Presented by PULAKESH BHARALI 1HK08CS060


CONTENTS Introduction Optical Media Multimode and Single-Mode fiber Wavelength Division Multiplexing Evolution of optical networking Intelligent optical networks Multilayer Optical networks Examples Performance Evaluation Parameters Affecting Performance Limitations Conclusion Bibliography CSE@HKBKCE 2 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN A MULTILAYER OPTICAL SYSTEM .

The deployment of optical fiber and Wavelength Division Multiplexing has proven to be a good solution for this.INTRODUCTION The need for a faster medium with higher bandwidth. the amount of traffic on networks and the speed at which the traffic has to be transmitted always becomes higher. Within time. CSE@HKBKCE 3 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN A MULTILAYER OPTICAL SYSTEM .

•messages modulated into light waves.Optical Media •Optical networks use fiber optic cable to transmit data. CSE@HKBKCE 4 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN A MULTILAYER OPTICAL SYSTEM . •Greater bandwidth. •Light pulses are used to transmit data.

• Used for short distances. • Single-mode fiber is designed for the transmission of a single ray of light.Multimode and Single-Mode fiber • Multimode fiber designed to carry multiple light rays each at a slightly different reflection angle within the core. CSE@HKBKCE 5 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN A MULTILAYER OPTICAL SYSTEM . • Used for long distance signal transmission.

Wavelength Division Multiplexing • When all the installed fibers (4.12.24 & 48) have been used. • more signals on the same fiber (thus cost-effective) • WDM bundles several colors (invisible to • the human eye) together on a fiber. CSE@HKBKCE 6 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN A MULTILAYER OPTICAL SYSTEM . each of them representing a signal.

the traffic patterns have become more dynamic.Evolution of optical networking •Intelligent optical networks •With the popularity of the internet . • Optical networks need to react more quickly to these changes. •IONs(Intelligent Optical Networks) solves this problem. CSE@HKBKCE 7 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN A MULTILAYER OPTICAL SYSTEM .

For every logical link. there is a light path in the optical layer. even though there exist no direct links in the physical layer.Multilayer networks •The use of ION functionality in an IP-over-OTN (Optical Transport Network) allows us to dynamically reconfigure the logical IP networkwhen needed. CSE@HKBKCE 8 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN A MULTILAYER OPTICAL SYSTEM . •Logical links can be added where the capacity of existing links seems insufficient. •Two nodes in this layer can be directly connected. •The logical topology is virtual: real routers but no actual cables.

Multilayer networks(eg) Multilayer Topolgy Topology in the logical layer CSE@HKBKCE 9 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN A MULTILAYER OPTICAL SYSTEM .

• Fault management also includes restoring service in the event of failures.PERFORMANCE EVALUATION • The goal of performance management is to enable service providers to provide guaranteed quality of service to the users of their network. • Performance management is closely tied in to fault management. CSE@HKBKCE 10 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN A MULTILAYER OPTICAL SYSTEM .

Parameters affecting Performance • The Impact of Transparency • BER(bit error rate) Measurement • Optical Trace • Alarm Management • Data Communication Network (DCN) and Signaling • Policing • Optical Supervisory Channel • Client Layers CSE@HKBKCE 11 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN A MULTILAYER OPTICAL SYSTEM .

-This identifier is called an op-tical path trace. • Optical Trace . -can be detected only when the signal is available in the electrical domain -overhead consists of parity check bytes by which the BER can becomputed.Itisdesirable tohavea unique identifierassociatedwitheach lightpath.• BER(bit error rate) Measurement . andmanage the connectivity of a lightpath.The trace enables the management system to identify. CSE@HKBKCE 12 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN A MULTILAYER OPTICAL SYSTEM .The bit error rate (BER)is the key performance attribute associatedwith a lightpath. -fault isolation in the event that incorrect connections are made. verify.

• Alarm Management . called the forward defect indicator (FDI) and the backward defect indicator(BDI). a single failure event may cause multiple alarms to be generated all over the network and incorrect actions to be taken in response to the failed condition. -Alarm suppression is accomplished by using a set of special signals. CSE@HKBKCE 13 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN A MULTILAYER OPTICAL SYSTEM . • POLICING -monitor the wavelength and power levels of signals being input to the network to ensure that they meet the requirements imposed by the network.In a network.

Limitations of Optical Fiber Cable Networks: • Single mode cables and their associated optics (active components) are very expensive. All these components add the cost of fiber network implementation at each location. They need a whole array of active/ passive components like SFP Modules. Fiber cables can not be directly terminated on to the network/ optical switches. There are outdoor fiber cables but they need to be shielded well. Even though multi-mode cables/ optics are less expensive. Fiber Patch Panel (LIU). multi-mode cables have restrictions in distance for supporting higher bandwidth (like 1 Gbps and 10 Gbps). Pigtails and Couplers. Each Core of the Optical Fiber cable needs to be spliced in order to complete the connection to the network/optical switch. there will be performance degradation. Fiber splicing is a complicated procedure and requires skilled manpower to achieve. Fiber Patch Cords. This shielding makes them less agile/ flexible to run in all the places and it increases the cost of cables as well. appropriate connectors. 14 • • • • 3/15/2012 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN A MULTILAYER OPTICAL SYSTEM . Both the splicing equipment and the cost of installation (for splicing) per core is quite high. they are not even close to the costs of copper UTP cables/ ports. Moreover. If it is not done properly.

a greater role for Ethernet. carriers will continue to seek technologies that provide cost. . it is clear that steady traffic growth. increased use of optics to achieve cost efficiencies. and a mix of wavelength line-rates (possibly in conjunction with wavebands) to better match the service granularities. and operational advantages. with a greater diversity of services.CONCLUSION Clearly.more wide spread adoption of OTN technology to simplify network operations. To meet this growth. will continue. scalability. networking has undergone tremendous changes over the past 25 years. Whatever direction networks follow.

IMEC. “Introduction to MultiProtocol Label Switching • (MPLS)”. “Influence of the • observation window size on the performance of multi-layer traffic engineering” . “A Traffic • Engineering System for Multilayer Networks Based on the GMPLS Paradigm” • Ghent University . Roberto Sabella.A Practical Perspective. Ericsson Lab Italy.Third Edition • Data Connection Computer Technology.dataconnection. http://www. Department of Information Technology. “Multi-layer Traffic • Engineering in Data-centric Optical Networks.IMEC. Department of Information Technology.htm • Ghent University . Illustration of concepts and benefits” • Paola Iovanna.BIBLIOGRAPHY • Optical and Marina Settembre.