The STUDY OF Language (Yule) morphology – word formation processesSyntax- Sentence structure

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Linguistics (theoretical linguistics )
 Phonetics

/  Phonology/  Morphology /  Syntax : the study of sentence structures  Semantics: the study of meaning  Pragmatics  The study of language

Match the terms with their appropriate definitions or illustrations
    

Syntax Morphology Phonology Phonetics Semantics

  

The English sentence structure= NP+VP Compounding + coinage Articulatory phonetics+acoustic phonetics+ auditory phonetics

       

The study of the theories of speech sounds The study of sentence structures Aspiration of plosives in English Syllable structures Derivation in Arabic Connotations (‫(زي القمر‬ Allophones and phonemes.

Topics in phonetics
      

What is phonetics? Acoustic phonetics Auditory phonetics Articulatory phonetics Vowels/diphthongs Consonants Stress

Assimilation

Phonology
     

  

Rules for assimilation Phonemes Phones Allophones Minimal pairs (distinguishing phonemes) Received Pronunciation (r is not pronounced unless there is a vowel following it) Syllable structures Aspiration of [plosives Voicing devoicing

Morphology
          

Collocations Connotations Implications Coinage Compounding Blending Borrowing Back formation Conversion Clipping Acronyms

Syntax
 Traditional

approach  Descriptive  Prescriptive  Properties of grammar (recursive –generative infinite)  Linear analysis phrase structure rules  {NP(Students) VP (are) Adj (excellent)}  { pro. (what) PV (is) pro (your )  Transformational grammar (tree

Semantics
    

Synonyms Antonyms Hyponymy Homophony Polysemy

Connotations implications

Applied linguistics

 Communication  Teaching

and learning  Translation  Sociolinguistics / idiometic expressions  Language planning

Teaching
 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Methodology Audiolingual method Grammar translation method Communicative approach The silent method Total physical response Task-based CALL (computer-assisted language /learning teaching)

Teaching
  

   

Needs analysis Qualitative studies : tests Quantitative studies: previous grades/ interviewing their teachers/ interviewing the students/ questionnaire Free online IQ tests ==- Free online learning styles tests Methodology Syllabus design Evaluation = computer adaptive testing

Teaching
        

Needs analysis Syllabus design Methodology Evaluation Applied linguistics/teaching/methodology/ CALL Internet and the Language Classroom /2000 Puzzle Maker www.alibris.com Enhancing Teaching Framework 2007 chapter 1

Methods of studying syntax of a language
 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Descriptive approach Collecting data (corpus) Analysis Statistics Rules Electronic resources / E-BOOKS / Ebrary 0118018880

The traditional approach
 Analysis  Parts

of a language /speech= grammatical categories as nouns, verbs  Parts of a sentence  Agreement (gender-person-number)  Tenses

Analyse the following sentences syntactically using the tree diagram system,
1.

All languages and language varieties

are inherently variable. 1. Speakers do not totally drop the time. 2. Research shows very optimistic results. 3. Which level are you taking? 4. What is your name?

Prescriptive approach
 Borrow

a system of another language and we apply it to the target language that we are studying  Np+Vp

State whether the following sentences are true or false and correct the false ones
1)

2)

3) 4)

5)

Grammar includes the rules that tell us about the proper and the improper structures in a language . The descriptive approach is based on using a well-established grammatical description of Latin. In traditional grammar, concord means agreement as in subject verb agreement. The prescriptive approach is based on the view that we should compare the grammatical system of a language to that of another. The prescriptive approach views grammar as a set of rules for the proper use of the language.

6)

In traditional grammar the notion of syntactic analysis of the structures of sentences has not been a consideration. “Them plays with his friends.” This structure is syntactically correct but semantically wrong. Both translation and sociolinguistics are branches of theoretical linguistics Pragmatics and discourse analysis include theoretical linguistic and applied linguistic aspects Theoretical linguistics focuses on studying the language itself, whereas applied linguistics is concerned with studying the different milieus where we use the language in reality.

1) 2) 3)

4)

Properties of grammar
 Recursiveness

= generativity  A rule or a finite number of rules/structures that can generate an infinite number of sentences  Np+Vp =  Mona is teaching  Ali is writing  Mohamed is writing

Approaches of syntactic analysis
 Phrase

structure rules/linear analysis/bracketing  Np (The students) Vp (are studying) Np (linguistics) Adv. (now)  When did you go to school? Question word + aux. verb + Np + Vp + prep.p
 Transformation

rules/ generative grammar

Clause contractions

 

I like Mohamed who applies advanced technological techniques I like Mohamed applying …… I came early because I have to finish my work.

