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Lean Culture Training Series Introducing PDCA Philosophy  Achieves greatest results when it operates within the frame work of problem solving method also called the scientific method to identify and prioritize opportunities It consist of three parts  Identify the problem  Form the team  Define the scope Problem identification answers the questions, which leads to those problems that have the greatest potential for improvement and have the greatest need for solution • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • How to ask 5W 1 H question y What for? (Purpose ) y Why? (Necessity ) y Where? (Place ) y When? (Sequence ) y Who? (Operator ) y How? (Method ) REMEMBER •Don't just solve problems make improvements •Problems are neither good nor bad •Separating problems and symptoms •Solve problems without creating new ones •Finding the solution is terrific but if we implement it haphazardly we could get it into bigger trouble than we were in before. Foundations of the PDCA Cycle The foundations of the PDCA cycle and Deming’s teachings consist of the following three principles: 1.Customer Satisfaction: Satisfying customers’ needs should be paramount for all workers in the organization. 2.Management by Fact. Decision making must be made on data collected from operations and analyzed using statistical tools. Decision makers must practice and encourage a scientific approach to problem solving. 3.Respect for People. A sustainable problem solving and continuous improvement approach should be based on the belief that employees are self-motivated and are capable of coming up with effective and creative ideas. 5 Checklist of PDCA Approach Have you got: a b c d ACT PLAN Customer Satisfaction Sponsor - ( Person who instigates the Problem Solving Session ) Team Leader. Facilitator Team Members 1 Define Problem & Objective ( & Do Quick Fix ) 2 Identify Likely Causes CHECK DO Problem Solving Process: P P P P D C A 3 Identify Major & Root Causes 4 Develop Solutions / Agree Action Plans 5 Implement action Plan 6 Determine Effectiveness of plan 7 Standardize Results / Implement in all relevant areas. Continual Improvement & Continuous improvement Problem definition  For a condition to qualify as a problem, it must meet the following three criteria: – Performance varies from an established standard – Deviation from the perception and the facts – The cause is unknown; if we know the cause, there is no problem  Failure in the problem solving is frequently caused by poor definition of the problem. A problem well stated is half solved What is Your Problem Consciousness? …………………… Problem • What should be happening (WSBH) • What is actually happening (WAH) ________________ AC T P LAN Customer Satisfaction Defining the Problem DO C HEC K What is this ? It is the first step in the PDCA problem solving cycle. Why do it ? How de we do it ? To ensure that the whole Team is clear about what their Goal is By considering each of the following aspects of the issue being addressed. Who is the problem experienced by ( Stakeholder )? What is the problem ? Where is the problem ? When is the problem experienced ? Use these statements as a “Sanity Check” to refer back to at later stages of the project to check if on track. ACT PLAN Customer Satisfaction Writing a Team Mission Statement in DO SMART form. CHECK Write a statement using the following SMART rules. Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Time based Examples To reduce “ Lost working Days due to Energy related Problems” in the “Hosiery Department” by 50% in 6 months. To reduce “Trimming” in the Packing Department by 30% in 15 days. Define the target performance measures. Measurement is fundamental to meaningful process improvements. If something cannot be measured, it cannot be improved One word of caution – The object is to seek causes, not solutions ACT PLAN Customer Satisfaction The Quick Fix DO CHECK Typical Quick Fixes means (First Stop Bleeding ) for example:- They are usually, but not always, Time Consuming and Expensive. If , for example, the problem was a “ Size variation faced in Finishing “ The quick fix could be •.100 % Inspection •Sorting by weighing GRASPING THE SITUATION Define the Problem first Lean Problem Solving Image Big Vague Concern Counter measures Continued….. • Conventional – Team capability – Wing It “Just do it” • PDCA – Leader = Teacher – Is my team capable – Translate level by Level – Pilot before full implementation – Output: tree of focused activity Techniques to use with PDCA - Selection Chart Technique 1 2 3 4 5 P D C A BRAINSTORMING CAUSE & EFFECT CHECK SHEETS PARETO ANALYSIS CONCENTRATION DIAGRAMS 6 PROCESS FLOW CHARTS. PERFORMANCE MEASURING 7 8 9 5 WHY'S & 5W1H PAIRED COMPARISONS 10 IMPACT DIAGRAMS 11 FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS 12 13 14 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü SOLUTION EFFECT DIAGRAM SCHEDULE or PROJECT PLAN FAILURE PREVENTION ANALYSIS Remember the Basics 1. How does the process work now? 2. What are the problems & causes? 3. What are the potential improvements? 4. What actions are we going to take? 5. How will we know it worked? 6. How do we make the changes stick? Grasp The Situation Plan Do Check Act ACT Customer Satisfaction PLAN Technique 1 - BRAINSTORMING DO CHECK STEP 1 Find a quiet room with a Flip Chart and have Pens , Post Its, Dry wipe Markers, Blue Tac available. Decide who will act as the Team Scribe. Write down the Problem or Situation being Studied or Investigated at the TOP of a Flip Chart. STEP 2 Give all the Team Members a few Post Its. Then individually for 5 minutes write down on the Post Its ( 1 idea per sheet ) any ideas or suggestions. When ideas have dried up, Stick all the ideas onto a Flip Chart and Group any similar ideas. Then for up to 10 minutes , working around the room , add any further ideas that may have been missed. STEP 3 As a Team discuss each idea and decide if they are Totally, Partially or Not in the Control of the Team. Separate out the "Totally" ideas. Prioritize them using " Impact Diagrams" or "Paired Comparisons". STEP 4 The Team must decide if there is a need to involve someone else, in the Team, to resolve the Partially or Not in Control items. ACT Customer Satisfaction PLAN Technique 2 - CAUSE & EFFECT DO CHECK What is it ? - It is a method of Brainstorming Causes of a problem or situation. Why do it ? - To help the How do we use them ? Step 1 - A Scribe Will take POSSIBLE CAUSES from round the table in Turn until Dried up. As per example below. Team can focus on specific themes and groups of causes . MEN Operator not Trained Machines Machine not Capable Machine Gauging Faulty Over Size Bore Wrong Grade Grinding Wheel Coolant Mix Wrong Materials Methods Wrong Master Issued. No Post bore Gauge Step 2 - Prioritise and Select those to be investigated, by allocating VOTES to each Team member who add their choices to the Diagram . As per Diagram Below. MEN Operator not Trained Machines Machine not Capable Machine Gauging Faulty 3 5 Over Size Bore 1 Wrong Grade Grinding Wheel Materials Coolant Mix Wrong 2 Wrong Master Issued. No Post bore Gauge Methods 8 ACT Customer Satisfaction PLAN Technique 3 - CHECKSHEETS DO CHECK What are they ? - They are a method of recording factual data over a period of time. Why do it ? - So the problem. you will be able to confirm the Causes of How is it used ? Design a sheet similar to the one below, decide on data to be collected and when. Train the person who will collect the data. Week Week Week Week Cumulative Cause Weights too Heavy Reach too far Incorrect Posture Previous Injury Frequency of Lifts Cold Workplace Wrong Footwear Accidental Twists Total 1 53 24 5 24 8 21 22 1 158 2 43 29 28 20 31 9 4 12 176 3 42 27 13 2 15 7 10 26 142 4 61 27 30 29 11 16 6 3 183 Total 199 107 76 75 65 53 42 42 659 Total 199 306 382 457 522 575 617 659 ACT Customer Satisfaction PLAN Technique 4 - PARETO ANALYSIS DO CHECK What is it ? - A method of showing a table of data in graphical format to aid understanding. • Why do it ? - The visual impact is greater than a table of numbers. Can be filled in real time. • How do we use it ? – ( Using data in technique 3. ) Week Week Week Week Cumulative Cumulative Reject Weights too Heavy Reach Too far Incorrect Posture Previous Injuries Frequency of Lifts Cold Workplace Wrong Footwear Accidental Twists Total 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 53 24 5 24 8 21 22 1 158 2 43 29 28 20 31 9 4 12 176 3 42 27 13 2 15 7 10 26 142 4 61 27 30 29 11 16 6 3 183 Total 199 107 76 75 65 53 42 42 659 Total 199 306 382 457 522 575 617 659 % 30.19727 16.23672 11.53263 11.38088 9.863429 8.042489 6.373293 6.373293 % 30.1972686 46.4339909 57.9666161 69.3474962 79.2109256 87.2534143 93.6267071 100 fa r Po st ur e ft s ie s H ea vy In ju r Li oo tw pl oo to o or k of T re qu en cy ei gh ts In co r Pr ev i W W F A cc id en ta l ea ch re ct ou s W C ol d ro ng R F T w is ts ac e ea r • Conventional – Hesitancy to discuss problems – Employees often afraid to make problems visible • PDCA – Clear process and end-of-pipe measures – Quick problem ID – Warm heart principle ACT Customer Satisfaction PLAN Technique 5 - CONCENTRATION DIAGRAMS CHECK DO What is it ? - a simple visual aid to collect data about an area or idea you are investigating. Why use it ? - It is easy to use and train How do we use it? 1) Make a sketch of the item or area you are investigating. ACT Customer Satisfaction PLAN Technique 6 - PROCESS FLOW CHARTS. DO CHECK What is it ? - It is a visual diagram of how the process being investigated operates. • Why do it ? - To clarify and understand how a process works and to investigate if there are any holes in it • How do we use it ? • The example below shows PDCA in a Flow Chart form. DEFINE the PROBLEM Write a SMART definition ANALYSE DATA & BRAINSTORM possible SOLUTIONS. Using Technique 1 BRAINSTORMING Brainstorm Possible Causes. Using Technique 2 Cause & Effect DECIDE on a QUICK FIX to protect the Customer. Prioritise Solutions using Impact Diagrams PRIORITISE Possible Causes Give each Team Member 5 votes each Collect Data at Source Use Technique 3 CHECKSHEETS Verify the Effect of Implementing each Solution using Solution Effect, Force FieldAnalysis and Failure Prevention. Make an Implementation Schedule using Technique 13 - Project Planning Set up Measures to Monitor the Effect. Use Checksheets, Paretos, Control Charts. IMPLEMENT PROJECT PLAN REVIEW EFFECT on MEASURES ACT Customer Satisfaction PLAN Technique 7 - Measuring Performance. What is it? - It is a way of showing the Results and effects of changes made to a process. Why use it? - To understand the current performance and to chart improvements and progress towards a target. How is it used ? - CHECK DO Show the actual “output” achieved as a column. Potential Causes Observed per Day ACTUAL revised 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Show “Targets” as lines TARGET PERCENTAGE BUDGET 120% 110% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 1994 1995 1996 1997 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ACT Customer Satisfaction PLAN Technique 8 - a) 5 WHY’s b) 5W1H. DO CHECK What are they ? - A very simple way of finding out if the team has reached the ROOT CAUSE of a problem. Why use them ? - To confirm the team perception How do we use them ? a) 5 - Why's Simply ask the question "WHY" 5 times 1)WHY will TV not come on ? Because there is no power. 2)WHY is there no power? Because the fuse has blown. 3)WHY has the fuse blown.? Because the fuse amp rating is to low. 4)WHY was the fuse amp rating too low? Because it was incorrectly selected. 5) WHY was it incorrectly selected? Because the house holder was ignorant of the need for correct selection. b) 5W1H Simply ask What ? Why ? Where ? When ? Who ? How ? (When looking at a problem to Clarify understanding) ACT Customer Satisfaction PLAN Technique 9 - Paired Comparisons. DO CHECK What are they ? - They are method of Helping the team priorities a number of potential causes and solutions. • Why use them ? - To get a team consensus. This makes it easy to choose the most important problem to solve, or select the solution that will give you the greatest advantage. Paired Comparison Analysis helps you to set priorities where there are conflicting demands on your resources. • How is it used ? - The example below show how the Teams decided on a preferred action to eliminate the backbone injury problem during working. No 2 Item is more likely than No1 Item No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 No 6 Item is more likely than No3 Item Item R educed Lifting Weights Provision of Appropriate Footwear Frequent back Health Checks R educed Lifting Height Increased R oom Temperature Proper Training M ore Breaks 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 7 Comparison 1 4 2 5 3 6 4 7 1 5 2 6 3 7 1 6 2 7 1 7 Total 5 6 1 0 2 4 3 ADD up all the No 6’s that have been circled and put the number in this column. And so on... ACT Customer Satisfaction P LAN Technique 10- IMPACT DIAGRAMS. DO CHECK What are they? - They are a method by which the Team can identify the priorities of a large list of Ideas/actions or Causes... Why use them? -To get a Team Consensus and get the greatest Impact with least effort. How is it done? - EASE of achieving ( 1 = Very Difficult to 10 = Very Easy ) No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Idea , Action or Cause. Training New Gauge New Machine Change Yarn Supplier Change Machine Type ` Change processing reciepe Change machine sinkers Lycra used of same date 100% checking by hand Communication IMPACT of the result ( 1 = Very Low to 10 = Very High ) IMPACT 6 9 9 4 4 7 9 9 8 6 EASE 9 5 2 4 8 5 8 9 8 9 HIGH LOW 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 3 2 10 8 IMPACT 9 6 10 & 1 4 5 These items should be done first as High Impact / Easy to do 4 6 8 10 VERY DIFFICULT EASE VERY EASY AC T Customer Satisfaction P LAN Technique 11 – FORCE FIELD DIAGRAM DO C HEC K What are they ? - A method of considering the positive and negative effects of implementing solution, Why use them ? - To evaluate the possibilities of additional outcomes to the proposed solution. Step 1 Write at the top of a flip chart the solution being discussed then draw diagram below. Example Implement 3 - Shift working in Boarding and Packing Better Teams More Output Improved OTP Low Lead Time Positive Force KEY Reluctance of People Skill Shortage Hiring Costs Power Cost Negative Force 1= LOW to 10 = HIGH Step 2 Transfer onto analysis sheet This highest number in the column indicates the HIGHEST benefit This highest number indicates the worst Negative aspect that needs a countermeasure. POSITIVE FORCES FORCE Better Teams More Output Improved OTP Low Lead Time Ability to Influence 5 8 6 7 Effect 5 7 6 7 Total 25 56 36 49 NEGATIVE FORCES FORCE Reluctance of People Skill Shortage Hiring Costs Power Cost Ability to Influence 3 7 5 4 Effect 5 6 4 6 Total 15 42 20 24 ACT Customer Satisfaction PLAN Technique 12 – SOLUTION EFFECT DIAGRAMS DO CHECK What is it? - It is a way of Brainstorming the consequences of implementing a solution.. Why use it? -The Team should be aware of any side effects that implementing a solution may have. How is it done? - 1 Construct the Diagram MONEY MATERIALS Night Shift Pay Additional Wages Admin Cost Increased Power use Improved JIT supply to Customer Implement 3 - Shift Working in Boarding and Packing Improved Manning Additional Skills Flexibility Improved Setting Improved Morale From this diagram, the key actions to ensure success can be identified and any potential “downsides” to the solution can be highlighted. METHODS MANPOWER ACT Customer Satisfaction PLAN Technique 13 – SCHEDULE OR PROJECT PLANNING DO CHECK What is it? - A Method of organising and communicating tasks and actions in a sequence that achieves the desired project result. Why use it? -To enable the planning of projects in the most economical way possible. How is it done? 1 Brainstorm all the actions required to implement the project. 