(this is only a skeleton outline of the
* define * patterns of change * challenges or problems * solutions – you need substantial examples from particular places such as Mumbai, India; Manila, Philippines...etc. and how Governments, NGO’s, international agencies and communities are dealing with problems of housing, poverty, transport, infrastructure, pollution etc.

New Definition
• A megacity is generally defined as a metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million people – this is an updated definition (textbook definitions use 8 Million and is now incorrect...)

NOTE: Due to rapid change in numbers do some research to check how many megacities are currently in the world......and look at how it has changed....

In 2000, there were 18 megacities and by 2007 27 megacities of which ….are located in the developing 2009 ????
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Tokyo, (33,600,000) Seoul, South Korea (23,400,000) Mexico City (22,400,000) New York City, USA (21,961,994) Mumbai (Bombay), India (21,600,000) Delhi, India (21,500,000) São Paulo, Brazil (20,600,000) Los Angeles, USA (18,000,000) Shanghai, China (17,500,000) Osaka (16.7) Cairo (16.1) Kolkata (15.7) Manila (15.6) Jakarta (15.1) Karachi (15.1) Buenos Aires (13.6) Dhaka (12.6) Beijing (12.8) Lahore (12.7) London (12.5) Paris (12.0) Istanbul (11.8) Rio de Janeiro (11.5) Tehran (10.2) Lagos (10.1) Moscow (10.1) Bangkok (10.1)

.Board of Studies requirements… • Outline the nature. character and spatial distribution of mega cities in the DEVELOPING WORLD • Describe the challenges of living in mega cities and evaluate the responses to these challenges • Evaluate the role of community based groups. NGO’s in addressing one challenge of living in mega-cities.

today there are 27.….the term Megacity • Was first used in 1957 by Jean Gottmann in the USA and reflected changes in work and social habits of people after World War II • In 1970’s the United Nations used the term to refer to cities of 8 million • In the 1990’s the UN raised the size of cities to 10 million – in 2000 there were 22 megacities. ..

• By the end of the 20th century 47% lived in cities. • In 1950. there were 83 cities with populations exceeding one million. • The UN forecasts that today's urban population of 3. • By 2007. this had risen to 468 agglomerations of more than one million. say researchers.World Urban Population • In 1800 only 3% of the world's population lived in cities.[2] • If the trend continues. the world's urban population will double every 38 years. when three out of five people will live in cities .2 billion will rise to nearly 5 billion by 2030.

g. Height – Short or tall. Base – wide or very narrow etc. .Population Pyramids • Complete the table above Very Short Very Wide Short Wide Tall Narrow Very Tall Very Narrow Concave High High Very Short High Straight Declining Declining Short Low Convex Declining Declining Long Low Very Convex Low Low Very Long High • Describe the table above use simple words for e.

• The main causes of Urbanisation – Rural-Urban migration – Population Increase .Urbanisation • Urbanisation describes the increasing proportion of people living in urban areas (towns and cities) as opposed to rural areas (villages and country side).

• The greatest growth is happening in the developed world particularly in Asia and Africa. and Mumbai (Bombay). . Dhaka.Spatial Pattern • In 1950 there was one megacity – New York • 1975 there were four megacities – Tokyo. Mumbai. New York City. São Paulo. Mexico City. New York. and Delhi. Shanghai. • Today the five largest cities are Tokyo. and in 2015 they will probably be Tokyo. Mexico City and Sao Paulo of which three were in the developing world • In 1995 there were 14 • 2001 there were 17 megacities with 13 in the developing world • 2015 there will be 23 megacities with 18 in the developing world. São Paulo.

urban growth and change • Fifty years ago 30% world lived in urban areas • In ten years it will be 60% • China is currently engaged in the greatest migration in the history of the world • Megacities are simultaneous centres of concentration of wealth and opportunity as well as arenas of despair for millions • Ill equipped and often corrupt bureaucreacies have little hope of sorting through the range of challenges urbanisation presents • We have now entered the first urban century and 2.….8 billion people are now poorer than 20 years ago… .

