# CHAPTER 1 HYDROSTATIC FORCE

Prepared by Puan Siti Balqis Abdul Kadir

In general. the total hydrostatic pressure on any plane surface is equal to the product of the area of the surface and the unit pressure at its center of gravity. the equation can be expressed in terms of unit weight  of the liquid.INTRODUCTION • For horizontal plane surface submerged in liquid or any plane surface under the action of uniform hydrostatic pressure. F = pcgA • Where pcg is the pressure at the center of gravity. . F = Aĥs • Where ĥs is the depth of liquid above the centroid of the submerged area. For homogeneous free liquid at rest. the total hydrostatic force is given by F = pA • • Where p is the uniform pressure and A is the area.

The total area of the plane surface is given by A . cg is the center of gravity. s . and cp is the center of pressure.Derivation of Formulas The figure shown below is an inclined plane surface submerged in a liquid.

s . • Integrate both sides and note that  and  are constants. .• The differential force acting on the element is • From the figure . • Recall from Calculus that • From the figure. s thus the hydrostatic force.

or second moment of inertia is a property of a cross section that can be used to predict the resistance of plate to bending and deflection. IG  The second moment of area.  Second moments of area have units of length to the fourth power [m4]. around an axis that lies in the cross-sectional plane. also known as the area moment of inertia. moment of inertia of plane area. .The Second Moment of Area.

The Second Moment of Area Table Shape Figure Centroid of Gravity. IG Rectangle h b Circle h/2 bh3 12 d d/2 d4 64 D. CG Second Moment of Area.I.Y : Find centre of gravity & second moment of area for triangle! .

Centre of Pressure Height . hp ĥp s ĥp = IG sin2 + hs Ahs .

Exercise Calculate the hydrostatic force and determine the centre of pressure height for these plate surface. 1m 45 1m 3m 3m . ( = 1000 kg/m3).

. Pressure due to one kind of liquid on one side. wall or dam). b.e. Pressure due to liquids on both the sides. Pressure due to one kind of liquid over another on one side. • The diagrams are very useful for finding out the total pressure and the centre of pressure of a liquid on a vertical surface (i.Pressure Diagrams • It’s may be defined as a graphical representation of the variation in the intensity of pressure over a surface. • A vertical surface may be subjected to the following types of pressures: a. c.

Pressure due to one kind of liquid on one side. A H hs P B gH C The total pressure on the wall per unit length. P = Area of triangle = ½ x gH x H = gH2 2 .

Pressure due to one kind of liquid over another on one side. A H1 D E P1 H2 B F 1gH1 2gH2 P2 P3 C The total pressure on the wall per unit length. P = P1 + P2 + P3 P = ( ½ x 1gH1 x H1) + ( H2 x 1gH1 ) + (½ x 2gH2 x H2 ) .

A H1 D P1 B 1gH1 H2 P2 C 2gH2 E The total pressure on the wall per unit length.(½ x 2gH2 x H2 ) . P = P1 – P2 P = ( ½ x 1gH1 x H1) .Pressure due to liquids on both sides.