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Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into

an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm

or discomfort to the physical systems or living


THE RAW WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR INLAND SURFACE WATER USED AS DRINKING WATER SOURCE AND FOR BATHING AS RECOMMENDED BY WHO & ISO: Parameter pH Total Dissolved solids Iron Nitrogen as N03 Fluoride BOD COD Phenolic substances Cyanide Chromium Lead Arsenic Chlorides 6-9 1500 mg/lit (upper limit) 50 mg/lit (upper limit) 45 mg/lit 1.5 mg / lit 6 mg/lit 10 mg/lit 0.002mg/lit 0.2mg/lit 0.05mgllit 0.05mg/lit 0.05mg/lit Not Given WHO 6-9 Not given Not given Not given 1.5 mgl lit 3 mgl lit Not given 0.001 mg/lit 0.1 mg/lit 0.05mg/lit 0.10mg/lit 0.02mg/lit 600 mg/lit ISO


S.No. Parameter Standards Inland Onland Public surface for sewers water irrigation 5.5- 9.0 5.5 - 9.0 5.5 - 9.0 100.0 600.0 200.0 2100 -2100 30.0 250.0 1000.0 1000.0 10.0 0.1 350.0 -1000.0 1000.0 20.0 1.0 --100.0 --1000.0 600.0 10.0 -Marine coastal areas 5.5 - 9.0 100.0 -100.0 250.0 ----20.0 2.0

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

pH Suspended Solids mg/lit Total dissolved solids mg/lit Biological Oxygen demand mg/lit Chemical Oxygen demand mg/lit Sulphates mg/lit Chlorides mg/lit Oils & grease mg/lit Lead (as pb) mg/lit

10. Total Chromium




Standards of Water for Drinking (IS: 15000 - 1983)

SI.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Characteristics pH value Odour Colour (Hazen unit), maximum Taste Turbidity (NTU) Maximum Total dissolved solids (ppm), maximum Total hardness (as CaC03), (ppm) maximum Chloride (as CI) (ppm) maximum Residual free chlorine (ppm) minimum Total Coli form organisms, MPNI 100 ml, maximum Pesticides Radio active materials a) - emitters, lC/ml, maximum b)P - emitters, lC/ml, maximum Maximum Desirable Limit permissible limit 6.5- 8.5 No relaxation -Un objectionable -10 Agreeable -5 10 500 -300 250 0.2 10 Nil 10-8 10-7 600 1000 0.5 10 Nil ----

8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Effects Of Textile Processing Industry

Origin Sizing Desizing Characteristics Starch, generally coloured, high BOD, suspended solids, PVA, bad odour, softener, oils fats Starch, hydrolysd starch, bad odour , enzymes, salt, acidic pH Alkalies, surfactants, saponified oils, hydrolysed pectin's, proteins, suspended solids, oil, High pH, silicates with high BOD, natural colours and TDS


Mercerising High alkali, suspended solids, TDS Bleaching Dyeing Chlorines, hypochlorites, alkali, peroxides, silicates, suspended solids, fatty alcohols. Dyes, salt, alkalies, acids, detergents, chromium, copper, high BOD & COD and TDS Dyeing


Dyes, alkali, acids, chromium, copper, thickeners polymers, detergents high BOD & COD, waxes, oils fatty alcohol. Silicones, suspended & dissolved solids, cationic compounds organic & inorganic compounds
Carbonized cellulose, High acidity, TDS. Hot colour, high BOD & COD, alkali, organic solvents, acidity, TDS, peroxides, hydrolysed PVA, Acrylics etc.

Finishing Carbonising

Polyester weight reduction Wool scouring

High alkalinity, Turbidity, High BOD / COD

Hot, highly coloured, high BOD & COD, suspended & dissolved solids, grease, soaps, and alkalies Dissolved solids, high BOD, high Turbidity, Bad odour, TDS

Silk degumming and preparation

The constituents of water are, Colour Turbidity Suspended solids Dissolved solids pH value Acidity Alkalinity Metals such as Fe, Mg, As, Cu Salts such as Chlorides, Sulphates, Sulphides and Nitrates. Gases such as Cl2, Oxygen, CO2 Oils and Greasy contaminates.

