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Home Health Care

Southern Asia-Pacific Division Health Ministry Department January 2007

Session 1 When Someone Gets Sick

OBJECTIVES: 1. Understand that germs are the cause of infectious diseases.
2. Understand that non-infectious disease are caused by poor lifestyle habits and influenced by heredity.


Have an understanding that sickness can be prevented by developing preventive health habits.

What causes different kinds of sickness How to tell when a person is sick When a sick person needs to see a doctor What you can do to prevent sickness

*Some sickness gets better without treatment, other times, if you wait to see a doctor, the sickness becomes so serious that treatment is very difficult.

Traditional Beliefs on Disease Causation

Angry evil spirit Punishment from doing wrong Sun, rain, or night air Another person Charm

Two Kinds of Sickness

INFECTIOUS DISEASES: -spread from person to person -caused by germs (cannot be seen by naked eyes) -germs can be found everywhere (hands, nose, lungs, dirty clothes, food or beddings)

NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASE: -Diseases which do not spread from person to person.

Germs grow and Multiply in:

Dark and damp places Can grow in your body, food dishes, cooking pots, manure, garbage, human waste Vectors: fly and mosquito Germs hide inside the body and can come out in feces Can move inside the body in your blood

Tuberculosis: spread through the air by coughing or contact with spit. Diarrhea: contact with dirty fingers, water, flies Cold, flu, measles, mumps, chickenpox, polio: from contact with someone who is sick (hand to mouth, through air by coughing, flies) Parasites- Worms and amoeba: hand to mouth, unwashed food, poorly cooked food, poor hygiene or lack of cleanliness.

Infectious Dis. Cont

Parasites in blood- Malaria: mosquito bites Parasites living in the body: by contact with infected people, clothing or beddings Pneumonia: spread through the air by coughing Earache: with a cold Infected Wounds: contact with dirty things Tetanus: dirty wounds Ringworm: direct touch, clothing Sexually Transmitted Infection/Disease (STI/D)Gonorrhea, syphilis, venereal warts: by sexual contact

How to Keep From Passing Germs to Another Person? By washing hands with soap & H2O before you touch food, either to prepare or to eat By washing hands after using the toilet By keeping hands out of the mouth By keeping food covered

How to Keep From Passing Germs to Another Person? By proper garbage disposal By having latrine, pit or H20 seal toilet By washing clothes and bedding often: hang blankets out in the sun By washing dishes & cooking utensils: cover them when not in use

How to Keep From Passing Germs to Another Person?

By having a pure source of H2O or boiling all drinking H2O By washing food (vegetables & fruits) before eating By covering coughs & sneezes; using a clean cloth to wipe/blow the nose

How to Keep From Passing Germs to Another Person?

By not spitting anywhere By not sleeping a sick person with another sick person By taking immunizations recommended by health workers By wearing shoes in areas where there is hookworm

Measures to Keep Sickness from Spreading to Family Members

The sick person should sleep separately Keep children away from sick person Have all family members practice careful hand washing Wash & sun sick persons clothing & bedding Keep sick persons eating utensils separate from the family

Treatment for Infectious Disease

Doctors prescribe antibiotics Antibiotics have no effects on sickness caused by viruses such as: -colds -flu -mumps -chickenpox -measles -some kinds of diarrhea

Does not spread from person to another Cause by the way we live and from the habits we have (LIFESTYLE) Lifestyle Diseases: Cancer, Heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension -can be hereditary Accidents (home, work, vehicular)

How to Prevent Accidents at Home

Never leave a small child alone at home when there is fire burning Keep handles of cooking utensils turned so small child cannot pull and spill hot food on himself Dont let a child play with cooking fire or matches Keep all poisons out of reach of children Keep all medicines out of reach of children

How to Prevent Accidents at Home

Never store a poison in a container that is normally used for food of drink Keep sharp objects out of reach of children Pick up any broken glass or old cans with jagged edges and dispose properly Stay in doors when chemical sprays are being used on crops. Wash clothing and body that comes in contact with such sprays

Examining a Sick Person

1. Have him describe how he feels, where it hurts, etc. 2. Examine the person where there is good light not in a dark room. -Look for sign and symptoms (important in babies and persons who are unable to talk) -Write down the findings and keep them in case a health worker needs them

Signs & Symptoms of Sickness

Most sickness have signs & symptoms -it is important to notice the first signs and symptoms to prevent the person from getting sick A symptom is subjective, something that is felt only by the person. Ask: -How he feels? -Where does he hurt? -How long has it been hurting?

Signs & Symptoms of Sickness

-Is he behaving differently than usual? -Has he had this same trouble before? A sign is an objective evidence of sickness, something you can measure or see -taking temperature, rash on the skin, heart rate, x-ray lab test Observe sick person carefully -How weak

Signs & Symptoms of Sickness

-In shock -How he breathes (can help in identifying the disease & how to treat it) -Poorly nourished -Dehydrated -Loosing weight *(losing weight for a period of time is a sign of chronic illness)

Signs & Symptoms of Sickness

Note skin color & whites of eyes -Paleness of the lips and inside the eyelids: anemia -Bluish skin, blueness or darkness of the lips and finger nails: serious problems with breathing or with the heart.

Signs & Symptoms of Sickness

-Grayish white coloring, with cool, moist skin, often means a person is in shock -Yellow color of skin & eyes: disease in the liver or gall bladder Find out when, how the fever comes, how long it lasts and how it goes away

Signs & Symptoms of Sickness

-fever is an important signs of sickness (infectious diseases) Taking the pulse & recording (weak, strong or irregular): helps in identifying the seriousness of a sickness Looking at the eyes, ears, throat & nose & condition of the skin help to determine the sickness Muscles, nerves & belly pains need (Session 2)

Review Questions
What causes sickness? How can you tell that the person is sick? What are the signs & symptoms you can look for that indicate a person is sick?

Closing Thoughts
The Bible teaches that in the beginning of the world there was NO disease. Everything was perfect. When God created human beings and animals, He made them healthy and well.

Session 2 Signs & Symptoms

OBJECTIVE: To help participants to observe signs of illness accurately and to decide when it is appropriate to go for medical assistance.
MAIN IDEA: There are observable signs when a person is sick, and an assessment can be made whether the problem is treatable at home or the person must go for medical care.