The t-shirt which was unfolded by Abou Treka is a sign of sympathy with the Palestinians.

Transformations
   1)

Np + vp + np + adverbial modifier The students are studying linguistics now When are the students studying linguistics? Questions

2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Passive and active Direct and indirect Orders/ imperatives Adverbs Exclamations

TRANSFORMATIONS

TRANSFORMATIONS

Passive and active Questions

Direct and indirect Exclamations

Adverbs Orders/ imperatives

Simple sentences

SIMPLE SENTENCE

NP

VP

NP

ADV. (Prep.P)

Compound sentences

Compound sentences

S1

Coordinator (FAN BOYS)

S2

Complex sentences

Romeo and Juliet which is written by Shakespeare is a wonderful play.
 Romeo

and Juliet written by Shakespeare is a wonderful play.  Contracting dependent clauses  That clause infinitives or the gerunds  Mona who is teaching now will teach at 10

Analyze the following sentences syntactically using the tree diagramming system
 What

lab?  Romeo an Juliet is written by Shakespeare.  Inevitably, the students’ performance develops when the teachers’ performance is outstanding.  Although they found a limited number of books, their research was outstanding.

have you been doing in the chemistry

of books, their research was outstanding their research was outstanding, although………

Romeo an Juliet is written by Shakespeare. Shakespeare writes Romeo and Juliet
  Np N

s vp v

np  n conj n  Shakespeare writes Romeo and Juliet  By Shakespeare is written

What have you been doing in the chemistry lab? I have been studying in the chemistry lab.

s

Np vp Pro vp prep. P I aux. aux. v prep. Art. Adj n You have been studying in the chem. Lab. what doing

IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SENTENCE OF THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BEFORE ANALYZING THEM USING THE TREE DIAGRAM SYSTEM:
1.

2.

3.

4.

Professional development is an elusive term in education. To many, the term conjures up images of in-service days and workshops. To others, it refers to a process in which teachers work under supervision to gain tenure or to enhance their professional practice. In this paper, professional development is defined as an ongoing learning process in which teachers engage voluntarily to learn how best to adjust their teaching to the learning needs of their students. Professional development is not a one-shot, one-size-fitsall event, but rather an evolving process of professional self-disclosure, reflection, and growth that yields the best results when sustained over time in communities of practice and when focused on job-embedded responsibilities.

5. 6.

School reform and accountability initiatives call for a new role for professional development in the career paths of teachers. The foreign language teaching profession today is faced with increasing enrollments and a shortage of qualified teachers.

1.

2.

3. 4.

At the same time, a rapidly changing student population, nationwide education reform, and the development of national standards for foreign language learning are placing a number of new demands on foreign language teachers. The cultural, socioeconomic, linguistic, and academic diversity typical in today's student population requires foreign language teachers to work with students whose needs, educational experiences, and native language skills are very different from those of students they have typically taught. For example, some students entering foreign language classrooms grew up speaking the target language at home The variety of reasons students have for learning foreign languages and the different ways they approach this learning require that foreign language curricula and instruction address a range of student goals and learning

in-service days and workshops. The term conjures up images of in-service days and workshops to many people .

s vp vp np prp.p v. p n padj. N conj n prep p p int n

Np Art n

To many the term conjures up im Of in da and wo.

1.

2.

To others, it refers to a process in which teachers work under supervision to gain tenure or to enhance their professional practice. Surface structure It refers to a process in which teachers word under supervision so they gain tenure or so they enhance their professional practice.

It refers to a process in which teachers work under supervision so they gain tenure or so they enhance their professional practice.
 

s

S1 s2 s3 Np vp vp np Pro. V p. art. N. adj clause sub. Np vp v prep.p It ref to a proc. In which teach. Work under sup.

Analyze the following sentences using the tree diagramming system
1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

She finished her work although she did not have time for everything. What will you be doing tomorrow morning? Inevitably, students have different learning styles so the teacher has to cater for all of them. Introductions and prefaces written by the authors are usually available at the beginning of books. She is one of the most intelligent people that I have ever met.

She finished her work although she did not have time for everything.

S

Np Pro

v

vp np pro n

Adv. Clause sub np vp pro. Vp np aux neg. v

prep.p

She finished her work although/she did not have

The students are intelligent
  NP  Art.

