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# Lab of COMP 319

## Image Processing with MATLAB

Lab tutor : Shenghua ZHONG Email: zsh696@gmail.com csshzhong@comp.polyu.edu.hk Lab 2: Nov 9, 2011
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Outline of Lab 3

1. Review of Lab 2
2. User defined function 3. Execution control

## 4. Plots and graphs using Matlab

5. Basic manipulation in image processing 6. Color image compression

Outline of Lab 3

1. Review of Lab 2
2. User defined function 3. Execution control

## 4. Plots and graphs using Matlab

5. Basic manipulation in image processing 6. Color image compression

## Review of Lab 2 about Data Structure

1. Introduction the basic data structure in Matlab
Vector and Array

Numerical Value
Index

## Review of Lab 2 about Data Structure

3. What we have learnt How to create them
For example: A = [3, 4, 5; 6, 5.5, 0]

## How to manipulate them

For example: A(1,1:2) = A(1,1:2) + 2

## How to access their elements

For example: B = A(1,1:2)

## How to perform mathematical and logical operations on them

For example: C = A./2.5; D = sum(sum(A)) For example: E = A > 0.5
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## Review of Lab 2 about M file

File - New - Script/Function

## Review of Lab 2 about M file

Open the M-files and run it.

Outline of Lab 3

1. Review of Lab 2
2. User defined function 3. Execution control

## 4. Plots and graphs using Matlab

5. Basic manipulation in image processing 6. Color image compression

User-Defined Function
A function is a piece of computer code that accepts an input argument from the user and provides output to the program. You may wish to define your own functions-those which are used commonly in your programming. User-defined functions are stored as M-files and can be accessed by Matlab if they are in the current directory.

User-Defined Function
Each function consists of a name, user-provided input, and calculated output. For example, the function: my_function(x)
is named my_function, takes user input inside the parentheses (in this case, x), and calculate a result.

The user does not see the calculations performed, but just accepts the answer. The function could be regarded as a black box.

input function

output
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User-Defined Function
User-defined functions are stored as M-files. Each must start with a function definition line that contains

the word function, one or several variables that defines the function output, a function name, and one or several variables used for the input argument. Save the function as M-file using the same name in your function

Some examples:
function output = my_function(x)
function [output1, output2] = my_function(x1,x2,x3)

Hints: The function name and the names of the input and output variables are arbitrary and selected by the programmer, but the word function can not be changed.
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User-Defined Function
function output = my_poly(x) % This function calculates the value of a third-order % polynomial output = 3*x.^3+5*x.^2-2*x+1

Save above commands into an M-file and then type the below commands in command window to observe the results: >> a=4; >> my_poly(a) >> b=1:5; >> my_poly(b)

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Outline of Lab 3

1. Review of Lab 2
2. User defined function 3. Execution control

## 4. Plots and graphs using Matlab

5. Basic manipulation in image processing 6. Color image compression

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## Objectives of Execution Control

Why need execution control

You may want to execute some parts of the code under certain circumstances only;
You may want to repeat a section of code a certain number of times.

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Conditional Execution
General concepts
if statements

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General Concepts
Generally speaking, the statements written in our scripts have been executed in sequence from the top (the first line) to the bottom (the last line). However, it is frequently necessary to make choices about how to process a set of data based on some characteristic of that data.

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if Statements
A set of statements (the code block to be executed) is shown as a rectangle, a decision point is shown as a diamond, and the flow of program control is indicated by arrows. The execution of a code block is based on some conditional test. If the result of the test is true, the code block is executed. Otherwise, the code block is omitted and the instructions after the end of that code block are executed.

## if condition true statements

false

A simple if statement

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if Statements
Examples: Suppose Test =[2 0 0 0 ; 3 0 0 0; 4 0 0 0; 0 0 0 1]

Type
if Test(4,4)>0 display(Condition is true) end Matlab displays ans = Condition is true

Type

## if Test(1,1)>0 | Test(2,4)==0 display(TRUE) else display(FALSE) end

Matlab displays ans = TRUE
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if Statements
if condition true statements(1) false elseif condition false

false

else

true
statements(2)

statements(n+1)

## A compound if statement (more than one conditional test)

In the compound if statement, if the first logical test returns false, a second test is performed to determine whether the second code block should be executed. If that test returns false, as many further tests as necessary may be performed, each with the appropriate code block to be implemented when the result is true. Finally, if none of these tests returns true, the last code block (with the keyword else) is executed.
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if Statements
if condition true statements(1) false elseif condition false

false

else

true
statements(2)

statements(n+1)

## A compound if statement (more than one conditional test)

1. 2.

