General Requirements for all Machines ‹#› .

flying chips and sparks. rotating parts. ‹#› . ingoing nip points.1910.212(a)(1) One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from hazards such as those created by the point of operation.

shall be guarded ‹#› .212(a)(3)(ii) The point of operation of machines whose operation exposes an employee to injury.1910.

the blades shall be guarded.212(a)(5) When the periphery of the blades of a fan is less than seven (7) feet above the floor or working level. ‹#› . The guard shall have openings no larger than 1/2 inch.1910.

‹#› .212(b) Machines designed for a fixed location shall be securely anchored to prevent walking or moving.1910.

1910.213 Woodworking Machinery Requirements ‹#› .

219.213(a)(9) All belts. pulleys. gears.1910. shafts. and moving parts shall be guarded in accordance with the specific requirements of 1910. ‹#› .

‹#› .1910.213(b)(1) A mechanical or electrical power control shall be provided on each machine to make it possible for the operator to cut off the power from each machine without leaving his position at the point of operation.

provision shall be made to prevent machines from automatically restarting upon restoration of power.213(b)(3)  On applications where injury to the operator might result if motors were to restart after power failures. ‹#› .1910.

Table Saws ‹#› .

213(c)(1) Each circular hand-fed ripsaw shall be guarded by a hood which shall completely enclose that portion of the saw above the table and that portion of the saw above the material being cut.1910. ‹#› . The hood and mounting shall be arranged so that the hood will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of and remain in contact with the material being cut without considerable resistance.

213(c)(2) Each hand-fed circular ripsaw shall be furnished with a spreader to prevent material from squeezing the saw or being thrown back on the operator.1910. ‹#› .

213(c)(3) Each hand-fed circular ripsaw shall be provided with non-kickback fingers or dogs so located as to oppose the thrust or tendency of the saw to pick up the material or throw it back toward the operator. ‹#› .1910.

213(c)(1) for hoods for circular resaws.1910. ‹#› .213(d)(1) Each circular crosscut table saw shall be guarded by a hood which shall meet all the requirements of 1910.

Radial Arm Saws ‹#› .

213(i)(1) All portions of the saw blade (bandsaws) shall be enclosed or guarded. ‹#› . except for the working portion of the blade between the bottom of the guide rolls and the table.1910.

213(r)(4) The mention of specific machines in paragraphs (a) thru (q) and this paragraph (r) of this section. is not intended to exclude other woodworking machines from the requirements that suitable guards and exhaust hoods be provided to reduce to a minimum the hazard due to the point of operation of such machines. inclusive.1910. ‹#› .

1910. ‹#› .213(s)(7) All cracked saws shall be removed from service.

215 Abrasive-Wheel Machinery ‹#› .1910.

1910. which may cause wheel breakage.215(a)(4) Work rests shall be adjusted closely to the wheel with a maximum opening of one-eighth inch to prevent the work from being jammed between the wheel and the rest. ‹#› .

215(b)(9) The distance between the wheel periphery and the adjustable tongue or the end of the peripheral member at the top shall never exceed one-fourth inch. ‹#› .1910.

all wheels shall be closely inspected and sounded by the user (ring test) to make sure they have not been damaged. ‹#› .215(d)(1) Immediately before mounting.1910.

‹#› .Abrasive Wheel Machinery The distance between the wheel periphery and the adjustable tongue must never exceed 1/4-inch.

217 Mechanical Power Presses ‹#› .1910.

hydraulic and pneumatic power presses.217(a)(5) Press brakes. bulldozers. riveting machines and similar types of fastener applicators are excluded from the requirements of this section. ‹#› . hot bending and hot metal presses.1910. forging presses and hammers.

‹#› .217(b)(4) The pedal mechanism shall be protected to prevent unintended operation.1910. A pad with a nonslip contact area shall be firmly attached to the pedal.

‹#› . If two hand trip systems are used on multiple operator systems. each operator shall have a separate set of controls. Two-hand trip systems on full revolution clutch machines shall incorporate an antirepeat feature.1910.217(b)(6) A two-hand trip shall have the individual operator’s hand controls protected against unintended operation and be arranged to require use of both hands.

be protected against unintended operation.1910.217(b)(7) Two-hand controls must incorporate an anti repeat feature. have one set of controls for each operator. ‹#› . If foot control is provided. require use of both hands. the selection between hand and foot control must be supervised by the employer.

See Table O10. ‹#› .217(c)(1) It shall be the responsibility of the employer to provide and insure the use of point of operation guards or properly applied and adjusted point of operation devices on every operation performed on a mechanical power press.1910.


It shall be the responsibility of the employer to establish and follow a program of periodic and regular inspections of power presses.



It shall be the responsibility of the employer to insure the original and continuing competence of personnel caring for, inspecting, and maintaining power presses.


1910.219 Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus


Wherever flywheels are above working areas. ‹#› . guards shall be installed having sufficient strength to hold the weight of the flywheel in the event of a shaft or wheel mounting failure.1910.219(b)(1) Flywheels located so that any part is 7 feet or less above the floor or platform shall be guarded.

‹#› . vertical. Projecting shaft ends shall present a smooth edge and end and shall not project more than 1/2 the diameter of the shaft unless guarded by non rotating cap or safety sleeves. and inclined shafting must be enclosed.1910.219(c) Horizontal.

‹#› . Pulleys with cracks or pieces broken out of rims shall not be used.219(d) Pulleys 7ft. or less above the floor or platform must be guarded.1910.

‹#› .s.242(a) Employers responsibility Safe condition of tools Including personal tools 1910.Portable Power Tools .242(b) Compressed air not used for cleaning except where reduced to less than 30 p. and only when effective chip guarding and PPE.i.General Safety Precautions 1910.

Power Tools Classification by power source Electric Pneumatic Liquid Fuel Hydraulic Powder Actuated ‹#› .

243 (a)(1) – Portable Circular Saws  Upper blade guard  Lower blade guard  Automatically returns to starting position ‹#› .)  1910.Power Tools (cont.

)  1910.Power Tools (cont.243(a)(2)  Constant Pressure Switch  Saws and Chainsaws  Lock-on control (single motion turnoff) ‹#› .

243(b) Tool Retainer – A tool retainer must be installed on each piece of equipment where ejection could result Airhose – Hose and hose connections must be designed for the pressure and service to which they are subjected ‹#› .Pneumatic Power Tools and Hose 1910.

243(d) Must meet requirements in ANSI A10.Explosive Actuated Fastening Tools 1910.31970 Operators and assistants must wear eye protection Head and face protection dependent on working conditions ‹#› .

while preparing. ‹#› .Explosive Actuated Tools (Cont. Firing mechanism must prevent tool from firing during loading.) Muzzle must have protective shield or guard at least 3 ½ inches in diameter. Firing must be dependent on at least 2 separate and distinct operations. if dropped.

Explosive Actuated Tools (Cont. Do not point at anyone! Fasteners not driven into hard/brittle or easily penetrable material Tools not used in hazardous atmosphere ‹#› .) Tools must not be loaded until just before intended firing.

Lawnmowers 243(e) Meet the requirements of ANSI B71.1-X1968 ‹#› .