Review: Signs of Sickness

Body temperature (fever) *Place the back of your hand on the forehead of the sick person & the back of your other hand on your forehead. Rate of breathing Rate of heart beat

Review: Signs of Sickness

Color of the eyes & skin Looking at eyes, ears, nose & throat Pain anywhere Muscles, nerves & belly pain

How to Take a Persons Temperature

1. Clean the thermometer well with soap and & H2O or alcohol. Shake it hard with a snap of the wrist until it reads <36C (97F) 2. Put the thermometer: *Under the tongue keeping the lips shut (if it is a child over 4 yrs old) *In the armpit of the children 4 yrs & younger

How to Take a Persons Temperature

3. Leave it there for 3-4 mins. 4. Read it (an armpit temp. will be lower than the mouth) 5. Wash the thermometer well with soap & H2O
*NEVER use the same thermometer for two sick
people without washing it well in between.

How to Read the Thermometer

Turn the thermometer until you can see the silver line. The point where the silver line stops marks the temperature.

LOW FEVER: 37C-40C (98.6F-102F) HIGH FEVER: 40C-42C (102F-105F or above)

*If a person has a fever it means that he has a sickness somewhere in his body

Breathing or Respiration
Pay attention to the way he breathes:
-Are his breaths deep or shallow? -Does he have difficulty breathing? -Listen carefully to the sound of the breath. Whistling or wheezing? Gurgling or snoring sound?

Breathing or Respiration
*Sucking in of the skin between the ribs & at the angle of the neck (behind the collar bone) means air has trouble getting through *If this sign is seen in a baby that baby should be taken to a doctor -Is he coughing? -Is he spitting up mucus? What color is the mucus? -Is there blood in the mucus?

Normal Respiratory Rate by Age:


Newborns: Ave. 44 breaths/min Infants: 20-40 breaths/min Preschool children: 20-30 breaths/min Older children: 16-25 breaths/min Adults: 12 to 20 breaths/min
Source Wikipedia, 2007

person with fever or pneumonia will breathe more quickly than normal ( >40 shallow breaths/min)

Signs of Respiratory Problems

Rapid shallow breathing Difficulty in breathing (wheezing or whistling sound) Coughing up of yellowish, greenish or has blood in it (sign of infection) -Patient needs isolation Gurgling or snoring sound & difficulty breathing in an unconscious person (tongue, mucus, or something else is stuck in the throat) -Tilt the head back

How to Take a Persons Pulse

Dos & Donts on Taking the Pulse

Put your fingers on the wrist Or put you ear directly on the chest & listen directly for the heart beat Dont press too hard on the blood vessel Dont use your thumb to feel the pulse
*The strength, the rate & the regularity of the pulse are important

Pulse/Heart Beat
Normal Pulse for People at Rest
Babies Children Adults Well-trained athletes 100-140 beats/min 80-100 beats/min 60-80 beats/min 40-60 beats/min

The smaller the person the faster the heartbeat Pulse when a person exercise, frightened or has a fever *The pulse 20 beats/min for each degree of C rise in fever *When in illness pulse of adults or children 80-120/min

*Pulse rate should be taken at the same time you take the temperature. Weak, rapid pulse can mean the person is in shock Very rapid, very slow or irregular pulse can mean heart trouble Slow pulse with high fever maybe a sign of typhoid.

Eyes: Signs & Symptoms

Notice the following: - Color of the white part of the eye *Red - there is something in the eye, or eye infection (seek medical help if it does not clear up in 2 days) *Yellow - needs immediate medical care -Movement of the eye -Size of the pupils

Eyes: Signs & Symptoms

*very large: a state of shock *very small: poison or effect of certain drugs -Different size of 2 pupils: *if the other one is larger & painful: glaucoma *if smaller pupil hurts: serious infection -Different size of pupil after an accident or in unconscious state: brain damage or stroke

Needs Medical Help:

1. Difference in the size of the 2 pupils esp. in a person with head injury 2. Difference in the size of the 2 pupils when there is pain in the eye 3. If when the person is asked to moved his eyes, there is jerkiness or uneven movement *In the case of head injury, KEEP the person flat and seek
medical help ASAP.

Ears: Signs & Symptoms (Babies & Small Children)

Cries a lot Rubs & pulls at his ear Infection begins after the child has a cold or stuffy plugged up nose Fever Diarrhea
*Earaches and ear infections are most common in babies and
small children

How to Examine the Ears

Look for the redness or pus inside Ask if the person hears well on one side than the other Ask if theres ringing in the ears *For babies & children: Pull the ear gently

How to Examine the Ears

-if it causes pain the infection is probably in the tube of the ear (ear canal) -if no response the infection maybe in the inner ear and needs immediate treatment Look for redness or pus inside the ear. Use a small flashlight. NEVER USE a stick, wire, or hairpin in the ear DONT pack the ear with cotton or leaves

What to do When theres Ear Infection

Take the child to the clinic Follow the clinics instruction -usually antibiotics cure the infection The child can bathe regularly but if the infection is in the ear canal: should not swim or dive for two weeks after he is well

Prevention of Ear Infections

Prevent the child from catching a cold Teach the children not to blow their noses hard, just wipe them Feed the children well Get plenty of exercise and sleep Keep away from other children who have colds

Skin: Signs & Symptoms

Sores Rashes or welts Wounds or splinters Spots, patches or unusual markings Inflammation (signs of infection: redness, heat, pain and swelling)

Swelling or puffiness

Skin: Signs & Symptoms

Abnormal lumps or masses Swollen lymph nodes (little lumps in the neck, armpit or groin) Unusual thinning or loss of hair, or loss of its color or shine Loss of eyebrows
*Undress the baby or the young child when checking the skin
*Wash with clean cloth, soap & H2O any wounds or open sores *Local inflammation may be treated at home

Signs of Dehydration
Skin lose elasticity or stretchiness Little or no urine (dark & yellow) Sudden weight loss Dry mouth Sunken, tearless eyes Sagging in the soft spot (fontanelle) in babies Severe dehydration: rapid, weak pulse, fast deep breathing or fits (convulsions)

Dehydration: Treatment & Prevention

Give 5 sips of rehydration drink every 5 minutes day & night Keep giving the liquid in small sips even the person is vomiting Soft drinks (7-up or ginger ale) can also be a treatment for nausea Should be brought to the clinic when: -Babies & young children have diarrhea & vomiting -If an adult continues vomiting in 2 days *DONT wait for sign of dehydration!

Rehydration Drink
In 1 liter of boiled H2O put 2 level of tablespoons of sugar or honey, teaspoon salt, & teaspoon of bicarbonate soda
*If theres no soda use another teaspoon of salt. If available add cup of orange or little lemon juice

Digestive Tract

Belly (Abdomen): Signs & Symptoms

Swollen and hard Sudden vomiting with great force Steady pain in the belly that gets worse No sounds in the abdomen for 2 min. (must see a doctor right away)

Rules to Follow When Signs of Belly Pains are Present

NEVER give any food or drink by mouth

DONT give an enema, even the person has not had bowel movement

Muscles in the Back, Arms & Legs

Pain, numbness or weakness in the muscles (arms &legs): malnutrition or TB Uneven or worse on one side than the other *Child: Polio *Adult: Stroke Strange & jerky movements (fits) but not sick: epilepsy Stiffness or tightness of muscles: tetanus Needs medical care: neck or back is still and bent backwards and very sick

Closing Thoughts
The Bible tells of one of Gods prophets giving care at home to a very sick boy, in fact, he had died. Read the story in 2 Kings 2:4

God cares about us and our children!!!!

Session 3 When You Seek Medical Help

To learn how to locate medical care when it is needed, and how to benefit the most from medical care for yourself or your family members. Main Idea: Knowing available local sources of medical care and how to talk to medical care providers, which helps a person secure better care for himself and his family.

Review Questions
What are the kind of signs and symptoms our bodies can show? What are the kind of signs you measure at home? What can we observe when a person is sick?

1. Fever, cough, pain, feeling badly, tired all the time, diarrhea, vomiting 2. Temperature, rate of breathing, rate of heart beat (pulse), dehydration (by lifting skin) 3. Color- feel of the skin, eyes- color of white parts, size of pupil, ears- pain or drainage, belly- pain or sounds of bowel, musclespain, numbness, weakness or spasm, convulsions

Signs & Symptoms of a Major Sickness

High fever (above 40C or 102F) Severe vomiting or diarrhea *for an adult: >6 times/day *baby: >a few hours Severe pain Marked weakness Rapidly worsening condition Inability to talk

Signs & Symptoms of a Major Sickness

Extreme sleepiness or coma, frequent fainting or loss of consciousness More than one fit (convulsion) String, continuous stomach pains with vomiting in a person who does not have diarrhea or cannot move his bowels Difficulty breathing

Signs & Symptoms of a Major Sickness

Pain in the area of the heart- pain goes from the chest to the left arm Prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding Blood in the urine or feces (bright red blood; black stool mean digested blood in the feces Painful urination Unable to urinate in a day or more

Signs & Symptoms of a Major Sickness

Weakness or paralysis of face, arms or legs Growing lump or mass Loss of large amounts of blood from anywhere in the body Unable to drink any liquids in a day or more Stiff neck with arched back, with or without a stiff jaw

Kinds of Medical Care in Local Area

Hospital government, private or church sponsored Outpatient departments & emergency roomshospitals Clinics- general or specific Doctors office- single or group practice could be at the hospital or clinic Dental offices or clinics Health centers Satellite clinics

Different Services Clinics Offer:

Family planning Care for mothers, babies & young children Immunization Prenatal check up

Difference Between Primary Care & Secondary Care

Primary care is the first place a person can get health care, such as a clinic, a doctors or dentists office, or the out patient department in a hospital.
Secondary care is the kind given in a hospital, or by doctors who are specialists.

Kinds of Health Workers

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Rural Health Worker Midwives Community health nurses Doctors Specialist

How Health Workers Help People at Home

Visit family members with TB and teach the family to know how to prevent others to get sick They bring medicines Educate mothers on proper nutrition and make sure that children have good nutritional status Immunization Help children with special problem

What About Native Healers?

Native healers are people who discovered they have a natural ability to help with certain sicknesses, or they may have passed the information along in their family. They often use herbs and natural remedies

Our minds have a very strong influence over our bodies, so if we think we are going to get well, we often do. Many health problems have a mental health component so our state of mind and our beliefs and faith in the healer make a lot of difference.

Sickness that can be cured at Home:

Common cold Mild influenza Mild gastroenteritis vomiting, diarrhea, less than 6 times a day Minor headaches Minor burns, cuts, scrapes Sore throat mild, < 3 days Mild cough Menstrual discomfort Soreness of joints & muscles esp. after strenuous work or activity

How to Get Information from Health Workers

Ask questions about the health problem Write the questions before going to the clinic If you have difficulty making yourself understood, take a family member or a friend to speak for you Ask the medical workers to explain terms you cannot understand

Guidelines When a Family Member is in the Hospital

1. Give information about the sign & symptoms observed at home. 2. Do not take the food to the patient unless the health workers request it. 3. Observe visiting hours and rules. 4. Ask questions to the nurses & doctors.

How to Help Children to go for Medical care

Visit a doctors office, clinic or a hospital when they are well. Reassure children in advance of a visit to the doctor or nurse: DONT tell them untruths! Dont use the doctor as a threat when the child is misbehaving.

Bible Thought

For God hath given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and love, and of a sound mind. 2 Timothy 1:7

Session 4 Healing Through Use of Water (Healing without Medicines)

OBJECTIVE: To learn what sickness can be treated without the use of medicine: different kinds of home treatments that can be safely given.
MAIN IDEA: While few of modern medicines are very important and can save lives, the body itself can often fight off sickness with rest, good food, and some simple home remedies.

Facts about Medicines

- sometimes very important & can save a persons life - used too often both by doctors and by ordinary people - there is no medicine that does not have some risk in its use - germs can develop resistance - NO medicine is needed for most sickness

Healing Without Medicines

God made the human body with natural defenses (immune system) against disease. These natural defenses are more important to health than medicines.

To fight off Sickness all that is needed is to:

Have clean habits

Get plenty of rest

Eat the right foods

Water! Water! Water!(H2O)

- over half of the human body is water (57%) - it eliminates impurities and toxins of the body (kidneys, perspiration/sweat) - important in cells metabolic process - it can prevent and treat sickness (HYDROTHERAPY)

A person should drink 6-8 cups of H2O a day!!!

Uses of Water at Home

Laundry Wash the body Cooking Cleaning the house Keeps germs from spreading from one person to another

Drinking Water Should be:

Coming from a safe source Boiled and cool before drinking Be sure the water container is also clean

Drink more water and other liquids when sick (unless the doctor instruct otherwise) If theres a fever, drink more than 6 cups. (ADD 4 MORE CUPS & FILL with WATER or FRUIT JUICE)

How to Reduce Fever: Babies

Remove clothing Fresh air will not hurt, it helps in to lower the fever Place the baby or small child in the tub. Sponge the childs body with a wash cloth (face, neck, arms, chest, back & legs) Keep sponging for at least 20 min.

How to Reduce Fever: Babies

Remove the child from tub, dry and cover with light weight blanket or sheet. Take temperature after 30 min. Repeat the procedure if the fever is still >38C or 101F. Never leave the child alone while taking the temp. of sponging
tablet with smashed fruit.

*Give half of a regular aspirin or Tylenol or Panadol

How to Reduce Fever: Adults

Remove the persons clothing. Cover the person with a sheet. Protect the bed with a bath towel. Fill a basin half full of cool water. Use a wash cloth lightly wrung out of water, sponge the body one part at a time.

How to Reduce Fever: Adults

Dry each part lightly after sponging. Sponge one arm, then the other, legs, chest then the back. Replace shirt and underwear. Take temperature after 30 min. Repeat the procedure if fever is still >38C or 101F. *Give 2 tablets of aspirin, Panadol or Tylenol and plenty of liquid (H2O or fruit juices).

Other Interventions to Cool a Fever

1. Remove clothing; cover with sheet. 2. Fan him. 3. Pour cool water over him, or put cloths soaked in cool water on his chest & forehead. 4. Fan the cloths & change them often to keep the cloth cool. 5. Continue the procedure until fever goes below

38C or 101F

Harmful Folk Beliefs About Fever

A person with high fever must not take a bath. A cool bath helps to LOWER the body temperature. Certain fruits are hot and others are cold. All fruits and juices are helpful when one has a cold or fever.

How to Prevent Constipation

1. Drink plenty of fluids (6-8 glasses of H2O a day). 2. Eat the right kinds of food (corn, unpolished rice, whole fresh fruits & beans. 3. Get enough exercise (gardening, walking, riding a bicycle) 4. Worms or parasites can cause constipation. See a health worker for treatment

How to Avoid Parasitic Worms

1. 2. 3. 4. Build & use a latrine. Have a safe water supply. Use clean dishes. Wash hands before eating or preparing food.

Steam Inhalation
Water vapor loosen mucus of: -respiratory tract, nose, throat, wind pipe, bronchi & lungs Steam Inhalation relieve: -cough, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, whooping cough

Steam Inhalation for Adults

Have him sit in a chair over a bucket of very hot water with a blanket over his head. Be sure he does not burn Have him breath deeply for 15 minutes
*If a person has a cough, he should not smoke.

Steam Inhalation for Children

Arrange a pot of boiling water beside the bed. Make a tent out of an umbrella and lightweight blanket. Stay with the child and make sure that the steam does not burn him. Protect the child from touching the pot.
*Let him drink plenty of liquids.

Hot Salt Water Gargle

Hot Water Gargle is for sore throats & tonsilitis. How to prepare: -Use 1 tsp of salt to 1 glass or cup of hot water. -Gargle hour before meals to avoid nausea

*If it is a child be sure that he is old enough to know how to


Warm Salt Water for Stuffy Nose

Salt Water for Stuffy Nose Use 1 tsp of salt in 1 cup of warm water. From your hand, sniff into the nose.
*It will loosen the mucus

Closing Thoughts
And let him that athirst, come. And

Whoever will, let him take the water of life freely. Revelation 22:17
Spiritual water maybe found in: Prayer Bible Study Meditation

Body Defense System

Components of Blood: Plasma - the clear portion of the blood (90% H2O, 10% other molecules) -contains antibodies (globulins) which help fight infection -destroy foreign substance in the body

Body Defense System

Red Blood Cells (RBC) -transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body -contain hemoglobin - level of hemoglobin in the blood is called anemia

Body Defense System

White Blood Cells/leukocytes (WBC) defenders of the body -protect the body from bacteria, viruses & other disease causing organisms -produce antibodies

Body Defense System

Platelets activated when an injury such as cut occurs
-involve in the blood clotting (control bleeding)

How the Bodys Blood Cells Fight Infection

How to Keep the Blood Cells Healthy

A. Avoid eating too many sugary foods. B. Eat plenty of vegetables and fruits. C. Drink at least eight glasses of water or juice everyday. D. Exercise in the fresh air everyday. E. Be treated for malaria, parasites, or worms in the gut if necessary.

Home Treatments for Respiratory Disease

GENERAL PRINCIPLES in treating all respiratory diseases: a. Stay away from work & from other people. b. Stay in bed during the fever stage. c. Make sure the sick room is adequately ventilated with fresh air & that is neither hot nor too cold (around 20C or 68F). d. A fruit diet (with high Vit. C) during the acute phase can be beneficial. e. Avoid sweets and sugar. f. Short walks outside. g. Herb teas can be used.
Handout #1

Home Treatments for Respiratory Disease

d. A fruit diet (with high Vit. C) during the acute phase can be beneficial. e. Avoid sweets and sugar. f. Short walks outside. g. Herb teas can be used.
Handout #1

The Common Cold

Caused by a virus Can be transmitted from one person to another (contagious) Virus travels when a person sneezes or coughs Small children may get earaches & ear infections in not treated
*Use disposable tissues or handkerchief to blow nose. *Never blow the nose hard.

Home Treatment for the Common Cold

1. 2. All of the general measures mentioned in handout#1. Hydrotherapy (2-4 x a day): a. hot foot bath b. hot & cold showers, 3 alternations of each. Letting some of the water play on the face. c. warm salt water (1 tsp. salt to 1 glass of water) to sniff up the nose. Use only 1 or 2 tsp. at a time.

