Dissatisfaction exists when the attitude is negative.  When the attitude of an employee towards his or her job is positive . . there exists job satisfaction. Job satisfaction refers to the general attitude of employees towards their jobs.  According to Feldman and Arnold “Job satisfaction is the amount of overall positive effect or feelings that individuals have towards their jobs”.

 Organizational Factors: 1) Salaries and Wages 2) Promotion Chances 3) Equitable Rewards  Personal Factors: 1)Age 2)Level of Education  Work Environmental Factors: 1) Supervisions 2) Work Groups 3) Working conditions .

.  Hygiene needs are associated with the salary .Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory :  Every worker has two sets of needs or requirements: motivator needs and hygiene needs. the absence of which causes dissatisfaction but their presence does not result in job satisfaction.  Motivator needs refers to the achievement.. job security etc. working conditions. . recognition. the presence of which causes satisfaction but their absence does not result in dissatisfaction. responsibility etc.

workers compare their job to some “ideal job. To determine how satisfied they are with their jobs.” This “ideal job” could be  What one thinks the job should be like  What one expected the job to be like  What one wants from a job  What one’s former job was like .

called the steady state or equilibrium level. . but the worker will eventually return to his or her equilibrium level.  Different situational factors or events at work may move a worker temporarily from this steady state. Each worker has a typical or characteristic level of job satisfaction.


 Performance: Satisfied workers are only slightly more likely to perform at a higher level than dissatisfied workers.  Turnover: Satisfied workers are less likely to leave the organization than dissatisfied workers.  Absenteeism: Satisfied workers are only slightly less likely to be absent than dissatisfied workers. .

High Job satisfaction Low Turn over & Absence High .

EVLN Model .

 EXIT: dissatisfaction expressed through behavior directed towards leaving the organization.  VOICE: dissatisfaction expressed through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions.  NEGLECT: dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to worsen. .  LOYALTY: dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve.