Modern Systems Analysis & Design

The Systems Development Environment
• Complex organisational process in which information systems are developed and maintained • Result of systems analysis & design is usually development of application/systems software • Systems development methodologies - systematic approach..science • Systems development techniques - art of applying methodologies • Primary responsibility of systems analyst and related teams

Systems
• Group of related parts that function as a Unit
– collection of people, machines & methods to accomplish specific objectives

• In Computer parlance..
– Collection of hardware, software, data

• Beginning in 1950s. Emphasis was on..
– Processes – Automating single function e.g. purchasing or payroll – Considered more as an art and less as science

Software Systems
System Software
• Performs basic functions to establish and maintain operating environment (Co-ordinates & controls the running of the computer) • Works with the computer and not with the end-user – Operating systems like DOS, UNIX, OS-400 etc. which perform functions like memory management, secondary storage management – Device management drivers like printer drivers, mouse drivers, modem s/w etc. – Utilities and editors like file compression, defragmentation etc. – Language compilers like BASIC, C, COBOL, FORTRAN – Software packages like xBase,

Business Application Software
• Uses the environment provided by Systems Software to perform functions directly needed by endusers Generic programs such as Word processors, electronic spreadsheets, e-mail etc. Programs to support specific business functions like TBA, Financial Accounting packages etc.

S.Structure of systems Data. Systems S/W Application S/W Application S/W How it is How it should be . Data. Hardware Hardware O.

Business Application Software • Phases in Business Application Software • Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) – – – – – – – – – – Feasibility Study Systems Requirements Specifications Systems Design Programming / Construction Testing Entering history / master data User Training Implementation / commissioning Live working Post implementation support / modifications • Implementation / Commissioning • Towards next maturity level .

Feasibility Study .

information about about vendors etc. Centralised vs. decentralised.. TBA vs. • To finalise Terms-of-reference / time and cost estimates • A Feasibility Study Report is the outcome of this phase . In house or Outsourcing – Buy. Web-enabled or non-web-enabled • Make or Buy Decision – Make... Fixed Assets Accounting • To finalise overall direction of the Computerisation.Feasibility Study • To set priority of Areas / departments to computerise vis-àvis business focus.off the shelf with customisation • To gather information about various aspects of computerisation e.g. hardware. software..

.Make or Buy Make. TBA’s linkage with voice-mail recognition s/w – Due to high employee turn over in IT field.g. This could pose problems for maintaining software and developing new modules.(Advantage) – Complete control and ownership of the resulting software.In-House – A team of Project Leader. difficulty in retaining IT staff.. (Disadvantage) – Integration with other bought out systems may be difficult e. programmers etc. (Disadvantage) – Due to rapid technological advancement in computer field. (Disadvantage) – The time frame required to form such team and developing software may be more. systems analysts. the IT staff will have to undergo continuous training in new areas and technologies. will be required (may be difficult) – Resulting software would cover most of the user needs with proper integration within the modules. (Advantage) – Less technically and professionally competent software than developed by outsourced vendor whose main business is software development.

– For replication of the software fresh licensing issues & cost may not be involved (Advantage) – Senior management involvement will be more .(May be difficult) – If more than one vendor.(May be difficult) – Likelihood of vendor/s misusing the source code elsewhere (Disadvantage) .. Rigorous acceptance testing is necessary..Make or Buy Make. then integration amongst vendors is a key factor. IPR issues are to be looked into and involves lot of legal documentation.Outsourcing – Expert team having state-of-the-art knowledge would be involved in the development (Advantage) – Deliverables by outsourced vendor must be clearly specified.

if any. – Vendor’s capability of providing continuous support must be ensured. Off the shelf – No plug-and-play. (May be difficult). will have to be accepted. – Software escrow agreement must be entered into and all the legal documents need to be reviewed by legal counsel. Some product deficiencies. Vendors’ specifications need to be brought down to a common scalable platform. Customisation is necessary... – Total dependability on the vendor (Disadvantage) – Senior management involvement will be more .(Disadvantage) – Market research and comparative analysis of different vendors and their products will have to carried out.Make or Buy Buy.

Systems Requirement Specifications (SRS) .

frequency of transactions.Systems Requirement Specifications . entry points are decided – Analysis of authorities / roles / responsibilities of users at various levels – Analysis of locations of computers • Many-a-times Feasibility is merged into this phase and therefore SRS must be carried out irrespective of Make or Buy decision. • A Systems Requirements Specifications Report is the outcome of this phase .SRS • To set Terms-of-reference (TOR) for Software Development (objective scope and deliverables) • Existing operations along with users’ additional requirements with running description and system flow diagrams – Interview / meetings with users at various levels along with / observation of users at work – Document / register / report forms collection and analysis – Existing Work flow analysis – BPR requirements – Volume of data.

Systems Design .

. E. Tables (Normalisation). • Design of Database. relations between tables. Work flow Charts (Actor wise).Authority / security requirements are specified / designed • Users involvement in this phase is minimal but necessary • Plan to convert legacy system to new system .g. Single / Multiple database. Primary / Foreign keys • User interfaces (Screens / Views) / report formats etc are designed • Controls start getting built-up.. Data Flow Diagrams. report files) / programs(Source code. DLLs) on computer is designed • Business rules / requirements of validation of data are specified and designed as per the analysis done • Various types of charts are prepared such as Systems Flow Chart (Function wise).Systems Design • Organisation of data (temp files. executables. Decision tables(Business Rules) etc.

TPS – High-volume.DSS – involves semi-structured problems.g. Helps enabling management reporting / decision taking • Decision Support Systems . may not be well-structured • Expert Systems . stand-alone and small systems where individual functions or their integration is established • Transactions Processing Systems ..MIS – Usually built on OIS and/or TPS.OIS – e.. requires iterative development.similar to OIS but focus is on capturing data for entire transaction • Management Information Systems .Types of Systems • Operational Information Systems .ES – for providing expert advise based on pre-captured knowledgebase .

Visual UML etc.e. SDLC Aids designers / programmers to prepare business models and various flow diagrams Aids in designing and providing relationships amongst data entities Changes introduced in one CASE diagram will automatically update all relevant diagrams Helps in documentation Use of CASE tools by developers shall give primary comfort to IS auditors in respect of standard and consistent methodology followed Some of the CASE TOOLs : Rational Rose. Systems Architect. .CASE TOOLS • • • • • • • • Computer Aided Software Engineering tools Refers to the use of s/w packages to aid in the development of all phases of Information Systems I.

database systems etc. networking) may lead to compatibility problems and confusion • Security issues need to be considered for multiple process layers in hardware. operating systems. s/w. • Version control and program change control may become complex • Testing of system is a complex process . telecommunication systems.Client-Server Computing • All client access points should be identified • Application code and data may not be located on a single machine • Mixed platforms (h/w.

server side processing is done for allowing access through any browser Form Fill .Web-enabled Software .submit methodology needs to be adopted to avoid sluggish response Performance profile of site needs to be built-up in respect of following – Pages visited most often and average visit length – Most typical traffic pattern with peak traffic occurrence .Some issues • • • • • • • • More stringent user identification and authentication is required Use of fire-walls in case of internet applications Data encryption needs to be built-in to avoid data exposure to unauthorized users (hackers) Telecommunication band-width problems leading to slower system response Mixed platforms lead to compatibility problems Due to browser based user interfaces.

Programming / Construction .

BASIC.human readable form). modification to software is not possible.past trend e.3 GL • Object Oriented Programming(OOPs) . C++. • Programming documentation needs to be done Two Methodologies • Procedural Programming . • Source Code is then compiled into Executable Code (Machine readable form) • Executable code resides on secondary storage and loaded into memory when executed • Executable cannot be modified.g. . If source code is unavailable.current trend Visual versions of BASIC. JAVA etc. Foxpro. COBOL.4 GL . Foxpro .Programming / Construction • The Systems Design is converted into Source Programs (Source Code . SQL.

encapsulation. polymorphism be . OOPs Procedural Programming Addition Program • Accept A (variable 1).Procedural Programming vs. B (variable 2) from user • C (variable 3) = A + B • Display C as answer Features • Each task needs to programmed • Less re-usablility • Usually one executable OOPs Addition Object • Call Accept object • Call summation object • Call display object Features • Re-usability of objects • Modular(not procedure wise) development • Unrestricted data types • Inheritance.

Male / Female check for Sex code • Logical relationship check – Checks logical relationship between two data entities.g.g... Account number entered gives details of account holder from master data . E.g.Few Validation checks • Sequence check – Control number follows sequentially and any out-of-sequence number is either rejected or reported as an exception • Limit Check – Data should not exceed a pre-determined number or range • Validity check – Checking data validity in accordance with pre-determined criteria.e. relation between joining date and retirement date • Table look-ups – Input data is checked against master data already stored..e.

Testing .

Testing • Unit testing (α testing) – Individual function / object / program is tested – Normally carried out by programmers / QC • Integration testing – Linkages between all related programs is tested for interfaces and overall functioning – Normally carried out by senior programmers / QC • System testing (β testing) – Completed modules are tested for interfaces and overall functioning – Normally carried out by Project Leaders / QC • Regression testing – Any changes in coding needs to be tested again in isolation as well as with all linkages • Acceptance testing – Done by users. QC. IS auditors .

. Process is examined and not the product • Top-down testing – Top-level modules are tested first and then explored further into lower level modules / programs • Bottom-up testing – Lower level modules / programs are tested first and graduated to higher level modules / programs The objective of testing is to make the system fail – Debugging .. planting the errors to gauge system response ..Approaches to Testing • Black-box testing – Internal logic of programs is not examined. removing the errors – Bebugging . Product is examined and not the process • White-box testing – Internal logic of programs is examined..

security & controls. transaction volumes.SDLC Methodologies • Water-fall model (Linear Sequential Model) – Analysis >> Design >> Coding >> Testing • Spiral Model – Analysis >> Design >> Coding >> Testing >> Review >> • Prototyping Model – Uses 4GL programming languages which enable faster development – Controlled trial & error method – Emphasis is on screens and reports acceptable to users – Users are misled into believing that the complete system is ready (processing. back-up & recovery etc will have to be built later) – Likelihood of resulting system not having proper controls – Seldom documented / approved because of the fast development – Significant cost & time saving is possible .

g. VB.SDLC Methodologies • Rapid Application Development Model (RAD) – Strategically important systems are developed faster – Well-defined methodology – Reduction in development cost / time while maintaining quality – Small well-trained development teams are used – Integrated RAD tools(e. Magic) are required – Central repository of objects / functions is developed – Rigid limits on development time frames are set .

scribe.SDLC Methodologies • Joint Application Development Model (JAD) – Introduced by IBM in late 70s – users . managers and analsysts/programmers. IS staff work together – usually requires a sponsor – JAD session leader is required – disadvantages similar to those of group meetings • Participatory Development (PD) – alternative approach to SDLC – users involvement is more .

Risks • System may not meet end-users needs • May exceed financial budget • May exceed budgeted project time • May result into inefficient product • Promote poor or mismanagement of project • Incompatibility with existing systems • Missed business opportunities • Reduced credibility of IS department • Demotivation of staff .Improper SDLC .

Modern Systems Analysis & Design .

decentralised. Web-enabled or non-web-enabled • Make or Buy Decision – Make.. Fixed Assets Accounting • To finalise overall direction of the Computerisation. In house or Outsourcing – Buy. TBA vs. hardware. information about about vendors etc.Feasibility Study • To set priority of Areas / departments to computerise vis-àvis business focus.. software. Centralised vs. • To finalise Terms-of-reference / time and cost estimates • A Feasibility Study Report is the outcome of this phase ..g..off the shelf with customisation • To gather information about various aspects of computerisation e.

entry points are decided – Analysis of authorities / roles / responsibilities of users at various levels – Analysis of locations of computers • Many-a-times Feasibility is merged into this phase and therefore SRS must be carried out irrespective of Make or Buy decision. frequency of transactions. • A Systems Requirements Specifications Report is the outcome of this phase .SRS • To set Terms-of-reference (TOR) for Software Development • Existing operations along with users’ additional requirements with running description and system flow diagrams – Interview / meetings with users at various levels along with / observation of users at work – Document / register / report forms collection and analysis – Existing Work flow analysis – BPR requirements – Volume of data.Systems Requirement Specifications .

Project Identification and Selection SDLC SRS Analysis Project Initiation and Planning Logical Design Physical Design Implementation Maintenance .

balance sheet. cash-flow statement – Analysis of authorities / roles / responsibilities of users at various levels – Analysis of locations of computers • Operational Systems – Production / Project planning / Scheduling etc.Commercial Systems • Accounting Systems – – – – – – Creating & processing documents Book keeping / filing / register updating Posting in subsidiary and general ledger Reconciliation of ledger with all sub-ledgers Preparation of trial balance Preparing financial statements such as P & L account. 3 Ms – Inventory / raw material / WIP / finished goods . JITs etc.. income statement. – Purchase systems .