Should see a doctor or health worker when: Fever is >38C or 101F Chills Prolonged cough Coughing up purulent or bloody material Severe or prolonged cough Stiff neck Earache

Influenza or Flu
Caused by a virus (different from cold virus) Contagious Symptoms maybe similar to common cold but usually theres a high fever 39C or 103F There is an ache-all-over feeling Will last 1 week but a person may feel weak for a long period of time More serious for very young children, very old people, or those who already have respiratory disease.

Home Treatment for Flu

1. All of the general measures in the Handout#1, with emphasis on bed rest. 2. Hydrotherapy (2-4 x a day): - Hot foot bath + cold cloth to the head. - Wrap the person in a blanket, until sweating profusely. - Dry as soon as treatment is over. - Put the person immediately to bed to avoid chilling.

Same as in a common cold except that fever will be higher Chilling is common during first day or two Isolate the person until temperature is normal for 24 hours.

Sore Throat
Can be caused be several kinds of bacteria. If caused by streptococcus bacteria, the person should see a doctor. Often accompanies other respiratory sickness. Scratchy or burning sore throat with a cold & very little fever can be treated by home treatment. Should see a doctor if sore throat last longer than 2 or 3 days.

Home Treatment for Sore Throat

1. General measures as listed in Handout#1. 2. Gargle: hot salt water (1/4 teaspoon to 1 glass of water) every few hours. 3. Hydrotherapy: a. alternating hot & clod packs to the neck b. alternating hot & cold showers c. heating compress to the throat overnight

A person should see a doctor when: The fever is >38C or 101F lasting >24 hr. Severe sore throat esp. cold symptoms start; extremely red throat, swollen tonsils & whitish patches on the throat (sign of bacterial infection).

Home Treatment for Nausea & Vomiting

1. 2. Bed rest Nothing by mouth until acute vomiting is over; then start with sips of tea (ginger ale or 7-up work better) 3. Give a little water at frequent intervals when the person is able to keep these fluids down. Gradually add hot broth (liquid or soup). Oral rehydration maybe used esp. for the baby. Hydrotherapy: ice bag to the upper abdomen (belly)

Nausea & vomiting can be symptoms of any serious condition If condition does not clear promptly or if it recurs SEE A DOCTOR RIGHT AWAY!

It is a symptom of many conditions of the intestines. Maybe cause by a viral infection, injudicious eating, food poisoning, other germs. If food poisoning: acute nausea, vomiting, diarrhea after hrs of eating the contaminated food. *It can be severe but it will end once the toxins have been flushed out from the body.

Home Treatment for Diarrhea

1. Limit the diet to banana, white potatoes, rice, scraped apple, boiled milk, 7-up, ginger ale & tea, or the oral rehydration drink. AVOID coarse food or foods with high fiber. 2. Bed rest if acute. 3. A cold pack to the lower abdomen may be helpful.


If there is fever it is a sign of infection.
Watch for severe or prolonged pain, recurrent diarrhea, or diarrhea that does not clear within 24 hours.

Acid Stomach
Discomfort often after eating Burping, burning sensation at the upper side of the abdomen (belly) Bloating & indigestion due to nervous tensions, wrong eating habits (eating too fast, eating too much, etc.) Caused by drinking coffee, tea, or alcohol; tobacco

Home Treatment
AVOID: - rich, fried, greasy, spicy food - any food that causes irritation - eating heavy meals in the evening DONT: - eat a wide variety of foods at one meal - take coffee, tea, caffeinated drinks, alcohol & tobacco Exercise outdoor (walking or gardening) Drink plenty of water between meals Hydrotherapy: neutral tub bath at bed time

Symptoms may mimic stomach ulcer or even more serious disease.

If symptoms persist & recurring SEE THE DOCTOR!

Causes of simple constipation: Eating too many refined food Lack of exercise Inadequate drinking of water Taking laxatives

Home Treatment
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Eat fiber rich foods (fresh or dried fruits; legumes, whole wheat, brown rice, fresh vegetables, etc.) Avoid sugars, starches, highly refined rich foods. Drink at least 8 glasses of water everyday. Get plenty of outdoor exercise & adequate rest. Have a regular time for bowel movement. Deep breathing exercise.


Any abrupt change in bowel habits is a danger signal. SEE THE DOCTOR RIGHT AWAY!!!

Session 5

Effective Home Treatments (HYDROTHERAPY)

OBJECTIVE: To learn the uses of hot and cold water in various ways to relieve pain and to treat infection.
MAIN IDEA: Hot & cold water can be used as compresses or soaks to relieve pain and to treat some local infections.

Review: Questions
Q#1 How will drinking water help you? POSSIBLE ANSWERS: - to lower fever - to prevent constipation - to replace body fluid (diarrhea or vomiting) Q#2 What can you use this for? 1 teaspoon salt in 1 glass of water Answer: - gargle for sore throat

Review: Questions
Q#3 Salty water from the glass into the palm of your hand. What can you do with this? ANSWER: - sniff it up to relieve a stuffy nose Q#4 1 liter of water + tsp salt + tsp baking soda + 2 tbsp of sugar. What can you do with it? ANSWER: - Give to the person with diarrhea and/or vomiting to prevent & treat dehydration - Give to who had been burned to replace water loss.

Review: Questions
Q#5 A glass of fruit juice. What would be this be good for? ANSWER: - to reduce fever - to replace body fluids (vomiting & diarrhea - to help recover from flu or cold or other infectious disease Q#6 A can of carbonated drink . When would this be appropriate? POSSIBLE ANSWERS: - when a person is vomiting, nauseated, or having a diarrhea

Review: Questions
Q#7 Bucket of steaming hot water, chair & towel. How could you use you it? POSSIBLE ANSWER: - breath the steam to relieve chest congestion, or moisten so it can be cough up to relieve a cough

Review: Questions
Q#6 Basin of warm water, wash cloth. How would you use this to treat sickness? POSSIBLE ANSWER: - to reduce fever by sponging the body Q#7 What else could you do to reduce a fever in a young baby? ANSWER: - Place the baby directly in the water, sponging with the cloth. PRECAUTION: Dont chill the baby

Water Treatment
HOT WATER -Causes blood vessels to expand and improve circulation -Extra blood supply O2 and food for the cells -Help recover from infection and injury COLD WATER -Contracts the blood vessels -Little blood circulates

Heating Compress
Good for: Sore joints (elbow, knee) due to arthritis Twisted or over used joints Neck sore Hoarse throat Heating Joint Compress Relieves: Pain & swelling by increasing the circulation

Heating Joint Compress

Materials Needed: Cotton cloth, two thickness 4-6 in. wide, long enough to wrap around the joint Flannel cloth, 12-24 cm (6-8 in.) long, double thickness, enough to wrap around the joint well Safety pins

1. Usually it is best to apply heating compress after the joint has been warmed (a heat lamp, or soaked in hot water. 2. Place the cotton cloth into cold tap water. Wring out the water. Wrap it around the joint as you would a bandage. 3. Cover the cotton cloth with the double thickness of flannel. Make sure the wet cotton cloth is completely covered. 4. Pin in place. Leave in place all day or all night.

Heating Throat Compress

Procedure: 1. Wring the cloth out of cold tap water, so it is damp but not dripping. 2. Wrap around the neck with the double thickness of flannel. 3. Pin carefully in place. Leave in place all night.

Question: Why is this called a HEATING THROAT COMPRESS when the water in the cloth is cold water? Answer: Because the body has to warm or heat the cold cloth up and will increase circulation in the area. It will help bring healing to the area.

Question: Is it dangerous to put a cold cloth around the neck? Answer: No, not if you cover it well with the strip of flannel cloth.

The Hot Foot Bath

Relieves: Headaches Discomfort of menstrual cramps Chest congestion Cold

Hot Foot Bath

Materials needed: A foot tub (deep dish pan or wide mouth bucket) Bath towel Tea kettle of very hot H2O Basin of cold H2O Blanket
*If patient is sitting up, wrap him in lightweight blanket *If giving foot bath in bed, protect the bed covers by a plastic sheet

1. Give the treatment in a room free of breezes if possible. 2. It is best if the patient can sit is a chair, but if the patient is too weak leave him lying in bed. 3. If giving the foot bath in bed, protect the bed with a sheet of plastic. 4. Fill the foot bucket or tub with hot water (water will come up to the ankle). Test the H2O with your elbow.

1. Put the persons feet in the tub or bucket, & cover with towel. Use a section of newspaper across the top of the tub under the towel. Add 1-2 cups of hot water every 3-5 min. Ask the patient to remove the feet when adding the hot water. Put a wash cloth wrung out of a cold water on the forehead. Change this every time you add more hot water. After 20 min. lift the feet out of the hot water. Pour a small pan of cold water over the feet, then dry the feet immediately. Remove & empty the tub bucket.

2. 3.


NEVER give such treatment to:

- DIABETIC PERSON - or person with poor circulation in their feet.


Sprained ankle A small infection of the finger, hand, arm, leg, foot or toe Small infected cuts Boil Sign of Infection: - reddish - swollen - hot - painful


Materials Needed: 1. Two containers (plastic or metal buckets, basins, or even a garbage pail) large enough to allow the water to come well up over the part to be treated. 2. Tea kettle of hot water. 3. Cold water (plus ice if possible) 4. Towel


4. 5.

Fill one of the containers with hot water (not too hot to burn). Fill the other container with cold water with few ice cubes. Put the affected part into the hot water totally immersing it. Leave it in the hot water for 4-5 min. Move the affected part into the cold water container. Leave it there for half a minute. Add 1 cup of hot water to the other container. Test it with your hand. Put the affected part back into the hot water for another 5 min. Keep moving the part back and forth between the hot & cold containers. (hot water-5 min., cold water-half min.)

6. Continue the treatment for 20 min. total time. 7. End the cold part of the treatment. 8. Dry the part thoroughly.



HOT & COLD (Sprain)

DO NOT give this treatment in the first 24 hr. Use only cold soaks. After 24 hr. use the alternate hot & cold treatment. Use elastic bandage to wrap the part in between treatments (to keep the swelling down)

DO NOT USE this kind of treatment for:

- a child under 6 yrs. old - diabetic person - a person with disturbed circulation on both hands & feet

Review Questions
Q#1 When giving hot & cold treatment, what kind of water should you start with? ANSWER: HOT Q#2 What kind of water should you end with? ANSWER: COLD

Hot & Cold Compress

Use HOT & COLD COMPRESS if the sore part of the body cannot be soaked in water. Materials & Procedure: cloths like washcloth or towel wrung out of hot or cold water given the same way as hot & cold soaks *Hot compress (3-5 min) *Cold compress (half a minute) *Cold compress can be use for burn, itching or weeping skin irritation

NEVER use hot or cold compress for ABDOMINAL PAINS (may break appendix & cause a very serious sickness) NEVER use hot cold compress if there is FRESH BLEEDING. DO NOT apply this treatment on the first day for sprained ankle. Use only cold soak. DO NOT soak the injured part for longer that 20 min.

Cool Water
Can be used: as an emergency measure If acid, lye, or dirt has gotten into the eye, wash immediately with plenty of COOL WATER *If a person has gotten acid or lye in his eye, SEE THE DOCTOR right away!

Closing Thoughts
Simple treatments are as old as Bible times. Over 2,000 years ago, when parts of the Bible were being written, Isaiah recommended this treatment for King Hezekiah: For Isaiah had said, Let them take a lump of figs, and lay it for a plaister upon the boil, And he shall recover. Isaiah 38:21

Session 6 FIRST AID, Part I

OBJECTIVE: To teach individuals how to give immediate and temporary care to an injured person or ill person then how to get person to medical care.
MAIN IDEA: When someone is injured, or suddenly becomes very ill, you should give immediate, temporary care until you can get medical care. That immediate temporary care is called, FIRST AID.

Materials Needed
Poles & blanket for improvised stretcher Blanket Watch w/second hand or digital read out seconds (optional) Pads of clean cloth Pitcher or can of clean water Bar of soap 1 liter bottle or pitcher Salt Bicarbonate of soda (baking soda)


is the immediate and temporary care given to an injured person on one who has suddenly become sick.

Knowing the principles of FIRST AID may help you save a persons life, or prevent further injury. First Aid is the care you give until you can get medical help. Persons trained in First Aid DO NOT take the place of doctors, nurses or other health workers. Emergencies can happen any time, at any place. First Aid knowledge is needed before the emergencies arises.

