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HP labs .Memristor / RRAM History Applications Physics Conclusions Memristor.

. As a result. most big players in the market are researching potential alternatives.THE PROBLEM Flash memory currently commands the vast majority of the multibillion dollar non-volatile memory market. but experts agree that Flash memory feature sizes may not continue to scale well into the near future.


RRAM.RESISTIVE RAM Resistive random-access memory (RRAM) is a new non-volatile memory type which promises to replace the existing flash memory .

and potentially small cell size (enabling dense crossbar RRAM arrays using vertical diode selecting elements) .PRINCIPLE: Resistive switching memories are based on materials whose resistivity can be electrically switched between high and low conductive states. RRAM has superior intrinsic scaling characteristics compared to the charge-based Flash devices.

This could potentially provide greater density. takes advantage of controllable resistance changes in thin-oxide films. and lower cost than flash memory. . one of the most recently proposed alternatives.RRAM. lower power usage. greater speed.


the pipe will retain it most recent diameter until the water is turned back on.ANALOGY A common analogy for a resistor is a pipe that carries water. If water flows through the pipe in one direction. If water flows through the pipe in the opposite direction. Just as with an electrical resistor. Thus. If the water pressure is turned off. the pressure at the input of the pipe is similar to voltage. An analogy for a memristor is an interesting kind of pipe that expands or shrinks when water flows through it. the flow of water through the pipe is faster if the pipe is shorter and/or it has a larger diameter. the diameter of the pipe decreases. The water itself is analogous to electrical charge. thus slowing down the flow of water. the pipe does not store water like a bucket (or a capacitor) – it remembers how much water . the diameter of the pipe increases. thus enabling the water to flow faster. and the rate of flow of the water through the pipe is like electrical current.

inductor. according to Lean Chua. one among the four basic elemnts . capacitor and resistor . the other three being resistor.MEMRISTORS? memristors is a short for memory resistors which form.

creates a voltage. mathematics says. and magnetic flux and voltage. Three more associations correspond to the three traditional circuit elements. are connected through their definitions. For a given voltage a capacitor will store a certain amount of charge. Pass a current through an inductor. Charge and current. and you create a magnetic flux. That's two. That makes five.Four interconnected things. can be related in six ways. when you pass current through it. Something missing? . A resistor is any device that.

1971: The theory of the Memristor 2008: HP has a working memristor prototype t 1960s: Resistance switching End of 1990s: Research on resistance switching .

Memristor symbol Memristor. HP labs .


Al / TiOx / Al ”Sandwich” .