The Effect of water on Textile Processing:

The various constituents of water has tremendous effect on various textile processing operations. Colour: The colour of water affects the whiteness of bleached fabric, the tone of the dyed and printed fabrics. Turbidity: Suspended solids which cause turbidity results in stain formation, dye precipitation, coagulation, uneven dyeing, specky dyeing and patchy dyeing results. These cause severe problems, particularly on package dyeing machines. These solids close the pores and affect the uniform circulation of dye liquor

Suspended solids: These cause similar effects on the fabrics, as in the case of turbidity because most of the turbidity is due to suspended solids. Dissolved solids: Dissolved solids cause much severe problems for the dyer. The nature of salts present in the water contributes to dissolved solid content which cause disastrous effects. These solids affect exhaustion, rate of dyeing, even dyeing, level dyeing and fastness properties of the dyes.

pH Value: The pH of water has tremendous effects on textile processing. Too acidic or alkaline pH may inhibit enzyme activity. Acidity may bring about acid hydrolysis in reactive dyeing. Hence appropriate pH has to be maintained for the various processes. Similarly alkaline pH in acid dyeing of silk / wool will affect acidic pH required for dyeing.

Metals: Metals like Manganese, Aluminum, Iron, Copper, and other heavy metals cause staining. They also cause low dye exhaustion, colour stains, precipitation, corrosion of tanks, pipes, tone variations and high effluent load. Severe problems are reported in vat dyeing also. Iron and manganese are highly objectionable and these hydroxides combine with fatty acids giving metal soaps. The natural colour of silk is affected by the presence of heavy metals. For e.g. Ferrous ions give greenish tone, chrome ions give orangish tone.

Salts: Sulphates, sulphites, sulfides, chlorides, nitrates, discharged in the water cause staining and corrosion. Nitrites prevent corrosion along with H2S04 when used in solublised vat dyeing. Nitrates used in excess, cause stains by forming compounds of amino groups. Hardness: In general, calcium and magnesium ions as salts of chlorides, sulphates, carbonates, bi-carbonates contribute to hardness of water. Hardness of water results in patchy dyeing, specky dyeing, poor exhaustion of dyes, results in precipitation of dyes, which causes colour stains, tone variations, etc. The most important factor is that of soaps, getting precipitated in hard water, causing improper soaping, emulsification and saponification.

Oils & greasy contaminants:

Oils, grease and fatty materials enter into the water bodies through effluent discharges. They spoil the fabrics, bring out stains and interfere with dye exhaustion, level dyeing, as absorbency of fabric becomes uneven.











Classification of waste water treatment process Primary Treatment Secondary Treatment Tertiary Treatment
Primary Treatment Screening Sedimentation Equalization Neutralisation Mechanical flocculation & Chemical coagulation

Secondary Treatment Aerated lagoon Trickling filtration Activated sludge process Oxidation ditch & pond Anaerobic digestion Thermal evaporation

Tertiary Treatment Oxidation technique Electrolytic precipitation & Foam fractionation Membrane technologies Electrochemical processes Ion exchange method Photo catalytic degradation Adsorption (Activated Carbon etc.)

Primary Treatment After the removal of gross solids, gritty materials and excessive quantities of oil and grease, the next step is to remove the remaining suspended solids as much as possible. Aim Reducing the strength of the waste water To facilitate secondary treatment.

Screen is the synonyms of filtration. Here action is nothing but the filtration or separation of suspended solid from the liquor or raw effluent Coarse suspended matters such as rags, pieces of fabric, fibres, yarns and lint are removed. Bar screens and mechanically cleaned fine screens remove most of the fibres. The suspended fibres have to be removed prior to secondary biological treatment; otherwise they may affect the secondary treatment system. They are reported to clog trickling filters, seals or carbon beads.