Loss of Consciousness: Common

Being hit on the head (knocked out) Shock Poisoning Overdose of drugs Fainting Heat stroke Heart attack Drowning Choked on something

Loss of Consciousness
Check for: Breathing
Is the person breathing? IF NOT, tilt his head way back and pull his jaw & tongue forward. Remove if something is stuck. IF NOT breathing, give mouth-to-mouth breathing

Loss of Consciousness
Could it be heat stroke? SYMPTOMS: no sweating high fever hot red skin If symptoms are present: shade him from the sun keep the head higher that his feet soak him with the cold water

If a person has merely fainted, but still breathing: keep him lying down put a cold compress on his forehead until he revives

Loss of Consciousness
Bleeding - Is the person losing blood? If so, stop the bleeding. Shock - Is the person in shock? Is the skin moist & pale? - Is the heart beat weak & fast? - Lay the person on a cot or board with his feet higher than his head. - Loosen his clothing, but keep him warm.

DO NOT MOVE AN UNCONCIOUS PERSON, if badly injured, except with great care. In case of broken neck or back, ANY CHANGE OF POSITION can cause greater INJURY & permanent PARALYSIS.

Medical Care for the Badly Injured Person

Give the immediate care (apply what youve learned in this session) Call for emergency medical care, police or fireman Use the nearest telephone. Keep the emergency numbers by your telephone at home or at work. Make a stretcher from a ladder or 2 poles & a blanket if you are where emergency care is not available.

Moving a Badly Injured Person

1. Make a stretcher. 2. Have several people help lift the injured person onto the stretcher. 3. Move the injured person carefully without bending him anywhere. 4. Have someone else put the stretcher in place, once you have lifted the person.

Moving a Badly Injured Person

5. With the help of everyone, place the injured person onto the stretcher carefully. 6. Then carry the person gently as possible to the nearest medical care. *Place the stretcher at the back of truck & prevent it from jostling. *If the person may have broken neck, place sand bags on each side of the persons head.

MOUTH to MOUTH Breathing or Breath of Life

1. Remove any material in the mouth. 2. Tilt the head backward. 3. Pinch the nostrils and blow into the lungs strongly. 4. Pause to let the air come back out. *Blow every 5 seconds for an adult, every 4 seconds for the baby (you may place your mouth over both the babys nose & mouth. *ACT QUICKLY: Permanent damage or death can occur in <4 min.

Start mouth-to-mouth breathing even before the person is out of the water Have someone else bring the person out of the water while you give mouth-to-mouth. DONT wait to get the water out of his lungs. In between breaths, turn the head to one side and push on his belly with the heel of your hand. DONT stop giving mouth-to-mouth every 5 min.

Heimlich Maneuver
1. Stand behind the person, wrap arms around his waist. 2. Put fist against belly, below the ribs & above the navel. Place your other hand over your fist. 3. Press belly with a sudden strong upward jerk to force air from the lungs, and to clear the throat. *DONT do the Heimlich Maneuver if he can inhale or talk.

The first thing you check in an injured person. ANSWER: Breathing The next thing you look for is ANSWER: Bleeding

How to Control a Bleeding Wound

Use direct pressure on the wound. Raise the part up. Tie the pad firmly in place. Squeeze the blood vessel off at a pressure point (blood vessel over a bone) if bleeding continues. KEEP you fingers flat.

When Squeezing the Pressure Point:

DONT FORGET: keep the pad or your hand on the cut hold it higher than the heart keep your fingers flat reach in from behind *NEVER use dirt, lime or coffee to stop bleeding. *DO NOT PUT ointments, oil or grease on the wound.

Pressure Points of the Body

If the wound is on the HEAD where would you put pressure? ANSWER: *Directly on the bleeding wound. *There are no pressure points for the blood supply on the head. *Have the head elevated higher that the heart.

For Cuts, Scrapes or small Wounds:

1. 2. 3. 4. Wash your own hands. Wash the wound well with soap & water. Cover with a clean pad. Go to medical care if stitches are needed.

*Larger wound need more cleaning, prescribed antibiotic, tetanus shot.

Signs of an Infected Wound

Becomes red, swollen, hot & painful. It has pus. It begins to smell bad.

Wounds that are Likely to Become Infected

Dirty wounds, wounds made with dirty objects Puncture wounds, or deep wounds that do not bleed much Wounds where animals are kept (corrals, pig pens) Large wound with severe mashing or bruising Bites, esp. from dogs, pigs, people Bullet or knife wound

DONT wait until the wound becomes infected. DONT use home treatments for such wounds- for medical care ASAP.

More frequent in older people Person of any age Fat and smokers

Symptoms of Heart Attack

A sharp, crushing pain on the chest Pain radiating down the left arm, neck or both arms It does not go away with rest Difficulty in breathing & nauseated

First Aid for Heart Attack

1. Have the person lie down but prop up his head and shoulders with pillow. 2. Call for Emergency Medical Assistance or take care person to nearest emergency. 3. Reassure the person; DO NOT panic.

The Parable of the Good Samaritan illustrates a person who gave FIRST AID to someone in need.

Read Luke 10:29-36

Session 7 FIRST AID, Part II

OBJECTIVE: To know and be able to apply the principles of prevention to burns, poisoning, insect and snake bites at home or at work; if these accidents occur, to be able to give First Aid treatment until medical help can be obtained. MAIN: Prevention of, and First Aid for, burns and poisoning is important for keeping the family healthy and free from the of accidents.

What is First Aid? Who should give First Aid? What should you check for first, if you find an unconscious person? -BREATHING What should you check for next in an injured person? -BLEEDING

What do you do if the person is not breathing? -Make sure that there is nothing obstructing the air passage then give Mouth-to Mouth breathing How long should you do this? - Until he breathes on his own at least an hour

If you have to move an injured person, what should you be careful of? - A broken back or a broken neck If a person is drowning how soon should you start giving him your breath? - Immediately, dont wait to get out of water.

If you cut your arm , how should you stop bleeding? - Direct pressure, put pressure on the pressure point If a little girl falls and gets a gash in her leg, how would you treat it? - Wash your own hands. Wash wound with clean soap & water. If bleeding badly apply pressure directly.

