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Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Introduction: Training for Competitive Advantage

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. 3. Discuss various aspects of the instructional system design model. you should be able to: 1.1-3 Objectives After reading this chapter. Discuss the forces influencing the workplace and learning. Describe the amount and types of training occurring in U.S. companies. 2. . All rights reserved. and explain how training can help companies deal with these forces.

Describe how much money is spent on training in U. 6. journals. Identify appropriate resources (e.. 5.1-4 Objectives (continued) 4. . Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. companies and how the money is used. Discuss the key roles and competencies required for training professionals.g.S. All rights reserved. websites) for learning about training research and practice. Inc.

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. they are in different types of businesses. Inc. All rights reserved. Kinko’s.1-5 Introduction  Rosewood Hotels and Resorts. they each have training practices that have helped them gain a competitive advantage in their markets.  Although . and the Hard Rock Café illustrate how training can contribute to companies’ competitiveness.

All rights reserved. Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.1-6 Introduction (continued)  The training practices have helped Rosewood Hotels and Resorts. and Improve customer service. Kinko’s and the Hard Rock Café: Grow the business. . Inc. by Providing employees with the knowledge and skills they need to be successful.

. skill. and behaviors emphasized in training programs. and apply them to their day-to-day activities Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.1-7 What is training?  Training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies.  The goal of training is for employees to master the knowledge. All rights reserved.

1-8 Training Design Process Conducting Needs Assessment Ensuring Employees’ Readiness for Training Creating a Learning Environment Developing an Evaluation Plan Ensuring Transfer of Training Select Training Method Monitor and Evaluate the Program Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. All rights reserved. .

All rights reserved.  Measurable learning objectives should be identified before training. . Inc. monitoring the training program.  Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.  Evaluation plays an important part in planning and choosing a training method. and suggesting changes to the training design process.1-9 Assumptions of Training Design Approaches Training design is effective only if it helps employees reach instructional or training goals and objectives.

All rights reserved. Inc.1 .10 Forces Influencing the Workplace and Training Globalization  Need for leadership  Increased value placed on knowledge  Attracting and winning talent  Quality emphasis  Changing demographics and diversity of the work force  New technology  High-performance model of work systems  Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.  Quality is designed into a product or service so that errors are prevented from occurring.11 Core Values of Total Quality Management  Methods and processes are designed to meet the needs of internal and external customers. Inc. rather than being detected and corrected.1 . .  Every employee in the company receives training in quality. All rights reserved.

12 Core Values of TQM (continued)  The company promotes cooperation with vendors. .1 . Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Inc.  Managers measure progress with feedback based on data. suppliers. and customers to improve quality and hold down costs.

All rights reserved.000 Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.1 . . Inc.13 Categories and Point Values for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Examination  Leadership  Information and Analysis  Strategic Planning  Human Resource Focus  Process Management  Business Results  Customer and Market Focus Total Points 125 points 85 points 85 points 85 points 85 points 450 points 85 points 1.

 Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or physical handicap.  Providing performance feedback that is free of values and stereotypes based on gender.  Coaching and developing employees of different ages. educational backgrounds.  Creating a work environment that allows employees of all backgrounds to be innovative. ethnicity.1 . . All rights reserved. physical abilities. ethnicities. Inc.14 Skills needed to manage a diverse workforce include: Communicating effectively with employees from a wide variety of backgrounds. and races.

Cost argument As organizations become more diverse.1 . 3. Those who handle this well will thus create cost advantages over those who don’t. Marketing argument The insight and cultural sensitivity that members with roots in other countries bring to the marketing effort should improve these efforts in important ways. All rights reserved. Resource-acquisition Companies develop reputations on favorability as prospective employers for women and minorities. . argument Those with the best reputations for managing diversity will be the most attractive employers for women and minority groups. Inc. the cost of a poor job in integrating workers will increase. 2. An important edge in a tight labor market.15 How Managing Cultural Diversity Can Provide Competitive Advantage 1. Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc. Heterogeneity in decisions and problem-solving groups potentially produces better decisions through a wider range of perspectives and more through critical analysis of issues. System flexibility argument .. 5. Creativity argument Diversity of perspectives and less emphasis on conformity to norms of the past should improve the level of creativity.1 .16 How Managing Cultural Diversity Can Provide Competitive Advantage (continued) 4. less standardized. All rights reserved. Problem-solving argument 6. Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and therefore more fluid.e. The increased fluidity should create greater flexibility to react to environmental changes (i. An implication of the multicultural model for managing diversity is that the system will become less determinant. reactions should be faster and cost less).

1 . Inc.17 Use of new technology and work design needs to be supported by specific HRM practices:  Employees choose or select new employees or team members. . Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.  Ongoing training is emphasized and rewarded. All rights reserved.  Rewards and compensation are linked to company performance.  Employees receive formal performance feedback and are involved in the performance improvement process.

 Employees understand how their jobs contribute to the finished product or service. Inc.18 Use of new technology and work design needs to be supported by specific HRM practices: (continued)  Equipment and work processes encourage maximum flexibility and interaction between employees. All rights reserved. layout. Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .1 . and work methods.  Employees participate in planning changes in equipment.

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . employers spend approximately $59 billion on formal training per year  Approximately 1 to 2 percent of their payroll  Training Investment Leaders invest 3 to 5 percent of payroll in training  They train almost all eligible employees  Employees spend twice as much time training as those in Benchmark firms  They make a larger investment in learning technologies.1 . Inc.S. All rights reserved.19 Training Investment Leaders  U.

skills related to coaching. delegation skills. research skill Understanding of adult learning. Instructor/Facilitator Role Administrator Role .20 Roles and Competencies of Trainers Roles Analysis/Assessment Role Development Role Competencies Industry understanding. and group processes Computer competence.1 . business understanding. records management Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. project management. feedback. skills in feedback. skills in selecting and identifying facilities. cost-benefit analysis. electronic systems. computer competence. Inc. training and development theory. computer competence Adult learning principles. writing. and preparing objectives Strategic Role Career development theory. data analysis skill. All rights reserved. electronic systems.

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