S VP V are adj intelligent

N  The students

The students are writing and the teacher is explaining
  S1  Np

S coor. Vp

S2 Np Vp

She studied well although she did not have time.
  NP  Pro

S VP V Adv

Adv, clause  sub NP VP  pro V N  aux.neg.v  She studied well although she did not have tim

Terms

 Intensifier/

qualifier  Determiner  Negation

Yesterday, they went to the cinema they went to the cinema yesterday
S  Np  Pro  They 

vp vp prep.p adv. went prep. Art. n to the cinema yesterday

  Np

s Vp v adj

N Students

are intelligent

When are the students studying linguistics? The students are studying linguistics now ( deep structure)
S  Np  Art.

vp n adverb Linguistics now when

N. Vp  The stu. Aux. v.  are stud.

Tree diagramming: is a system of syntactic analysis that allows for the explanation of the transformations taking place in the structure of sentences
  

The teacher’s competence should include all the recent methodological theories. She has exerted a lot of effort when she went to college last year. Teacher training services at the faculty of education has been providing school teachers with guidance and consultation. The internet has been a glorious achievement in Computer-assisted language learning and teachers are implementing it recently. The students had designed a fantastic project for the end of the term although they had had an extremely

S  Np  Pro  He

vp vp np looks up it

 He

is a good student although he works all  1np 2 vp 3 np sub 4a np 4b vp4c
 day.  Adv4d  Although

student  Sub4a np4b vp 4c adv 4d 1np 2vp 3np

he works all day, he is a good

Illustrate this numerical formula with an example from the English language
 1np  Dr.

2vp 3np 4advp 5 advp

Sherif is a good teacher in linguistics this  1np 2vp 3np 4advp 5advp  year.

Convert the following numerical formulas into examples from the English language
1) 2)

Adv I (1) + np (2) + vp (3) + np (4) Np (1) + vp (2) + np (3) + co. (4) + np (5) + vp (6) + np (7) + adv clause (8) / sub. (8a) + np (8b) + vp (8c) + np (8d) Np (1) + adj clause (2) / sub. – np (2a) + vp (2b) + adv p (2c) + vp (3) + np (4) Np (1) + vp (2) + np (3) + adv p (4) + adv,p (5) O + vp (1) + np (2) + adv p (3)

3) 4) 5)

Homework assignment

1)

2) 3)

Adv clause (1)/ SUB (1a) np (1b) vp (1c) np (1d) prep.p (1e) + np (2) + vp (3)+ prep. P (4) Np (1) + vp (2)/ vp (2a)- pro. (3) – particle (2b) Np (1) + vp (2) + prep.p (3) + prep. (4) + prep. P (5)

Np (1) + vp (2) + np (3) + co. (4) + np (5) Ahmed studies English so he + vp (6) + np (7) + adv clause (8) / sub. (8a) Passes his exams although + np (8b) + vp (8c) + np (8d) The exams were difficult ones.
2)

3- Np (1) + adj clause (2) / sub. – np (2a) + vp (2b) The man who is working + adv p (2c) + vp (3) + np (4) Professionally is my father 4- Np (1) + vp (2) + np (3) + adv p (4) + adv,p (5) She was a beautiful girl in the club yesterday

O 

+ vp (1) + np (2) + adv p (3) open your book quickly I saw the students in the class

 When 

Semantic relations
 Synonymy  Antonymy  Hyponymy  Homophony  Homonymy

Competence and performance
 Competence  ability

: an ability/ a skill/ a cognitive

/internal skill/ internal knowledge  Schema theory: units-schemas / each unit is responsible for one linguistic function

Linguistic performance
 Speaking

– listening-reading and writing

Classify the following examples according to the components of the first domain in the frame work of teaching
1)

The teacher is aware that some students are

allergic of dust so she/he places them at the end of the class. 1) The teacher uses the communicative approach in teaching speaking. 2) The teacher sets the following objective to be fulfilled by the students by the end of the class: students should be able to identify the main idea in a reading passage; whereas he/ she rejects the following objective: by the end of this class students should be able to speak fluently.

4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

9) 10)

The teacher uses the total physical response with students who are originally officers or coaches. The teacher prepares different worksheets for teaching listening to junior and middle classes. The teacher avoids reading passages about elephants when teaching Indian students The teacher avoids topics about politics when teaching American and Egyptian students. The teacher goes to www.puzzlemaker.com when creating a vocabulary exercise while he/she goes to www.time.com for audio-lingual materials The teacher uses the alternative assessment techniques when teaching university students The teacher knows the system of the school and accordingly, she/he comes on time otherwise a deduction will be extracted from their payment.

Convert the following sentences into their deep structures and identify the type of transformation:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

The program was described by the teachers Please, write down your notes quickly. What type of text would you like to study? She said that we would pass our exams. She says, “we will pass our exams” The international phonetic alphabet is considered a symbolic reflection of speech sounds.

The program was described by the teachers
S  Np  Art

v n v

np  art n  The teach describ. The program  By the teach was describ.

Syntactic ambiguity
I

have painted furniture  My virtuous cousins and aunts are visiting us.