2 Allocate responsibility for seeing a project through. 3 Decide the sequence that the actions must occur in. 4 Agree the Implementation dates. Project : Pull Scheduling in Processing Area : Processing HD-II 1. To Cap the WIP Project Leader : Fahim Massod Khan Category : Productivity Objective : 2. Implementation of 5S and Kanban System 3. Manning Study for smooth system Justification : To Implement Lean Practice in Processing Savings : Sr# A 5S 1 Marking of locaters in GBS against each processing machine 2 Capping of locaters in GBS 3 Formation of 5S team 4 Study of chemical storage area for storage & handling 5 Identification & Marking of storage area 6 1st "S"(Sort out Input and output Trolleys and Their Relative Places) 7 2nd "S"(Marking of GBS Locators, Input & Output Trolleys of Processing Machines) 8 3rd "S"(Developing the method of Cleanliness on Floor) Task Due Date Approved by : Completion Date : 30/Nov/11 Total Cost : PRG Comments Responsibility P P S S S Fri 16/Sep/11 Fri 16/Sep/11 Fri 16/Sep/11 Fri 23/Sep/11 Fri 23/Sep/11 Sun 25/Sep/11 Mon 26/Sep/11 Tue 27/Sep/11 On track On track On track On track On track On track On track On track Completed Completed Completed Completed Completed Completed Completed Completed M.Y Z.H F.M M.Q M.Y Z.H F.M M.Q Z.H M.S F.M M.Q M.S M.Q F.M Z.H M.S M.Q F.M Z.H Z.H M.Q F.M M.S Z.H M.Q F.M M.S Z.H M.Q F.M M.S ACT Customer Satisfaction PLAN Technique 14 – FAILURE PREVENTION ANALYSIS DO CHECK What is it? - A technique that allows you to anticipate and counter problems before the implementation of a solution. Why use it? - To be proactive. Putting countermeasures in place to prevent a project going wrong. When it is Used? - When a solution has been determined, but prior to implementation How is it done? 1 Brainstorm what could go wrong. 2 Rank the possible failure by designating potential and consequence of going wrong. S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 Potential Failure Absenteeism will rise Quality problems will increase Machine breakdown problem will rise Theft chances will rises Low Supervisory control Project is over budget Potential 6 7 4 3 4 3 Consequence 7 8 5 6 6 5 Overall Rating 42 56 20 18 24 15 Ranking 2 1 4 5 3 6 Continued….. • Conventional – Focus: immediate need – Put out the fire – Shoot „from the Back‟ – Majority rules • PDCA – Plan takes longer – What‟s your long term goal? – Scientific approach: The plan is our hypothesis – Consensus – Output = Report Results Develop the ECRS solution  Consideration must be given as Elimination Combination Reduction Value Added Simplification Value Added Necessary Non value added Necessary Non Value Added Necessary Not Necessary Value Added Not Necessary Non Value Added Not Necessary Continued….. • Conventional – End-of-Pipe focus – „Band Aids‟ – Tendency to jump to first solution • PDCA – Standardize all important processes – Standard problem solving approach – Emphasis on team member development (Leader=Teacher) – Reflection • Although the problem solving method is no guarantee of success, experience has indicated that an orderly approach will yield the highest quality of success – Problem solving concentrate on improvement rather then control HOW TO FILL PDCA FORM INTERLOOP PDCA STANDARD FORMAT S1-a S1 S1-b S2 S5 S3 S4 S6 HOW TO FILL PDCA FORM Step 1 PDCA REPORT NAME FACTORY NAME, REPORT DATE SUPERVISOR / MANAGER Step 1-a Step 1-B PROBMLEM SITUATION: Standard: Current Situation: Step 2 Discrepancy: Extent: Rational: HOW TO FILL PDCA FORM GOAL: Do What: Step 3 To What: How much: When: CAUSE ANAYLSIS: Potential Cause: How Checked: What was found: Most likely Cause: 5 Whys: Step 4 HOW TO FILL PDCA FORM COUNTER MEASURES: Step 5 Short Term: Long Term: IMPLEMENTATION: What: Who: When: Where: Status: Step 6 FOLLOW UP: Check Method: Check Frequency: Who will Check: GROUP WORK • Split into Teams • Define Problem / Hypothesis • Drain the River • Go and discover, measure • Tell your story, document REAL EXAMPLE OF PDCA