• Economic Growth • Natural Increase – High fertility rates • Rural – urban migration .Reasons for growth of Megacities in the developing world….

debt…. • War and civil disorder • Intolerance • Desertification • Lack of Medical Facilities • Rapid Population Growth • Rural Poverty • Lack of Educational opportunities • Transfer of land from food production and self sufficiency to export crop production meaning less food for families therefore vulnerable to international commodity price fluctuations • Lack of medical facilities . war.RURAL URBAN MIGRATION DUE TO Push factors – these are: • Increasing landlessness (no land ownership) due to loss of land from drought. crop failure. poverty.

• • • • • RURAL URBAN MIGRATION Pull factors (attraction of urban areas) due to: Attracted to employment opportunities Promise of higher living standards Entertainment and Cultural events Educational Opportunities Medical facilities .

Why the cities have grown? • An example of rural urban migration – .In China. 125 million people have moved from areas of low agricultural productivity to coastal cities .that's 25% of the workforce. and you've got another 25% waiting to move .

as urban poverty grows many find themselves trapped unable to achieve the hoped-for wealth and opportunities that attracted them…… .…..unfortunately • For many people in the developing world they move from rural poverty to urban poverty….

• The increase will be most dramatic in the poorest and least-urbanised continents.. • One billion people. one-sixth of the world's population.Changes over time.. now live in shanty towns . Asia and Africa..

Cities with over 1 Million .

traffic congestion in Bangkok is so bad that the average commute now takes three hours • Pressures on land and housing • Environmental concerns. high death rates. air pollution. transportation and congestion. and overdrawn aquifers. For example. For example. and lethal environmental conditions. For instance. 12. • Alarming increases in poverty • Massive infrastructure problems with telecommunications services. drug-resistant strains of infection.6 percent of the deaths in Jakarta are related to air pollution causes • Capital scarcity • Dependence on federal or state governments for funding . such as contaminated water. Mexico City’s aquifer is being overdrawn and is sinking by about 1 meter per year • Disease.Some of the problems of megacities include: • Explosive population growth.

upgrading housing. dangerous housing and utility connections. new housing projects • Water and sewage provision and waste disposal • Health and Nutrition issues – overcrowding. parasites all are challenges. unclean water. vermin.Challenges of living in megacities • Access to employment – formal and informal employment • Provision of Shelter and housing – rise of squatter settlements/slums. • Air Water and Noise Pollution • Congestion and Provision of Transport Infrastructure .

Urban Problems in LEDCs Urban Problems Spontaneous Settlements Overcrowding RuralUrban Migration Favelas Bustees Competition For land Pressure On services Shanty towns Built on Dangerous ground Rapid growth Difficult to plan Self-help schemes Debt .

• • • • • Self Help projects… Community self government… NGO’s … Urban protests… Operation of the informal economy… .Responses to these challenges….


Urban problems or Challenges – housing and underemployment .

Growth of Megacities .



• • • • • .000 tons of solid waste generated daily is dumped illegally or remains in the streets infant mortality rate in poor areas is up to three times as high as that in the rest of the city. drainage and electricity on which to build houses or the government building a core structure which is added to by residents.000 pa. Pollution may be Mexico City's most serious problem killing 100. This growth represents an annual rate of change of 2. one quarter of the more than 10.2 million.9% of the total population was in the 0-19 age group. in 1980. 48." Average life expectancy in Mexico City is 66 years for males and 72 years for females. Amongst the poorest are the rubbish pickers who sort the reeking garbage in the city’s dumps More than 60% city’s population live in slums – self help projects aimed at providing lots with water. and is estimated to reach 25.6 million by the year 2000.4% for the decade. Mexico • • Urban agglomeration in 1990 was 20.Mexico City. A defining aspect of Mexico's population is its youth. Another important figure is the 40% of the total population that live in "informal settlements.



Mumbai (Bombay). • It is home to more than a million people. Dharavi. A city within a city.Mumbai • Asia's largest slum. lies on prime property right in the middle of India's financial capital. open sewers and cramped huts. . Many are second-generation residents. it is one unending stretch of narrow dirty lanes. whose parents moved in years ago. • Today's Dharavi bears no resemblance to the fishing village it once was.

the majority of the population growth will be in urban areas of 500. Without adequate planning.• More than half of the world's population will live in cities by 2008. says a report by the UN Population Fund… while the megacities will continue to grow. most of them in developing countries.000 people or fewer. urban growth will create huge slums. degrade the environment and radicalise the young. There are currently one billion slum dwellers .

..Urban Challenges..pollution .