.Commercial Systems • Human Resource Systems – Personnel Administration – Payroll and associated processing – Employee performance tracking • Marketing Systems – – – – Customer Billing Accounts receivables Supply chain management Customer service management • • • • Banking Systems Portfolio management systems / Shares accounting systems School / College / results processing systems Many more….

these are logical types and not physical – Transaction files – Master Files • Master files. Can be on plain or pre-printed stationery – Display Reports – Queries processing leading to display or printed reports ..Types of Files • Five generally observed types..can also contain transaction data • Reference or Parameter files – System files – Summary files – Temporary files • Reports – Printed Reports..

. collecting documents etc. meetings. presentation. Making use of computer based tools and techniques . interviews. decompose and document. reading.obtain from stakeholders • Organisation and Job Design – Organisation structure – Bifurcation into roles / responsibilities / authorities • • • Project Management Study through…observation.Systems Analysis • Systems Analysis involves – Study of existing system – Study the product and information(data) flows – Formulate strategic requirements for the new system – Evaluate the present system (mainly reassessment) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • Business Objectives – Find out.

.. If required take a steno or record interview with permission After the interview. Client’s brochures. web-sites. circulate minutes and take formal / informal approval • Unstructured interviews • Structured Interviews should follow unstructured interview . balance sheet Observe necessary protocols Know your subject very well Convey your subject/s that this is an unstructured interview Be very informal / casual and do not interrogate your subject too much You may not be specific about a topic Make notes of discussion points in brief Convey your subject/s that this is a structured interview Ask very specific questions Take detailed notes.Systems Analysis Techniques • Effective Interviewing – – – – – – – – – – – – Plan your interview Do your homework .

. Tables (Normalisation). E. • Design of Database. Primary / Foreign keys • User interfaces (Screens / Views) / report formats etc are designed • Controls start getting built-up. relations between tables. report files) / programs(Source code.Authority / security requirements are specified / designed • Users involvement in this phase is minimal but necessary • Plan to convert legacy system to new system .g.Systems Design • Organisation of data (temp files. Work flow Charts (Actor wise). Single / Multiple database. Decision tables(Business Rules) etc. DLLs) on computer is designed • Business rules / requirements of validation of data are specified and designed as per the analysis done • Various types of charts are prepared such as Systems Flow Chart (Function wise). Data Flow Diagrams.. executables.

manipulate.. DFD is for requirements structuring • Context data flow diagram • DFDs of current physical system • DFDs of current logical system • DFDs of proposed logical system • DFDs of proposed physical system .Data Flow Diagrams . Requirements Structuring and Alternative generation and selction. Capture..DFDs • Process Modeling – Involves graphical representation of functions / processes – Functions or processes . store and distribute data within or outside of the systems • DFD is a Structured Analysis Technique • Out of Requirements Determination.

DFDs • Data Flow – Data in motion e.Data Flow Diagrams .g.. computer file • Process is work performed to transform. Paycheque • Data store is data at rest e. Invoice. a file folder. store or distribute data • Source / Sink is origin and / or destination of the data – We do not consider.g. customer order form. • • • • Interactions between source & sinks What a source or sink does with the data How to control or redesign source or sink How to provide direct access to source and sinks .

Process Data Store Source/Sink Data Flow DeMarco & Yourdon symbols Gane & Sarson symbols .

Context Diagram Kitchen Customer Customer Order 0 Food Order Receipt Management Reports .

Rules of DFD A C D E F Source Sink B .

Rules of DFD G A A A H A A B A I B A K L B A C Update Retrieval J A A .

0 Make Bank Deposit Accounting Department Credit Data D1 Customer Master Deposit Data Bank .DFD – Improper way Customer Payment Receipt Payment Data Payment Data 1.0 Record Payment 2.

0 Make Bank Deposit Credit Data D1 Customer Master Deposit Data Bank .0 Record Payment 2.DFD –Proper way Customer Payment Receipt 3.0 Update Customer Master Payment Data Payment Data 1.

0 Update Goods Sold File Kitchen 1.Level-0 diagram Customer Customer Order Receipt 2.0 Update Inventory File D1 Inventory File 4.0 Receive and Transform Customer Food Order Inventory Data Formatted Goods Sold Data Food Order 3.0 D2Goods Daily Inventory Depletion Quantity Sold File Produce Management Report Restaurant Manager Management Reports .

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