Things that can Cause Burns

Fire Matches Steam Hot water or metal Sun Stove Oil (when cooking)

Skin Burns
Burns can be very serious Can cause death either by shock or infection Infection can begin quickly Fluids are rapidly lost

Anatomy of the Skin

Kinds of Burns
First degree burns which do not form blisters on the skin. - affects only the epidermis or outer layer of the skin - the burn site is red, painful, dry, with not blisters ex. Mild sunburn

Kinds of Burns
Second Degree burns that cause blisters
- burns involve the epidermis and part of the dermis layer of skin - burn site appears red, blistered, and may be swollen and painful

Kinds of Burns
Third Degree destroys
the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and the entire layer beneath (or dermis). - dry and leathery skin - black, white, brown, or yellow skin - swelling - lack of pain because nerve endings have been destroyed

First Aid for First Degree Burn

Put the burned area in cold water as quickly as possible. If it is hand, arm, leg or foot put it under running water or pan of cold water. Jump in a stream or lake. Put cold compress

First Aid for Second Degree Burn

1. Put the part into the cold water (15-20 min.) 2. Do not break the blisters. 3. If the blisters are broken, wash gently with soap and clean water. 4. Put a clean, thick, dry bandage on right away. 5. Put a clean plastic bag or plastic wrap over the dry bandage. 6. If the burn is large, go to medical care. 7. Treat for shock and give plenty of liquids. *DO NOT put any grease, fat, hides, coffee, herb or animal feces on a burn.

First Aid for Third Degree Burn

Wrap the burned parts with clean, dry towels. TAKE THE PERSON TO MEDICAL CARE AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE. Replace lost body fluids by giving plenty of liquid or rehydration drink. Get the person drink as often as possible all the way to the medical center.

Another cause of accidents, at home, or around the farm Can happen to anyone Children are the common victims ALL POISONS should be KEPT OUT of reach of children!!!

Chemical Poisons at Home

Kerosene Gasoline Weed killer Medicines

NEVER keep kerosene, gasoline or other poisons in cola or soft drink bottles.

Common Poisons
Rat poison DDT, lindane, insecticides Medicines Iodine Soap powders, bleach Cigarettes Lye Rubbing or wood alcohol Poisonous leaves, seeds, berries Matches Gasoline (petrol), paint thinner

First Aid for Poisoning

IMMEDIATELY GIVE: glass of water or milk or charcoal drink DECIDE if you should make him vomit. If the poison was non-corrosive, make him vomit. Give him a glass of salt water (1 tsp. salt to 1 glass of water) or syrup or Ipepac. Take to medical center. Tell the health worker what kind of poison it was. Treat for shock.
*CORROSIVE substances: gasoline, paint, thinner, strong acids, lye

How to Keep Children from being Poisoned

1. PUT all poisons in a high cupboard or fix storage box. 2. NEVER store poisons such as gasoline, cleaners, paint thinner, etc. in soft drink bottles. 3. KEEP any medicines in a storage box children cannot open or reach.

1. Dilute charcoal powder.

Children: 2 tbsp of charcoal into half glass of drinking water Adult: 3 tbsp of charcoal powder into a glass of water 2. Let the patient drink the glass of water at one time. 3. Induce vomiting 5 min. after the first dose. 4. After vomiting, give the patient another glass of charcoal drink .

5. Repeat procedure #s 3 & 4 three times. 6. After the third vomiting, give the patient another glass of charcoal drink to adsorb the remaining poisons in the stomach.

Source: Paypa, S. S. (2006) Healing Wonders of Charcoal

How to Keep Vomited Poison Get into the Lungs

Child: Hold him face down over your knees with his chin lower than his hips.
Adult: Ask the person to bend over very far or lie down and hang his head down low.

Snake Bites
Poisonous snake bite: leaves marks of two fangs

Non-poisonous snake bite: leaves 2 rows of teeth marks, no fang marks

First Aid for Poisonous Snake Bite

1. Have the person stay quiet; DONT move the part that has been bitten. 2. Tie the cloth around the limb between the bite and. DONT tie it very tight. You should be able to slip one finger under the tie cloth. LOOSEN it for 1 min every 1 hr. 3. KEEP the snake bitten body part lower than the heart. 4. Go to the medical center right away.

For Non-Poisonous Snake Bite

Treat the bit like an ordinary cut. Stop the bleeding. Wash with soap & water. Go to the clinic for a tetanus shot.

Charcoal Poultice for Snake & Insect Bites

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Apply charcoal paste directly over the bitten area. Cover with dry cloth. Cover with a plastic. Put a tight bandage around the affected area. Change the poultice every 30 min. for the 1st day of application, every 3-4 hrs. for succeeding 7 to 10 days until the wound is healed. Let the patient drink charcoal drink according to dosage every 30 min. for the 1st 5 hrs.; every 2 hrs. for the next 2 days; and every 4 hrs for the succeeding 8 days.
Source: Paypa, S. S. (2006) Healing Wonders of Charcoal



When hiking or walking in an area where there are poisonous snakes WATCH : - when you step over a log - when you sit down among the rocks - when you put your hand down where the snakes live


Sucking the snake bite can be dangerous esp. when theres cut or sore in the mouth.

First Aid for Scorpion Bites

For ADULTS: Take Panadol, Tylenol or Aspirin. Put ice or cold compress on the sting. Use hot compress for 20 min. 2 days after being bitten For CHILDREN: Get medical help ASAP Give mouth-to-mouth if the child stops breathing. Give scorpion antitoxin injection within 2 hrs of the sting

Poisonous Spider Bites

Painful but not usually dangerous for an adult but can be dangerous for a child: SEEK MEDICAL HELP ASAP! (a child has less body size to handle the poison) Can cause extreme pain in the stomach muscle. Medicines that are helpful are not available in the village store.

Review Questions
What poisons do you have at home that you need to be very careful with so children will not get them accidentally? What do you do for a person who has swallowed a poison? What is the first thing you do for a first and second degree burn?

Review Questions
Why do you have a person lie down and not move around or walk for help who has bitten by a poisonous snake or insect? Why should the band you tie between the snake bite and the heart be tied loosely? If the snake bite is not from the poisonous snake, what treatment what treatment should you give? Why is an insect bite more dangerous to a small child?

We CANNOT avoid all accidents. Many can be prevented by being CAREFUL. But God also promised to help us.
For He shall give His angels charge over thee, thee keep in all thy ways. They shall bear thee up in their hands, lest thou dash thou foot against a stone. Psalm 91:11,12