Drain from two different units

A net of iron having 1 sq. inches of each hole. It separates the different foreign materials like bulk of trees, leaves, polyethylene bag etc.. To treat 100 cubic meter per hour, here three screening chamber are used Suspended solid which can pass through the first filter are finally filtered here. The screen has around 250-300 slits per sq inches. This screening system has automatic wiping action with four wipers or brush. Cotton fibers, yarns with the liquor are deposited on the screen and raw effluent passes through the slits. This is a simple filtering method The screen is curved around 90 degree angle

The suspended matter in textile effluent can be removed efficiently and economically by sedimentation. This process is particularly useful for treatment of wastes containing high percentage of settable solids or when the waste is subjected to combined treatment with sewage. The sedimentation tanks are designed to enable smaller and lighter particles to settle under gravity. The most common equipment used includes horizontal flow sedimentation tanks and centre-feed circular clarifiers.

The settled sludge is removed from the sedimentation tanks by mechanical scrapping into hoppers and pumping it out subsequently.

Equalization: Effluent streams are collected into sump pit. Sometimes mixed effluents are stirred by rotating agitators or by blowing compressed air from below. The pit has a conical bottom for enhancing the settling of solid particles.

Neutralisation : Normally, pH values of cotton finishing effluents are on the alkaline side. Hence, pH value of equalized effluent should be adjusted. Use of dilute sulphuric acid and boiler flue gas rich in carbon dioxide are not uncommon. Since most of the secondary biological treatments are effective in the pH 5 to 9, neutralisation step is an important process to facilitate.

Chemical coagulation and Mechanical flocculation:

Finely divided suspended solids and colloidal particles cannot be efficiently removed by simple sedimentation by gravity. In such cases, mechanical flocculation or chemical coagulation is employed.

In mechanical flocculation,
The textile waste water is passed through a tank under gentle stirring ; The finely divided suspended solids coalesce into larger particles and settle out. Specialized equipment such as clariflocculator is also available, wherein flocculation chamber is a part of a sedimentation tank.

Chemical coagulation In order to alter the physical state of colloidal and suspended particles and to facilitate their removal by sedimentation, chemical coagulants are used. It is a controlled process, which forms a floc (flocculent precipitate) and results in obtaining a clear effluent free from matter in suspension or in the colloidal state.

The degree of clarification obtained also depends on the quantity of chemicals used. In this method, 80-90% of the total suspended matter, 40-70% of BOD, 30-60% of the COD and 80-90% of the bacteria can be removed. However, in plain sedimentation, only 50-70% of the total suspended matter and 30-40% of the organic matter settles out. Most commonly used chemicals for chemical coagulation are alum, ferric chloride, ferric sulphate, ferrous sulphate and lime

Secondary Treatment
The main purpose of secondary treatment is to provide BOD removal beyond what is achievable by simple sedimentation. It also removes appreciable amounts of oil and phenol.

In secondary treatment,
The dissolved and colloidal organic compounds and colour present in waste water is removed or reduced and to stabilize the organic matter. This is achieved biologically using bacteria and other microorganisms. Textile processing effluents are amenable for biological treatments. These processes may be aerobic or anaerobic

In aerobic processes, Bacteria and other microorganisms consume organic matter as food. They bring about the following sequential changes:
(i) Coagulation and flocculation of colloidal matter (ii) Oxidation of dissolved organic matter to carbon dioxide (iii) Degradation of nitrogenous organic matter to ammonia, which is then converted into nitrite and eventually to nitrate.

Anaerobic treatment
It is mainly employed for the digestion of sludge. The efficiency of this process depends upon pH, temperature, waste loading, absence of oxygen and toxic materials. Some of the commonly used biological treatment processes are described below:

Aerated lagoons Trickling filters Activated sludge process Oxidation ditch Oxidation pond Anaerobic digestion