If one of the code blocks is executed, the next instruction to execute is the one that follows the conditional code after the end statement. In particular, if there is no else clause, it is possible that no code at all is executed in this conditional statement.
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## General Template of if Statements

if <logical expression 1> <code block 1> elseif <logical expression 2> <code block 2>

elseif <logical expression n> <code block n> else <default code block> end
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## Important Notes of if Statements

1. The only essential ingredients are the first if statement, one code block, and the end statement. All other features may be added as the logical requires. 2. The code blocks may contain any sequence of legal Matlab statements, including other if statements (nested ifs). 3. Nested if statements with a code block are an alternative implementation of a logical and statement.
clear all; a = 5; if a>3 if a-4 == 1 b=6 end end

## clear all; a = 5; if a>3 & a-4==1 b=6 end

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Iteration
General concepts
for loops

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General Concepts
Iteration allow controlled repetition of a code block. Control statements at the beginning of the code block specify the manner and extent of the repetition.
The for loop is designed to repeat its code block a fixed number of times and largely automates the process of managing the iteration.

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for Loops

computations

## Structure of a for loop

The repeated execution of the code block is performed under the control of a loopcontrol variable. It is first set to an initial value that is tested against a terminating condition. If the terminating test succeeds, the program leaves the for loop. Otherwise, the computations in the code block are performed using the current value of that variable. When one pass through the code block is finished, the variable is updated to its next value, and control returns to the termination test.

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## General Template of for Loops

for <variable specification> <code block> end

All of the mechanics of iteration control are handled automatically in the variable specification section.

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## Important Notes of for Loops

The core concept in the Matlab for loop implementation is in the style of the variable specification, which is accomplished as follows:

## <variable specification>: <variable> = <vector>

where <variable> is the name of the loop control variable and <vector> is any vector that can be created by the techniques discussed in this lab.

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for Statements
Example: Type for k = 1:10 Remember - the colon operator k indicates every integer between end the start and end OR Matlab displays start : increment : end k= 1 k= 2 and so on, through k = 10. Type for counter = 2:2:10 counter end

notice that counter increments by 2 with each time thru the loop
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## Exercise 1 (Control Structure)

Create a M-file and write these codes down.
% use the percent sign to % indicate comments

Mymatrix = [1:5; 14:2:22; 50:-7:22]; for i = 1:3 for j = 1:5 if Mymatrix(i,j)< 5 | Mymatrix(i,j) > 20 newmatrix(i,j) = Mymatrix(i,j); elseif Mymatrix(i,j) == 20 newmatrix(i,j) = 100; else newmatrix(i,j) = 0; %semicolon means end %Matlab wont display end end

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Outline of Lab 3

1. Review of Lab 2
2. User defined function 3. Execution control

## 4. Plots and graphs using Matlab

5. Basic manipulation in image processing 6. Color image compression

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Basic Plotting
Simple x-y plots: >> x=[0:2:18]; >> y=[0,0.33,4.13,6.29,6.85 ,11.19,13.19,13.96,16.33 ,18.17]; >> plot(x,y)

Hint: The number of elements in vector x must be equal to the number of elements in vector y, otherwise it will make an error.
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Basic Plotting
Titles, Labels, and Grids:
>> x=[0:2:18]; >> y=[0,0.33,4.13,6.29,6.85,11.1 9,13.19,13.96,16.33,18.17]; >> plot(x,y), title('Lab Experiment 1'), xlabel('Time'), ylabel('Distance'), grid on

Hint: You must create a graph before you add the title and labels. If you specify the title and labels first, they are erased when the plot command executes. 32

