Last of the Particles?

Search for Higgs at LHC
Satyaki Bhattacharya

24 April. 2006, Khalsa College, Delhi

S. Bhattacharya

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Prof. Higgs and his boson
• • Peter Ware Higgs (born May 29, 1929), FRSE, FRS, until recently held a personal chair in theoretical physics at the University of Edinburgh and is now an emeritus professor. Higgs is best known for his 1960s proposal of broken symmetry in electroweak theory, explaining the origin of mass of elementary particles in general and of the W and Z bosons in particular. This so-called Higgs mechanism predicts the existence of a new particle, the Higgs boson. Although this particle has not turned up in accelerator experiments so far, the Higgs mechanism is generally accepted as an important ingredient in the Standard Model of particle physics. Higgs conceived of the mechanism in 1964 while walking the Cairngorms, and returned to his lab declaring he had had his "one big idea". Peter Higgs has been awarded a number of prizes in recognition of his work, including the Dirac Medal and Prize for outstanding contributions to theoretical physics from the Institute of Physics, the 1997 High Energy and Particle Physics Prize by the European Physical Society, and the 2004 Wolf Prize in Physics.

Many others contributed to the concept – Englert, Brout, Anderson…

Higgs boson is also referred as Higgs-Anderson boson (e.g. see Wikipedia) Ref: Wikipedia
24 April. 2006, Khalsa College, Delhi S. Bhattacharya

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Mankind’s ancient question
Where did everything come from? What is everything made up of?

न तत सूयो भाित न चनदतारक नेमा ं ििदयूतॉ भािन कतोयः यमगिनः ू तिमेब भानताम ् अनूभाित सि॔ तसय भासा सििमदम ििभाित ॔
In the beginning there was no sun, neither did the moon shine, nor the stars, man made light was no where. It is Your light that lit up everything else, Every thing in this world shines from Your light
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Physicists’ latest answer

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Names of the actors: Matter
• All of matter is made up of spin ½ particles • Leptons: • electron (e), muon(µ), tau(τ) (charge -1 and +1) and 3 neutrinos (charge 0) • Quarks: • Up, down, charm, strange, top, bottom • They have fractional charges (2/3 and -1 /3)!!
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Names of the actors: Forces
• Forces are carried by spin 1 particles called guage bosons: • Electromagnetic:photon • Weak: W+-, Z0 • Strong: gluon • Gravitational: I don’t know – may be YOU will find out one day… • quarks participate in all interactions (i.e. they can exchange photon, W, Z, gluon) • Leptons can’t exchange gluons

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Feynman Diagrams

This is more than just a picture !
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Without Higgs…
According to standard model

• Without Higgs we won’t be here because: • All fundamental particles will be massless, travelling at the speed of light in vacuum • Higgs boson – the charge less spin zero massive particle is the quantum of an all pervading Higgs field through which particles move – and interaction with this field gives them mass
24 April. 2006, Khalsa College, Delhi S. Bhattacharya

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How to discover new particles?
• How do we discover Higgs?
• Good old principle: • Produce the particle by colliding other particles • Look at decay products • Reconstructruct invariant mass • Look for a peak in the invariant mass distribution Beware of fake products!

Measure E,p, Get the mass of the original particle E1E2(1-cos(theta12))

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Example

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Plan for finding Higgs
• What do we collide? 7 Tera electron Volt Protons • At what rate? Once every 25 nano seconds • How often do we expect to see Higgs? A few every second. • What will they decay to? Could be a pair of top-antitop or bottom antibottom or two photons or two Z0s…
OK! So we just have to catch these particles and measure E,p
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The LHC

Z
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LHC in ACTION

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Proton
Proton is a rather complex bag of quarks and gluons

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ProtonProton
7 TeV

7 TeV

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partonparton
Two partons, usually with different momenta collide and often anihilate giving rise to other particlesin the final state

100 GeV

500 GeV

Note: parton = quark, antiquark or gluon
24 April. 2006, Khalsa College, Delhi

Beam axis
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Z

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Of quark bondage: Jets
• There is no free quark in the world • Quarks and gluons, as they fly apart from each other – give birth to other quarks and gluons, eventually all these quarks and gluons combine with each other to make pions, nutrons, eta’s rho’s … known as hadrons • They all more or less fly in the direction of the original quark/gluon and that is JET • Jets are the only signatures of quarks and gluons that we can see experimentally

Two charm quarks moving apart from each other

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Luminosity and cross section
• If I shoot 1011 protons every 25 ns through another 1011 protons most of them will sail through.
– how many will collide/ sec? – Out of every hundred collition how many will produce Higgs?

Ans: no. of collisions / sec = σ (1011X 1011)/25ns/500sq-micron (provided the beam cross section is 500 sq-micron). • Sigma(σ ) is called reaction cross section and contains the entire physics of all possible interactions between the colliding quarks and gluons (calculated by phenomenologists) • The remaining terms in the formula together are called luminosity(L) • In general: Number of collisions/sec = L • (the actual formula for luminosity is somewhat more complicated, which takes into account the crossing angle of the beams, lorentz contraction of the bunches etc.)

σ

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Higgs production at LHC

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Higgs Decays

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search channels

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data taking starts 2007 ?
Startup Luminosity 2X1033 cm-2/s that is: 10 fb-1 per year

Silicon Tracker
 pT
pT ; 15  pT (TeV )%

PbWO4 ECAL
 E 2.7% 0.15   0.5%  E E E

sampling brass  E 120 HCAL   5%
E E

solenoid 4Tesla field MUON Chambers
global
24 April. 2006, Khalsa College, Delhi S. Bhattacharya

 pT ; 1.0  1.5%@100GeV pT
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* numbers are for barrel

The Tracker

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The ECAL

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The HCAL

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The Muon Chamber

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CMS in ACTION

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Transverse slice through CMS detector
Click on a particle type to visualise that particle in CMS Press “escape” to exit

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h  γγ
Two clean electromagnetic clusters CMS Detector: schematic X-sectional view (For unconverted photons)
Backgrounds: gg,qqγγ,qgqγ HCAL @low luminosity jet-jet 105 events/s jet+photon 102 events/s 2 photon 1 event/12.5s Higgs 1 event/25s h2photon 1 event/10,000s

two photon background ECAL gamma+jet background
24 April. 2006, Khalsa College, Delhi S. Bhattacharya

TRACKER
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h γγ mass peak
events/50MeV

σ γγ =646MeV

mγγ for 130 GeV Higgs

CMS full detector simulation. Ref: CMS Note 2003/033
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H  ZZ  4l
Clean, resolution better than 1GeV
Discovery Luminosity:

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Significance (or what we hope…)

24 April. 2006, Khalsa College, Delhi

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You can do it too…

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