Basic Plotting
Line, Color, and Mark style: >> x=[0:2:18]; >> y=[0,0.33,4.13,6.29,6. 85,11.19,13.19,13.96,1 6.33,18.17]; >> plot(x,y,':ok',x,y*2,'-xr',x,y/2,'-b')

Hint: You plot three different x-y plots in one image, using different line type, point type and color.
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Basic Plotting
Line, Color, and Mark style:
Line Type solid dotted dash-dot dashed Indicator : -. -Point Type point circle x-mark plus star square diamond Indicator . o x + * s d Color blue green red cyan magenta yellow black Indicator b g r c m y k
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## Exercise 2 (Basic Plotting)

1. Plot x versus y for y=sin(x). Let x vary from 0 to 2pi in increments of 0.1pi. 2. Add a title and labels to your plot.

3. Plot x versus y1 and y2 for y1=sin(x) and y2=cos(x). Let x vary from 0 to 2*pi in increments of 0.1*pi. Add a title and labels to your plot.
4. Re-create the plot from step 3, but make the sin(x) line dashed and red. Make the cos(x) line green and dotted. 5. Use the M file to write and run it.
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Subplots
The subplot command allows you to subdivide the graphing window into a grid of m rows and n columns. The function: subplot(m,n,p) split the figure into m*n matrix. The variable p identifies the portion of the window where the current plot will be drawn.

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Subplots
For example, if the command subplot(2,2,1) is used, the window is divided into two rows and two columns, and the plot is drawn in the upper left-hand window. The windows are numbered from left to right, top to bottom.
p=1 p=3 p=2 p=4

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Subplots

>> x=0:pi/20:2*pi; >> subplot(2,1,1) >> plot(x,sin(x)) >> subplot(2,1,2) >> plot(x,sin(2*x))

Simple x-y plots, in the first part of figure, y = sin(x). And in the second part of figure, y= sin(2*x).
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Exercise 3 (Subplots)
1. Subdivided a figure window into one row and two columns.

2. In the left window, plot y=tan(x) Let x vary from -1.5 to 1.5 in increment of 0.1.
3. Add a title and axis labels to your graph. 4. In the right window, plot y=sinh(x) for the same x range. (Hyperbolic sine function) 5. Add a title and axis labels to this graph. 6. Use the M file to write and run it.

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Histograms
A histogram is a special type of graph that is particularly useful for the statistical analysis of data. A histogram is a plot showing the distribution of a set of values. In Matlab, the histogram compute the number of values falling into 10 bins (categories) that are equally spaced between the minimum and maximum values.

>>
x=[100,96,74,87,75,22 ,56,78,34,35,93,88,86, 42,55,48,9,6]; >> hist(x)
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Histograms
The default number of bins is 10, but if we have a large data set, we may want to divide the data up into more bins. For example, to create a histogram with 25 bins, the command would be hist(x, 25) .

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Exercise 4 (Histogram)
Suppose that x = [1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 17, 19, 23, 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 40, 57,66,67,68,80,90,91,100] 1. Subdivided a figure window into two rows and one column.

2. In the top window, plot the histogram of x with the default number of bins.
3. Add a title to your graph. 4. In the bottom window, plot the histogram of x with 20 bins. 5. Add a title to this graph. 6. Use the M file to write and run it.
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Outline of Lab 3

1. Review of Lab 2
2. User defined function 3. Execution control

## 4. Plots and graphs using Matlab

5. Basic manipulation in image processing 6. Color image compression

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## The MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox

The Image Processing Toolbox is a collection of MATLAB functions (called M-functions or M-files) that extend the capability of the MATLAB environment for the solution of digital image processing problems.

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## The MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox

Including:
Spatial transformations and image registration Linear filtering and transforms Image enhancement and restoration Image analysis and statistics

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## How to Find Suitable M-function?

Find it in Matlab Help.
-by category -by alphabetical list

## Find it on the textbook.

Find in the sub-folder in Matlab

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## Matlab Built-in Images

Path: \Matlab\R2011a\toolbox\ima ges\imdemos Y:\Win32\Matlab\R2011a\to olbox\images\imdemos They are built-in images in Matlab which can be used directly. It is very convenient to use these images to observe some image processing results.

coins

onion
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Function:

Goal:
Load the image and save it as the array format.

Method:

pout

Examples:
I = imread('pout.tif'); I = imread('rice.png'); rice
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Displaying Image
Function:
imshow()

Goal:
Open a window to show the image

Method:
imshow(I)

Goal:
Open a new window to show the image

Method:
figure,imshow(I)

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Displaying Image(cont.)
Function:
colorbar

## Goal: To display an image with a colorbar that indicates the range of

intensity values.

Method:
imshow(I), colorbar

Example:
I = imread('pout.tif'); imshow(I) , colorbar

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Writing Image
Function:
imwrite()

Goal:
Function: write the image out as a file

Method:
imwrite(I,filename,format)

Example:
imwrite(I, pout.jpg, JPEG);

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Image Information
Function:
size()

Goal:
Returns the number of rows and columns of an matrix/image

Method:
[M,N] = size(I) for matrix/image I, returns the number of rows and columns in X as separate output variables.

Example:
I= imread('saturn.png'); % I is a gray image [I_x,I_y] = size(I) % I_x= height of the image, I_y= width of the image

Method:
M = SIZE(X,DIM) returns the length of the dimension specified
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Image Information
Function:
whos

Goal:
Display information about a variable .

Example:
whos I

Function:
imfinfo()

Goal:
display information about image file . Example: info = imfinfo('saturn.png')
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## Digital Image Processing

Function:
im2bw()

Goal:
Convert intensity image I to binary image g using threshold T, where T must be in range [0, 1].

Method:
g = im2bw(I, T);

Example:
I= imread('pout.tif'); g = im2bw(I, 0.4); imshow(g) ,colorbar

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## Digital Image Processing (cont.)

Function:
rgb2gray()

Goal:
Transform RGB color model image into gray-level image.

Example:
I= imread ('saturn.png'); imshow(I); g = rgb2gray(I); figure, imshow(g), colorbar

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## Digital Image Processing (cont.)

Function:
imresize()

Method:
imresize(A, [NUMROWS NUMCOLS], METHOD)

Goal:
Change the size of an image.

Method:
imresize(A, SCALE, METHOD)

Example:
I = imread('circuit.tif'); J = imresize(I,1.25); imshow(I) figure, imshow(J)

Example:
I = imread('circuit.tif'); J = imresize(I,[100 150], 'bilinear'); imshow(I) figure, imshow(J)

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## Digital Image Processing (cont.)

Function:
imrotate();

Goal:
Rotate image A by ANGLE degrees in a counterclockwise direction around its center point.

Method:
imrotate(I, angle);

Example:
I = imread('pout.tif'); J = imrotate(I,35); imshow(J)

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## More Example (cont.)

How to use this function ?
imfilter()

Help imfilter

## Write this code and see what will happen?

I = imread('coins.png'); h = ones(5,5) / 25; I2 = imfilter(I,h); imshow(I), title('Original Image'); figure, imshow(I2), title('Filtered Image')

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## More Example (cont.)

Write this code and see what will happen?
I = imread('cameraman.tif'); h = fspecial('unsharp'); I2 = imfilter(I,h); imshow(I), title('Original Image') figure, imshow(I2), title('Filtered Image')

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Outline of Lab 3

1. Review of Lab 2
2. User defined function 3. Execution control

## 4. Plots and graphs using Matlab

5. Basic manipulation in image processing 6. Color image compression

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## Color Image Compression

Color image in Matlab General processing of color image Color image compression

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## Color Image in Matlab

Since a color image requires three separate items of information for each pixel, a (true) color image of size m*n is represented in Matlab by an array of size m*n*3: a three dimensional array.

ans = 135 198 3
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## Color Image in Matlab

We can isolate each color component by the colon operator:
x(:,:,1) is the first, red component. x(:,:,2) is the second, green component. x(:,:,3) is the third, blue component.

## The color components can all be viewed with imshow function

>> figure, imshow(x(:,:,1)) >> figure, imshow(x(:,:,2)) >> figure, imshow(x(:,:,3))

Red component

Green component

Blue component

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## Processing of Color Images

Image

R Processing

G Processing G Processing

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Original image

DCT

## Quantization Compressed image

Recovered image

IDCT

Inverse quantization

## Reminder: Do not forget reprocessing of color images

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An example
>> a = imread('onion.png'); Red component >> a1=a(1:8,1:8,1) a1 = 63 61 61 65 62 66 62 65 67 61 61 63 60 64 64 60 65 64 64 64 60 63 64 61 68 66 65 65 65 64 67 66 66 67 66 65 66 67 66 66 64 67 65 63 64 67 63 61 63 66 65 66 64 68 64 63 66 66 67 64 64 65 65 66
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DCT in Matlab

>> da1=dct2(a1) da1 = 515.1250 -6.9009 -4.4097 -0.1354 5.6250 0.7751 -1.8265 0.4425 2.2310 -0.9758 -1.7370 -1.8775 -2.6824 -1.3261 1.0516 -1.0729 1.2950 1.6965 -0.8687 -3.0164 1.8362 -1.5076 -0.1527 -1.4253 2.7060 1.6665 -0.1457 1.5836 -2.0586 -1.2816 -1.3506 -1.4155 -2.6250 3.0794 1.0312 -0.4235 2.8750 0.4794 -1.1036 -0.5436 1.9798 3.9761 0.6547 -2.9155 -1.5988 -0.7426 -1.2419 -0.3764 1.4931 0.1617 2.0973 0.9814 0.1865 -0.4356 0.3687 0.4056 -3.0155 -1.2068 -1.9821 -2.1311 1.4400 -1.4382 0.0831 -1.3652

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Quantization in Matlab

## Two different forms of quantization:

1. Uniform scalar quantization:
All elements in a matrix are divided by the same number.

## 2. Non-uniform scalar quantization:

All elements in a matrix are divided by different numbers. There is usually a quantization table for the compression task.

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## Uniform Scalar Quantization

>> q=16; >> qa1=round(da1/q)

qa1 =
32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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## Non-uniform Scalar Quantization

>> q=[16 11 10 16 24 40 51 61;... 12 12 14 19 26 58 60 55;... 14 13 16 24 40 57 69 56;... 14 17 22 29 51 87 80 62;... 18 22 37 56 68 109 103 77;... 24 35 55 64 81 104 113 92;... 49 64 78 87 103 121 120 101;... 72 92 95 98 112 100 103 99]; >> qa1=round(da1./q) qa1 = 32 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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## Inverse Quantization in Matlab

>> qa2=qa1.*q qa2 = 512 -11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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## Inverse DCT in Matlab

>> da2=idct2(qa2) da2 = 62.0928 62.0928 62.0928 62.0928 62.0928 62.0928 62.0928 62.0928 62.3832 62.3832 62.3832 62.3832 62.3832 62.3832 62.3832 62.3832 62.9197 62.9197 62.9197 62.9197 62.9197 62.9197 62.9197 62.9197 63.6206 63.6206 63.6206 63.6206 63.6206 63.6206 63.6206 63.6206 64.3794 64.3794 64.3794 64.3794 64.3794 64.3794 64.3794 64.3794 65.0803 65.0803 65.0803 65.0803 65.0803 65.0803 65.0803 65.0803 65.6168 65.6168 65.6168 65.6168 65.6168 65.6168 65.6168 65.6168 65.9072 65.9072 65.9072 65.9072 65.9072 65.9072 65.9072 65.9072

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## Difference between Two Matrices

Below is the difference between the original matrix and recovered matrix:

>> diff=double(round(da2))-double(a1)
diff = -1 1 1 -3 0 -4 0 -3 -5 1 1 -1 2 -2 -2 2 -2 -1 -1 -1 3 0 -1 2 -4 -2 -1 -1 -1 0 -3 -2 -2 1 3 0 -3 -2 0 0 -2 0 1 -1 -1 2 0 2 -2 1 2 2 -3 -2 -2 1 -2 2 2 1 -2 4 3 0
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## Next Lab Course

Introduction of the final project Do final project by yourself

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